Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "The American woman's cook book"

See other formats



5 ; 1 


I \ *. 

1 ; 

'i '^ 

: i 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2006 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 

Ame rican Woman's 


Edited and Revised hy 
Ruth Bcrol^^ncimcf 

Culinary Arts Institute 

From the 

Edited by 

Delineator Institute, 

Mildred Maddocks Bentley, Director 

Martha Van Rensselaer and Flora Rose 
Directors, College of Home Economics 

-Cornell University 

Published for 




CHICAGO, 1939 

Copyright, 1939 


Consolidated Book Publishers, 


Chicago, 111. 

Copyrights of previous works in which 

certain parts of this book appeared 





Butterick Publishing Company 

Entered at Stationers' Hall, London, England 




Consolidated Book Publishers, 


Manufactured in the United States of America 
by The Cuneo Press, Inc. 

Table of Contents 


Useful Facts about Food - 1 

How to Buy Food - - 3 5 
Food Values and Meal 

Planning ----- 39 

Menu Making - - - - 47 

The School Lunch - - 60 

Table Setting and Service 64 

Carving ----- 83 

Garnishes ----- 88 

Cereals ------ 92 

Yeast Breads - - - - ^7 

Quick Breads - - - - 117 

Sandwiches - - - - 131 

Toast - - - - - - 156 

Appetizers - - - - - 158 

Soups ------165 

Soup Accessories - - - 186 

Fish - 191 

Meat - 228 

Poultry and Game - - 274 
StuflSngs for Fish, Meat, 

Poultry and Game - - 303 
Sauces for Fish, Meat, 

Poultry, Game and 

Vegetables - - - - 307 
Entrees and Made-Over 

Dishes ----- 326 

Vegetarian Dishes - - - 351 

Egg Dishes ----- 360 

Cheese ------ 374 

Vegetables ----- 383 

Salads ------ 424 


Salad Dressings - - - 446 

Cakes ------ 451 

Cake Fillings and Frost - 

ings ------ 472 

Cookies, Doughnuts, Gin- 
gerbread, Small Cakes - 483 
Candies ------502 

Fruit Desserts - - - - 517 

Custards, Gelatin and 

Cream Desserts - - 525 

Hot and Cold Puddings - 539 

Frozen Desserts - - - 5 57 

Sauces for Desserts - - 579 

Pastry and Meringues - 5 85 

French Recipes - - - 615 

Hot and Cold Beverages 635 

Food for Invalids - - - 650 

High Altitude Cooking - 657 
Canning, Preserving and 

Jelly Making - - - 658 
Piddes and Relishes - - 687 
Casserole and Oven Cook- 
ery 701 

Cooking for Two - - - 710 

Cooking at the Table - - 718 

Food Equivalents - - - 722 
The Friends Who Honor 

Us 724 

Herbs, Spices, Extracts - 730 

Foreign Words and Phrases 734 

Wine Seasons Fine Food - 737 

Index 759 

List of Illustrations 




164B Appetizers - - - - 162 
160A Canapes and Appetiz- 
ers (color) - - 158-162 

164A Cocktail Tray - - - 158 
164B Individual Sandwich 

Loaves ----- 150 


122A Apple Flapjacks - - 121 
125A Assorted Quick Breads 

129, 130 

lOOB Assorted Rolls - - - 110 

lOOA Braided Bread - - - 101 
106A Bread and Rolls 

(color) - - - 108-11.0 

33 2A Bread Croustades - - 32^ 

lOOB Clover-Leaf Rolb - - 109 

125 A Corn Bread - - - - 127 

Gingerbread - - - - 494 

157B Cornucopia - - - - 157 

lOOB Crescent Rolls - - - 109 

112A English Muffins - - - 110 

100 A Folding the Dough - 101 

125 A Gingerbread - - - - 494 

Corn Bread - - - - 127 

112A Honey Sandwich Loaf - 129 

112B Honey Twist - - - 115 

lOOA Kneading the Dough - 100 

112B Pecan Caramel Rolls - 126 

Swedish Tea Ring - - 111 

122B Popovers 119 

125B Sally Lunn - - - - 126 

125B Scones 126 

11 2B Swedish Tea Ring - - 111 

Pecan Caramel Rolls - 126 

157B Toast 156 

157A Toasted Loaf - - - 157 

122A Waffles ----- 122 


457B Cakes of Many 

Varieties - - 451-471 
471 A Chocolate Marshmallow 

Roll 470 

457A Devil's Food Cake - - 458 
















53 5A 



Frosted Delights - 484 

Fruit Cake - - - - 465 

How to Frost a Cake - 472 

How to Make Cookies 483 

Icebox Cookies - - - 485 
Martha Washington 

Pie 469, 474 

Novelty Frostings - 478-482 

Petits Fours - - - - 496 

Sugar Cookies - - - 484 

Torte 496 

Upside-Down Cake - 471 

White Mountain Cake 461 


Assorted Candies - 

Pulled Sugar - - - 

Spun Sugar - - - 




Cheese Biscuit - - 
Cheese Fondue on 

Asparagus - - - 623 

Cheese Fruit Tray - - 374 

Cheese Rolls - - - - 186 
Cheese Sticks - - 186, 381 

Cheese Tray - - - 374 

Frosted Melon - - - 440 

Pear-Grape Salad - - 440 

Toasted Cheese Loaf - 157 

Tomato Rose Salad - 434 

Welsh Rarebit - - - 377 

Baked Alaska - - - 568 
Banana Fritters - - - 493 
Bavarian Cream - - 534 
Bombes ----- 578 
Charlotte Russe - - 536 
Coffee Cakes - - - 113 
Date Pudding - - - 550 
English Plum Pudding 548 
Fruit Pudding - - - 549 
Fruit Tartlets - - - 604 
Garnishing Custards - 554 
Hard Sauce - - - - 581 
Ice Cream in Canta- 
loupe 557 




566B Ice Cream in Meringue 

Cups 499 

572B Ice Cream Sandwich - 569 

496 A Plum Puddings - - - 548 

5 49 A Rennet-Custard - - - 554 

496B Shortcake - - - - 547 
5 66 A Vanilla Ice Cream with 

Strawberries - - - 563 


363B Fluffy Eggs - - - - 373 

Bacon 265 

363B Ham and Eggs - - - 264 

363A Poached Eggs - - - 360 

3 63 A Puffy Omelet - - - 363 


332A Bread Croustades - - 329 

332D Chicken Mousse- - - 350 

3 32 A Creamed Sahnon - - 219 
341B Croquettes - - - 335-341 
157A Entree Treasure Chest 

329, 224 

332B Muffin Tin Timbales 


328A Noodle Ring with 
Creamed Chicken 

(color) . - - - 344 
332D Noodle Ring with 

Vegetables - - - - 344 

332C Timbale Cases - - - 331 

Timbales of Toast - - 333 


32A Food Mixer- - - - 3 
34 Gadgets ----- 

6A Oven Management - - 5 

6B Using Oven and Broiler 2 
38 A Well-Planned Kitchen 


196B Baked Fish - - - - 196 

196A Cooking Salmon - - 193 

332A Creamed Salmon - - 219 

196B Lobster 218 

216A Planked Fish (color) - 200 


683A, B Jelly 681 

676A Orange Marmalade - 675 

676A Peach Preserves - - - 670 

676B Preserves 667 




363B Bacon 265 

Fluffy Eggs - - - - 373 
290A Boning and Stuffing 

Shoulder 303 

256B Breast of Lamb - - - 258 

Stuffed Onions - - - 403 

264A Candle Roast of Pork - 259 

85A Carving Leg O'Lamb - 85 

85B Carving Steak and Roast 

------- 83, 84 

256A Crown Roast of Lamb - 256 

34lA Flank Steak Fillets - - 343 

Onion Sauce - - - 315 

363B Ham and Eggs - - - 264 

256A Leg O'Lamb - - - - 257 

341 B Meat Balls - - - - 245 

230A, B, Q D 

Meat Cut Charts - - 230 

243B Planked Steak - - - 244 

239A, B Pot Roast of Beef - 239 

62 IB Rechauffe of Lamb - 620 
242A Roast Beef with York- 
shire Pudding 

(color) ... - 242 

Roasting Beef - - - 242 

Rolled Roast - - - - 231 

Sausage and Corn - - 619 

Stuffed Ham - - - - 263 

Stuffed Peppers - - 346, 347 

Coconut Cream Pie 

(color) - - - 598, 600 

Fruit Dumplings - - 548 
How to Keep Pics in 

Shape 587 

B How to Make Pies - 583 

Lattice Top Crust - - 587 

Pastry Pinwheels - - 610 










Boning and Rolling 
Turkey - - - - - 

Carving Poultry - - - 86 

Chicken Mousse - - 350 

Chicken Ring - - - 350 

Brussels Sprouts - - 392 
Methods of Trussing 

Poultry 276 

Preparing Poultry - - 275 

Roast Chicken (color) 277 
Stuffing and Roasting 

Chicken ... - 277 










170 A 




Clarifying Fat - - - 2^ 

Correct Measurements - 13 

Deep Fat Frying - - 24 

Whipping Cream - - 33 


Cabbage in Aspic - - 428 

Frosted Melon - - - 440 

Fruit Salad Bowl - - 441 
Molded Fruit Salad 

(color) - - 427,437, 530 

Pear-Grape Salad - - 440 

Salad Bowl - - - - 441 

Stuffed Tomato - - - 433 

Tomato Rose Salad - 434 
Vegetable Plate with 388-423 

Hollandaise Sauce - 312 
Individual Sandwich 

Loaves 150 

Sandwiches - - - 131-155 

Sandwich Loaf - - - 150 
Sandwich Treasure 

Chest 132 

Toasted Cheese Loaf - 157 

Assorted Soup Acces- 
sories 186 

Cheese Rolls- - - - 186 
Cheese Sticks - - 186, 381 

Consomme - - - - 168 

Pea Soup 174 

Cream of Corn Soup - 178 

Cream Soup - - - - 177 

Pea Soup 174 

Consomme - - - 168, 171 

Soup Accessories - - 186 




56B Bridal Breakfast Table - 
76A Buffet Dining Table - 
76B, C Dinner Service Chart 
76D Table Settings - - - 
56B Thanksgiving Dinner 












3 90 A 




Artichokes with Hol- 
landaise Sauce - 388, 312 
Asparagus with Cheese 
Fondue - - - - 623 

Asparagus with Hol- 
landaise Sauce -389,312 
Brussels Sprouts - - 392 
Chicken Ring - . - 
Carrot Ring - - - - 

Cauliflower - - - - 

Potato Cups - - - - 

Corn ------ 

Corn wirh Sausage - - 
Lima Beans Neufchatel 
Pigs in Taters - - - 
Potato Cups - - - - 

Cauliflower - - - - 

Squash . - - - - 

Stuffed Onions - - - 
Breast of Lamb - - - 
Stuffed Peppers - - 
Toasted Carrots - - 
Vegetable Cookery - 
Vegetable Garnishes 
Vegetable Plate with 
Hollandaise Sauce 

35 5 

- 393 

- 385 

- 90 

- 312 



Unless otherwise specified, all recipes are based on service for six 
persons. When cooking for more, multiply the ingredients in direa 
proportion. When fewer are to be served, divide by two or three 
as necessary. A full discussion of the problems of small quantity 
preparations is found in the chapter entitled "Cooking for Two" 





The editor wishes to acknowledge the gen- 
erous and wholehearted cooperation of those 
who put at our disposal the beautiful photo- 
graphs and color plates tvhich appear in 
this book. 

Armour and Company 

The Best Foods, Inc. 

Booth Fisheries Corporation 

Campbell Soup Company 

Canned Salmon Industry 

Chicago Flexible Shaft Company 

Corn Products Refining Company 

Corning Glass Works 

Fostoria Class Company 

Fruit Dispatch Company 

Caper Catering Company 

General Foods Corporation 

Hawaiian Pineapple Company, Ltd. 


Institute American Poultry Industries 

Irradiated Evaporated Milk Institute 

John F. Jelke Company 

The Junket Folks 

Kalamazoo Vegetable Parchment 

Kraft- Phenix Cheese Corporation 

Mandel Brothers 

Mirro Aluminum 

Modern Science Institute 

National Dairy Council 

National Live Stock and Meat Board 

The Palmer House 

Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company 

Reed and Barton 

Sterling Silversmiths Guild of America 

Swift and Company 

Towie Manufacturing Company 

U. S. Bureau Home Economics 

West Bend Aluminum Company 

Wheat Flour Institute 

All color plates, end papers and illustrations on the jacket are 
by courtesy of 






'T^O become a good cook requires more than the blind follow- 
^ ing of a recipe. This is frequently illustrated when several 
women living in the same community, all using the same 
recipe, obtain widely differing results. It is the reason so many 
cooks say, "I had good luck with my cake to-day," or "I had 
bad luck with my bread yesterday." Happily, luck causes 
neither the success nor the failure of a product. To become a 
good cook means to gain a knowledge of foods and how they 
behave, and skill in manipulating them. The recipe by itself, 
helpful as it is, will not produce a good product; the human 
being using the recipe must interpret it and must have skill in 
handling the materials it prescribes. 

Some of the lessons which the person desiring to become a 
good cook should learn are given in the following pages. They 
will not be learned all at once; but if they are gradually 
mastered, luck will play a less important part in culinary con- 

Methods of Cooking Food 

Boiling is cooking in water at a temperature of 212° 
Fahrenheit. At this temperature water will bubble vigorously 
and as these bubbles come to the surface of the water steam 
is given oflF. (In mountainous regions, where the boiling-point 
is affected by atmospheric pressure, allowance must be made 
for the variation.) 

Simmering is cooking in water at a temperature of 180° F. 
to 210° F., or below the boiling-point of water. Only an oc- 
casional bubble is formed and rises slowly to the surface. 

Stewing is cooking in a small amount of water. The water 
may boil or simmer, as indicated for the food that is to be 

Steaming is cooking in the steam generated by boiling water. 

Pressure Cooking is cooking in steam at a pressure of 5 to 


30 pounds and at temperatures 228° F. to 274° F. The rise 
in the temperature of the steam is caused by holding it under 
pressure. A special cooker is necessary for this cooking. From 
10 to 15 pounds (240° to 250° F.) is the pressure ordinarily 
used for household purposes. 

Broiling is cooking over or imder or in front of a fire of 
live coals or a gas or electric burner, or other direct heat. 

Oven Broiling is cooking in a broiler pan (either with or 
without a rack) that runs close under the heat in the broiling 
oven of a gas or electric stove. 

Pan Broiling is cooking in a hot griddle or pan greased only 
enough to prevent food from sticking. 

Baking is cooking in the oven. The temperature of baking 
varies with the food to be prepared. A slow oven should be 
from 250° F. to 350° F. A moderate oven shoul-d be from 
350° F. to 400° F. A hot oven should be from 400° F. to 
450° F. A very hot oven should be from 450° F. to 550° F. 

Poaching is cooking, for a short time, foods such as eggs or 
fish or mixtures of these foods, in water, milk, or stock, just 
below the boiling temperature. 

Oven Poaching is cooking in the oven in a dish set in hot 
water. The method is used for custards, souffles, and other egg 
mixtures of delicate texture which are cooked in the oven. 

Roasting as now used means the same as baking. Originally 
it meant cooking before an open fire and was similar to broil- 

Frying is cooking in hot fat at a temperature of from 
350° F. to 400° F., depending on the nature of the food 
to be cooked. The article to be cooked is immersed in the fat. 

Sauteing is cooking in a small quantity of fat. The article 
to be cooked must be shifted from side to side to come in con- 
tact with the fat. Sauteing is a cross between pan broiling 
and frying. 

Braizing is a combination of stewing or steaming with bak- 
ing. The food to be braized is first stewed or steamed and then 

Fricasseeing is a combination of sauteing with stewing or 
steaming. The food to be fricasseed is first sauted, then stewed 
or steamed. 


FiRELESS Cooking is cooking by heat that has been retained 
in a fireless cooker or insulated oven. It is accomplished by 
surrounding the thoroughly heated food with some insulating 
material to keep the heat from being lost rapidly. 

Methods of Mixing Food 

Stirring — ^Food is stirred by a rotary motion of the arm. 
The purpose of stirring is to mix thoroughly all ingredients. 

Beating — Food is beaten when the motion in mixing brings 
the contents at the bottom of the bowl to the top and there is 
a continual turning over and over of a considerable part of the 
contents of the bowl. The purpose of beating is to enclose a 
large amount of air. 

Folding In — Two foods are blended by putting the spoon or 
egg- whip vertically down through the foods, turning it under 
the mass, and bringing it vertically up. This process is repeated 
until the mixing is complete. The purpose of folding in is to 
prevent the escape of air or gases that have already been intro- 
duced into the mixture. 

Cutting in — A process used to blend fat with flour. It 
consists of cutting the fat into the flour w'ith a knife or two 
knives until it is distributed in as small particles as desired. 

Creaming — A rubbing together of fat and sugar, or a press- 
ing and beating of fat to soften it. 

Kneading — A stretching motion applied to dough when 
more flour is to be added than can be either stirred or beaten 
into the mixture; or used to make a dough smooth and even in 

Larding — A process of inserting match-like strips of salt 
pork about one-fourth inch in thickness into a dry meat or fish. 
These strips are called lardons, and are inserted either by mak- 
ing an incision in the surface and laying the lardon in the slash- 
ing or by the use of a larding-needle. The pork is clamped into 
one end of the needle and is threaded into the meat, as in any 
sewing process. 


For best results in cooking, exact temperatures should be 
known and followed. This requires the use of thermometers 

such as an oven thermometer or an oven-heat regulator for all 
sorts of baking, and special thermometers for sugar cookery, 
deep-fat frying, and roasting meats. 

Automatic Mechanical Oven-Heat Regulators which 
control temperature automatically by regulating the supply of 
heat are available in both gas and electric ranges. These are of 
great assistance alike to the experienced cook who would always 
obtain the same results with a given recipe and to the beginner 
w^ho has nothing to guide her in estimating the length of time 
required to get the slow, moderate and hot stages in her oven. 

Heat Regulators or Temperature Controls must al- 
ways be built into a gas range at the factory, and they must 
usually be built into electric ranges. For both types of stove 
they may be set to control a desired temperature automatically. 
Once set, they will maintain the temperature to within a few 
degrees Fahrenheit of that indicated, for an indefinite period. 

Time Controls are now quite common on modern ranges 
and even on fireless cookers, and, in combination with the 
temperature controls, they are almost uncanny, for they will 
turn heat on at a definite time and off again at another speci- 
fied moment. This makes it possible to put a meal in the oven 
or cooker in the morning and leave it with the assurance that 
it will start to cook at five o'clock in the afternoon and that 
the heat will be turned off again at Hye forty-five. As today's 
ovens and cookers are thoroughly insulated, the heat retained 
in the oven wall and in the food will complete the cooking. 
Moreover, since they are cooking on a decreasing heat, there 
is little or no danger of burning food, even if you should be 
delayed beyond the time when you planned to return. 

Thermometers That Can be Set in the Oven may be 
used where an oven heat regulator is not available. A small 
flash light is useful for reading them in a dark oven. 

Other Thermometers may be bought for candy and 
frosting, for deep fat frying, and for roasting meats. The cost 
of these thermometers is not large and they will soon pay for 
themselves in saving of time and food. 

If These Devices Are Not Available the next best thing 
is to seek to develop delicacy of feeling and knowledge of prac- 
tical tests which will detect differences in temperatures. This, 
of course, comes only with experience. 


Cooking Periods and Temperatures 

Oven Temperatures for Baking 

Degrees Fahreuheit 

Slow oven 250 to 350 

Moderate oven 350 to 400 

Quick or hot oven 400 to 450 

Very hot oven 450 to 550 

Note Explaining the Use of Figures in the Following Tables. 
When two degrees of temperature or two periods of time are given, 
separated by a dash, (e.g. 3 50 — 375 or 30 — 40) it means that the 
temperature of the cooking medium or the length of the cooking 
period may range between these two extremes. 

"When the temperature figures are separated by the word "to" (e.g. 
400 to 350) it means that cooking is to be started at the tempera- 
ture first given and that the heat is afterward to be reduced to the 
second figure. 




To bake loaves of yeast bread, heat the oven to the higher tempera- 
ture given, and leave it at this degree for about fifteen minutes. Then 
reduce it to the lower figure for the remainder of the baking period. 
See table of oven temperatures above. 

-^ J Temperature of Oven 

oread Degrees Fahrenheit Baking Period 

Yeast, white (loaves) 400 to 375 Minutes 60 

graham or whole wheat 

(loaves) 400to350 " 60 

Baking-powder (quick bread, 

loaves) 400 " 40 — 50 

Corn bread (sheets) 400 Minutes 20 — 25 

Biscuits, baking-powder 450 — 460 " 12 — 15 

Muffins, yeast 400 — 425 " 20 — 30 

baking-powder 400 — 425 ** 20 — 25 

Popovers 450 to 350 " 35 — 40 

Rolls, yeast 400 — 425 " 20 — 25 

Temperature of Oven 
Cake Degrees Fahrenheit 

Angel 275—300 

Butter, plain loaf 3 50 — 375 

sheet or cup 375 

layer 375 

pound 350 

Fruit, small 325 

large 275 

Molasses, sheet 350 — 375 

cup 350—375 

Sponge, loaf 300 — 325 

sheet 325 


Drop 375 — 400 

Filled 400 — 425 

Ginger snaps 375 

Macaroons 250 — 300 

Molasses 350 — 375 

Thin, rolled 350—375 

Gingerbread 3 50 — 375 


Cheese straws, etc 500 

Cream puffs and eclairs 400 to 350 

Meringues, cooked separately . .250 — 300 

on pies and puddings 300 — 3 50 

Pie crust, shells, large pies . . . .450 — 500 

tarts 400 — 450 

Pies, double crust with fruit 

filling 450 to 425 

single crust, (custard, 

pumpkin, etc.) 450 to 325 

Turnovers, etc 450 

Baking Period 


60— 7 S 

































30 — 40 





S— 10 

20 — 40 










For table of oven temperatures, see page 5 
Au Gratin Dishes Degrees Fahrenheit Baking Period 

(to brown crumbs) ........ .400 Minutes 10 


Custards Degrees Fahrenheit Baking Period 

Large (surrounded by water) . . .300 — 350 Minutes 35 — 45 

In cups (surrounded by water) 300 — 350 " 20 — 25 


Batter, cottage, etc 375 — 400 " 35 — 45 

Bread 250—350 " 45—60 

Indian 250—350 Hours 2—3 

Rice or tapioca 250—350 " 1—2 

Scalloped Dishes 

(not potatoes) 350—400 Minutes 15—30 


(surrounded by water) 375 " 20 — 30 


(surrounded by water) 250 — 325 " 35 — 45 




For table of oven temperatures, see page 5 

The number of minutes per pound which a roast requires for 
cooking at a given temperature is only an approximation. The 
accurate way of determining doneness is by the internal tem- 
perature shown on the meat thermometer inserted into the roast. 

All boned cuts require longer cooking time than those with 
the bones left in. Allow about 10 minutes per pound longer for 
cooking boned cuts. 

Many hams now on the market require shorter cooking time. 
For these hams, follow directions given with them. 

If one wishes to sear meat, the oven may be preheated (450°- 
475° F.) and the meat placed in the hot oven for 10 or 15 min- 
utes, then the temperature reduced quickly to 300° F. for the 
rest of the cooking period. Searing, however, does not keep in 
juices. The constant low temperature method is preferred. 


Oven Temperature Roasting Period 

Meat Total, hrs. 

Braized meats 350° R 2— 2l/^ 

Meat en casserole 350° F. 2 — ly^ 

Meat pie with crust (meat previously Total, mins. 

cooked) 450° F. 30 

Oven Internal Minutes 
Beef Temperature Temperature Per Pound 

Rare 300° F. 140° F. 18 to 20 

Medium 300° F. 160° F. 22 to 25 

Well done 300° F. 170° F. 27 to 30 


Fresh (always well done) . 350° F. 185° F. 30 to 35 

Smoked 300° F. 170° F. 25 to 30 

Lamb and Mutton 

Medium 300° F. 175° F. 25 to 30 

Well done 300° F. 180° F. 30 to 35 

Yeal 300° F. 170° F. 25 to 30 


Chicken 325°— 350° F. 22—30 

Duck, Goose 325°— 350° F. 20—25 

Turkey 300°— 350° F. 15—25 

Fish Total, mins. 

Large 425° to 350° F. 15—20 

Small or riUets 425° to 350° F. 20—30 


Simmering temperatures range from 180° F. to 210° F. 

Meat Cooking Period 


Pot roasts (3-4 lbs.) Total, hrs. 2— 6 

Swiss steak " " 2 

Corned or smoked (4-5 lbs.) Mins. per lb. 30—40 

Ham Total, hrs. 4— 5 

Ox tongue " " 3 — 4 


Chicken (3 pounds) " " 1 — l^A 

Fowl (4 to 5 pounds) " " 2 — 5 

Turkey (10 pounds) " " 3—31/^ 


Small, thin Mins. per lb. 5—10 

Large, thick " " " 1C> — 15 




Chops, lamb or mutton 

pork or veal 

Liver, calves or lambs 

Steak, 1 inch thick (rare to medium) 

lYz inch thick (rare to medium) . 







Shad, whitefish, bluefish, etc 



tal, mins 

. 15—20 

" »t 


t« <t 

10 — 15 

«« tt 


ee t« 


«e «« 


c« «« 

10 — 20 

<( C( 

10 — 20 

t« tt 


tt tt 


For fried meats, poultry and fish, see Table IV, following 


Deep Fat Frying 

Temperature of Fat 
Degrees Fahrenheit 


And all previously cooked foods 375 — 390 

Doughnuts, Fritters 

And all raw batter and dough 


3 60—370 


Fillets (sole, cod, etc.) 390 

Frogs' legs 390 

Small fish (smelts, etc.) 375 — 390 

Medium sized fish (trout, etc.) . 390 

Fishballs 375 — 390 

Clams 390 

Crabs 360 

Oysters 375 — 390 

Scallops 3 60 

Cooking Period 
Total, mins. 2 — 5 

Total, mins. 2 — 3 



_ « w* « Temperature of Fat 

Meat and Poultry Degrees Fahrenheit 

Chicken 375 — 390 

Chops or cutlets, breaded 375 — 400 

Timbale Cases 390 


French fried potatoes, onions, 

etc 395 

Cooking Period 
Total, mins. 5 — 7 
« 5—8 

« « l__li/2 




Temperature of "Water 
Degrees Fahrenheit 

Soft 212 

Hard 212 


Soft 180—200 

Hard 180 — 200 


Temperature of Oven 
Degrees Fahrenheit 

Soft 250—350 

Hard 250—360 

Cooking Period 
Total, mins. 2 — 4 

Total, mins .s 6 — 10 

30 — 45 

Total, mins. 6 — 10 
« 25—40 




Fruits Cooking Period 

Apples, cut Mins. 5 — 8 

whole " 15—25 

dried Hrs. 1 — 4 

Apricots, dried . . . Hrs. ^ — 2 
Berries and small 

fr\iits Mins. 10 — 15 

Cranberries " 10 

Figs, dried " 20 

Peaches " 12 


Prunes, dried 
(soaked 1 to 6 
hours) Mins. 

Pears, summer Mins. 
winter ... 

Pineapple . . . 


Quince ' 

Rhubarb * 

Cooking Period 



15 — 40 



Cooking Period 

Mins. 15—35 
5— 1:5 


20 — 40 






Lentils, dried . . . Hrs. 

Lettuce Mins. 


Macaroni, spa- 
ghetti, etc. . . 
Onions, young 

(scallions) . . . 



Peas, green .... 





Pumpkin (cut) . , 




Squash, summer 



Turnips , 

Periods Required for Waterless Cookery of Vegetables 
The time required for waterless cookery varies somewhat with the 
age of the vegetable and the size of the pieces into which it is cut. 
It is generally safe to allow the maximum period given in the preced- 
ing tables, if the vegetables are young. For old, fully matured vege- 
tables, increase the time from ten to twenty minutes. 


Cooking Period 




. 30—40 







Beans, shell or 




Lima, green . . 



Navy and 

other dried. . . 


, 3 4 

Beet greens 


, 15—30 

Beets, young. . . . 





. 2—4 



. 15—25 

Brussels sprouts . . 






Carrots, young. . 














7 — 12 



5—20 • 

Dandelion greens 












30— 4a 




_ , Temperature of Oven 

trmts Degrees Fahrenheit 

Apples 3 50—375 

Bananas 400 — 450 

Pears 350—375 

Rhubarb 3 50 — 375 

Baking Period 

Mins. 20 — 40 

" 15—20 

" 45—60 

" 20 



Temperature of Oven 
Vegetables Degrees Fahrenheit 

Beans, with pork 250 — 3 50 

Cauliflower 375 — 400 

Eggplant (stuffed) 3 50—375 

Mushrooms 400 — 450 

Onions, whole (stuffed) 400 — 450 

sKced 400 — 450 

Peppers (stuffed) 3 50—375 

Potatoes, sweet, in skins 400 — 450 

white, in skins, large 450 — 500 

small to medium 450 — 500 

scalloped 3 50 — 400 

Baking Period 
Hrs. 6—8 
Mins. 30 
" 30 
" 15 
" 60 
" 30 
" 30 
" 30 — 40 
" 45—60 
" 30—45 



Stages in Sugar Cooking 

Sirup stage 220-^230 

Thread stage 230—234 

Soft ball stage 234 — 240 

Medium ball stage 240 — 244 

Stiff ball stage 244—250 

Hard ball stage 250 — 264 

Light crack stage 264 — 272 

Medium crack stage 272 — 290 

Hard crack stage 290 — 320 

Caramel stage 320 — 360 


Fondant (soft ball stage) 238 — 240 

Fudge and Marshmallow (thread to soft ball stage) .... 230 — 238 

Caramels and Nougat (stiff ball stage) 246 — 250 

Molasses taffy and soft candies to be pulled (hard ball 

stage) 245 — 260 

Hard candies to be pulled (medium crack stage) 272 — 290 

Toffee and butterscotch (medium to hard crack stage) . . 280 — 300 

Clear brittle candies (hard crack stage) 290 — 310 


1 egg-white to 1 cup sugar (soft to medium ball stage) 23 8 — 242 

2 egg-whites to 1 cup sugar (stiff ball stage) 244 — 248 

3 egg-whites to 1 cup sugar (hard ball stage) 254 — 260 



Learn to Measure Accurately — All the measurements in 
this book, and in most modern cook-books and magazines, are 
level. It will not do to use a heaping teaspoon, tablespoon or 
cup when a level one is meant. To change proportions by- 
wrong measuring causes poor results, for example: 

Too much flour will make a cake dry and crumbly, bread 
solid and heavy, sauces thick and pasty. 

Too much fat will make cakes oily and may cause them to 
fall; it will make grease-soaked doughnuts and greasy gravies 
and sauces. 

Too much sugar will make a cake with a hard crust, or a 
sticky cake; it makes a soft, sticky jelly. 

Too much liquid will make a cake that falls easily. 

Too much soda gives a disagreeable taste and bad color to 
breads and cakes. 

Have Accurate Equipment for Measuring, as follows: 

A measuring-cup holding one-fourth quart and divided by 
ridges on one side into thirds and on the other side into fourths. 

A quart measure divided by ridges into fourths. Each fourth 
is a cupful. 

A standard tablespoon that holds one-sixteenth of a cup. 

A standard teaspoon that holds one-third of a tablespoon. 

A tested scale. 

To Measure Dry Material — Fill the cup, spoon or other 
measure to overflowing, then pass a spatula or the straight edge 
of a knife over the top, leveling the material. For an accurate 
half-teaspoon or tablespoon of dry material, fill spoon as above, 
then, owing to the difference in capacity of the tip and bowl 
of the spoon, divide the material in half lengthwise. 

To Measure Fat — An easy and accurate way to measure 
solid fat is by means of water. For instance, to measure ^ cup 
of solid shortening, fill a standard measuring cup % full of cold 
water, then drop in pieces of the shortening, pushing them 
under the water until the water level reaches the one-cupful 
mark. If Yz cup shortening is called for in the recipe, fill the 
cup one-half full of water, and so on for any quantity desired. 


Another accurate method especially recommended for small 
quantities, is to pack the shortening into a standard measur- 
ing spoon and level off evenly with the straight edge of a 

To Measure Liquids — ^Fill the measure with all it will hold. 

Equivalent Measures and Weights 

3 teaspoons .... 1 tablespoon 

4 tablespoons . . % cup 
16 tablespoons . . 1 cup 
J4 cup 1 gill 

4 gills 1 pint 

2 cups 1 pint 

4 cups 
2 pints . 
4 quarts 
8 quarts 
4 pecks 
16 ounces 

1 quart 

1 quart 

. 1 gallon 

. 1 peck 

. 1 bushel 

.1 pound 


Some of the foods which are used most frequently are rich 
in starch; for instance: 

Flour — ^White, whole wheat, graham, buckwheat, rice, corn, 
rye, barley. 

Vegetables — ^Potatoes, sweet potatoes. 

Legumes — ^Dried peas, dried beans, lentils. 

Breakfast Foods — ^Wheat, oat, corn-meal, rice, barley. 

Miscellaneous — Chocolate, cocoa, macaroni, vermicelli, 
spaghetti^ corn-starch, tapioca, sago, chestnuts. 

Starch-rich Foods Must be Cooked Thoroughly if they 
are to have fine flavor and be easily digested. This is because 
starch occurs in foods in the form of tiny, hard, dry grains 
which are not soluble in cold water and which are difficult for 
the digestive juices to act upon. When starch is cooked, it is 
easy to digest and much improved in flavor^ because cooking 
changes the form of the starch. 

"When Starch is Cooked in Liquid, the heat causes the 
starch grain to absorb liquid, swell and soften. When flour or 
corn-starch or any other finely divided meal is cooked in a 
liquid, it thickens the liquid. 

When Starch is Cooked by Dry Heat, that is, with very 


little moisture, the heat, unless it is great enough to burn the 
starch, breaks down the starch grain and changes the starch to 
a substance called dextrin. Dextrin does not thicken liquid, 
but, like starch cooked in water, it has a better flavor and is 
easier to digest than raw starch. 

The baking of a loaf of bread illustrates both these changes. 
The starch in the dough in the inside of the loaf absorbs the 
water used in making the dough and swells and softens. The 
water in the dough on the outside of the loaf evaporates and 
the starch in the outer layers of dough is partly changed to 
dextrin. As a result, the crust has mpre flavor and is sweeter 
than the crumb, and has a different texture. 

In baking a potato, the water for cooking the starch is sup- 
plied by the potato itself. 

Points to be Observed in Cooking Starch-rich Foods 

1. Use enough water to soften all the starch present. This 
is especially important in cooking breakfast foods. 

2. Cook them for a long enough time to swell and soften the 
starch. A temperature as high as the boiling-point of water, 
212° F., is best for this cooking. 

3. Wlien flour or finely ground meal is to be mixed with a 
hot liquid, separate the particles before they reach the hot liquid, 
or gummy lumps with raw centers will be formed. This separa- 
tion of the particles of flour or meal can be accomplished by 
mixing the flour or meal with enough cold liquid to make a 
mixture as thin as cream, or by combining them with sugar 
or with fat before mixing them with the hot liquid. Lumpy 
gravies, sauces, mushes and puddings are caused by a failure 
to observe these precautions. 

4. A double boiler is the best utensil tb use in cooking cereals, 
mushes and starchy sauces because it does away with the danger 
of sticking and burning. The water in the lower part of the 
boiler should be boiling. 

Thickening Power of Flour or Corn-starch 

This is one of the most important things for a good cook to 
know. If the cook can tell how much flour or corn-starch to 
use to make sauces or pastes of any desired thickness, and knows 
how to mix and cook these sauces and pastes to make them 


smooth, velvety and fine in flavor, he or she has learned one of 
the hardest cooking lessons and is in possession of information 
that will help in making a great variety of dishes. 


Yz tablespoon flour or ( 
Yz teaspoon corn-starch ( 

1 tablespoon flour or | 

1 teaspoon corn-starch ) 

2 tablespoons flour or 
2 teaspoons corn-starch 

3 tablespoons flour or 
1 tablespoon corn-starch 

4 tablespoons flour or 
4 teaspoons corn-starch 

Makes a very thin sauce, which may 
be used in making thin cream soups. 
Makes a thin sauce, which may be 
used in making cream soups of aver- 
age' thickness. 

Makes a medium sauce, which may be 
used for creamed meats or vegetables, 
scalloped dishes, gravies or other 
sauces where a medium thickness is 
desired. It has about the thickness 
of heavy cream. 

Makes a thick sauce, which may be 
used for creamed meats or vegetables, 
scalloped dishes, gravies or sauces 
where a thick sauce is desired. A 
sauce containing this amount of flour 
has considerable body and spreads 
rather than runs. 

Makes a paste when cold. This 
sauce may be used in making mixtures 
for croquettes, soufiles, blanc manges 
and similar puddings. 

When the Liquid Used is Milk, use a little more milk or a 
little less starch than for a water sauce, because milk already 
contains about 12 per cent, solids. 

When the Liquid Used is Acid, as vinegar, a fruit- juice or 
tomatoes, the hot acid acts on the starch and gradually changes 
it, just as dry heat does, to dextrin. Dextrin has not the 
thickening power of starch. Therefore, when an acid liquid 
is to be thickened, more of the thickening agent may be needed, 
and the time for cooking may be shortened. No statement can 
be made as to exact differences because acids differ greatly in 

■ When the Flour is Browned, the dry heat changes part 
of the starch to dextrin and the flour may lose a considerable 
part of its thickening power. Either more browned flour must 


be used than uncooked flour or browned flour may be used 
for color and uncooked flour for thickening. 

Corn-starch Requires Longer Cooking Than Flour, 
and a quickly cooked corn-starch mixture always has a raw 

If a Sauce is Too Thick, it can be thinned without trouble 
by adding more liquid. 

If a Sauce is Too Thin, it must be thickened by adding 
more of the thickening agent and by recooking it. A starchy 
sauce or a cream ^oup is always thinner when hot than when 
cold. Even the amount of cooling which occurs in transferring 
a starchy sauce, gravy or soup from the cooking utensil to the 
serving dish perceptibly thickens it. This must be taken into 
account in making creamed dishes of various kinds. 

If a Sauce is Lumpy, because proper precautions have not 
been taken in mixing and cooking the thickening agent with 
the liquid, the sauce should be strained; but such a sauce never 
has the creamy, smooth texture of a well-made one. 

Methods of Combining Flour or Corn-starch 

with Liquids 

When Little or No Fat is Used — Heat three-fourths of 
the liquid. Stir the remainder of the liquid gradually into the 
thickening agent. If sugar is used it may be mixed with the 
thickening agent before the liquid is stirred in or added to the 
sauce after the thickening is completed. Stir into the thicken- 
ing agent at first only enough of the cold liquid to make a 
thick batter. Beat this batter until smooth and free from 
lumps, then add the rest of the cold liquid. The mixture should 
be about as thick as medium cream. Beat this gradually into 
the hot liquid and cook, stirring constantly, until the mixture 
is thickened. If fat is used, it may be added at this time. After 
thickening, the sauce may be cooked in a covered double boiler 
with occasional stirring. 

When Amount of Fat Equals or Exceeds Amount of 
Thickening Agent — ^Melt the fat, add the flour or corn-starch 
and cook, stirring constantly, until thoroughly blended. This 
is called a roux. Stir in the liquid, a little at first, then inmie- 
diately enough to thin the roux perceptibly and finally the re- 


mainder. Cook, stirring constantly, until thick. Complete 
cooking in a double boiler^ stirring occasionally. 


Heat the liquid; cream together the fat and thickening agent; 
add this modification of roux to the hot liquid and stir con- 
stantly while the fat melts and the particles of flour or corn- 
starch are being spread through the liquid and cooked. Com- 
plete cooking in a double boiler, stirring occasionally. 

Dishes That Have a Sauce Foundation 

A variety of dishes can be made by a person who is familiar 
with the thickening power of flour and corn-starch and with 
methods of combining them into sauces. There are two founda- 
tion sauces: 

A White Sauce is one made from milk or white stock or 
part of each, thickened with plain flour or corn-starch. 

A Brown Sauce is one made from milk or water or brown 
stock and thickened with browned flour or part browned and 
part plain flour or corn-starch. 

The following typical dishes have a sauce foundation: 

Cheese Sauce — ^To each cup white sauce of desired consist- 
ency, add 54 cup shaved, grated or crumbled cheese and stir 
imtil cheese is melted. 

Cream Soups, Purees and Bisques — To each cup of very 
thin or thin white sauce, add 2 cups of vegetable, meat or fish 

Creamed Dishes — ^To each cup of medium or medium to 
thick white sauce, add 1 to 1J4 cups vegetables, meat, fish or 
hard-cooked eggs cut in pieces. 

Scalloped Dishes — ^To each cup of medium to thick white 
sauce, add 1 to 2 cups cooked vegetables, meat, fish, hard-cooked 
eggs, cooked macaroni or rice; put into a baking dish, sprinkle 
w;ith buttered crumbs and bake until brown. 

Croquette Mixtures — ^The foundation of most croquettes 
is white sauce or brown sauce. When this type of croquette 
is made, to each cup of very thick sauce use 1 to 2 cups of finely 
divided cooked meat, fish, hard-cooked eggs or vegetables. 
When the mixture is cold, it will easily shape into croquettes. 

Souffle Mixtures — ^Many souffles are made from a founda- 
tion of thick or very thick white sauce to which is added some 
seasoning or flavor such as cheese, vanilla, sugar, or some chopped 


food and raw egg-yolk. Beaten egg-white is folded in and the 
mixture is ready to pour into a baking-dish. All souffles are 
baked with the containing dish standing in hot water. With 
a knowledge of white sauce and Qgg cookery, souffles are very 
simple to make. No attempt is being made to give at this point 
complete directions for making souffles, but only to show how a 
knowledge of one part of cooking will help in the making of 
many dishes and will make the whole problem of cooking 
simpler and more interesting. The most common souffles hav- 
ing a white sauce foundation are: 

Cheese Souffle — ^To each cup of thick to very thick white 
sauce, add % cup grated cheese, 2 egg-yolks and seasoning. 
Cook until the cheese is melted. Then fold in the beaten egg- 
whites, and the souffle is ready to bake. 

Meat or Fish Souffle — ^To each cup thick to very thick 
white sauce add 1 cup minced meat or vegetable, 3 egg-yolks, 
and the beaten whites of 3 eggs and bake for thirty minutes at 
375° R 

Chocolate Souffle — ^To each cup thick white sauce, add 
2 ounces grated chocolate, 5/3 cup sugar, and 3 egg-yolks; cook 
until the chocolate is melted. Fold in the beaten whites of 3 
eggs and bake for thirty minutes at 375° F. 

Vanilla Souffle — ^To each cup very thick white sauce, 
add Y;} cup sugar, Yz teaspoon vanilla, 2 to 3 egg-yolks. Fold 
in beaten whites of 2 to 3 eggs and bake for thirty minutes at 
375° F. 


Sugars are useful in cooking (1) because of their flavor, or 
the efiFect they have in modifying or intensifying other flavors; 
(2) because of their texture, or the changes they make in the 
texture of other foods; (3) because they help in preserving 
other foods, especially fruits. 

Use of Sugar in Flavoring Foods 

Sugars Not Equally Sweet — ^Maple sugar, brown sugar 
and molasses, weight for weight with white sugar, are a little 
less sweet than white sugar. Corn sirup or glucose, weight for 
weight with white sugar, is only about three-fifths as sweet as 
white sugar and may be used to reduce the sweetness of white 
sugar. Many persons prefer this modified sweetness. 


Foods Taste Sweeter Hot Than Cold — ^This accounts 
for diflFerences in the amounts of sugar used in making frozen 
desserts and other desserts. 

Some Sugars Contain Special Flavors, for example: 
maple sugar, brown sugar^ molasses, honey. 

Sugar Brings out or Modifies Natural Flavors — ^It 
makes bitter chocolate and fruit acids more mellow and agree- 
able in flavor. It brings out flavor in bland foods like cereals^ 
breads, milk and some mild-flavored vegetables. 

"yC^ays in Which Sugar Affects Texture of Foods 

In CakeSjj used in right proportions, sugar helps to make 
Uiem tender and light. Too much sugar makes cake tough 
and heavy. 

In Breads, used in right proportions^ sugar helps to make 
them light. Too much sugar makes bread coarse in texture. 

With Fruit Juices, used in right proportions, makes fruit- 
juice jelly. Too much sugar makes jelly "wine off" and makes 
it soft and sticky in texture. Too little sugar necessitates over- 
cooking, impairs flavor and gives a tough texture. 

In Beaten Egg White, sugar helps the egg to hold air and 
remain stiflF. Too much sugar makes the egg white flatten out 
and settle. 

Approximate Amounts of Sugar for Various 
Common Dishes 

Ice creams — 2 to 4 tablespoons to 1 cup mixture. 
Custards (not frozen) — 1 to 2 tablespoons to 1 cup milk. 
Cakes — One-half as much sugar as flour. In chocolate cakes, three- 
quarters as much sugar as flour. 
Meiongues — 1 to 5 tablespoons to 1 egg white. 
Frostings — 1 to 3 cups to 1 egg white. 
Breads — 1 tablespoon or less to 1 cup flour, if any is used. 
Muffins — 2 tablespoons or less to 1 cup flour, if any is used. 


1 cup granulated sugar 1 cup boiling water 

Put the sugar into a pan and melt slowly over direct heat. 
Cook until dark brown, being careful not to scorch. Add the 
hot water and cook slowly until a thick sirup is formed. (Be 


sure that the water is hot. Cold water will make the hot sugar 
spatter.) This will keep indefinitely in a covered glass fruit 
jar and is a popular flavoring for desserts, soups, meat sauces 
and confectionery. 


The cooking and table fats available for use in the modern 
household range from liquid oils to hard fats. The source may 
be vegetable, meat, milk or a combination of these. 

Cooking and Table Fats Classified as to Sources 

Oils Solid Fats 

(Vegetable Product) (Milk Product) 

OHve oil Butter 

Cotton seed oil (Animal Product) 

Corn oil L^rd 

Other salad combinations Drippings as from bacon, suet, 

(Milk Product) chicken, beef, etc. 

Cream (Vegetable Product) 

Vegetable shortening compounds 

(Animal Meat and Vegetable Product) 

Oleo margarine 
Nut margarine 

Cooking and Table Fats Classified as to Use 

Fats are often classified as to their use: (1) for table use (2) 
for shortening, and (3) for frying. Many of them belong 
to two or all of these groups, while others are limited to one. 

Oils — Oils are both salad and cooking fats. As salad oils 
they are chosen for their flavor and smoothness in salad dress- 
ings. Those made of cotton seed, corn and peanut oil — alone 
or in combination with olive oils — are less expensive than pure 
olive oil. From the labels, the purchaser will know just which 
type she is buying. 

Oils for shortening are becoming increasingly popular because 
of their convenience. They are easily measured; they do not 
need to be creamed or melted. 

For frying, particularly deep fat frying, cotton seed and corn 
oils are practical and inexpensive. They do not smoke and burn 


easily and, properly cared for, they can be used over and over 

Solid Shortenings and Cooking Fats — ^Lard and meat 
drippings for shortening and cooking date from the time when, 
all fats were prepared in the home. 

Lard is solid without being hard to handle in doughs, and has 
an established reputation for pastry. 

Fat from chickens and other poultry is highly prized for caKe 

Bacon, ham and sausage fats are too highly seasoned for any 
but limited use but are excellent for sauteing any food where 
their seasoning is desirable. 

Drippings are not possible for deep fat frying, because they 
burn so easily; unless they are clarified and combined, when they 
become a good mixed fat. They may be used for sauteing or in 

In the solid vegetable compounds, vegetable oils — cottonseed, 
corn, and sometimes peanut — are solidified by a special process. 
This gives certain characteristics of both the original oil and. 
the solid fat, i.e.: they do not smoke or burn except at a high, 
temperature. This makes them desirable for deep fat frying. 
They do not easily melt which makes pastry making easy in ordi- 
nary temperatures. 

Butter — Probably butter will never lose its place as the 
favorite for eating. Its texture and flavor are particularly 
satisfactory. For certain types of cooking also, it is desirable, 
notably in sauces, and in some baking where its flavor becomes 
a part of the flavor of the dish. 

Margarines — ^The nut and oleo margarines are less expen- 
sive than butter but are nicely flavored and salted for table use. 
They should not be considered a substitute but rather another 
product suitable for the same use as butter. In the manuf act- 
wre of these products, liquid fat, either of animal or vegetable 
source, is churned with milk. The oil may be principally olein 
from meat source, giving the name oleo margarine; or it may 
be derived from peanuts, coconut or other nuts, making a true 
vegetable margarine. They are purchased uncolored to dis- 
tinguish them from butter, but they may be easily colored at 
home for table use. 



The term sKortening includes fat of any kind that is used 
in pastry, doughs, and batters. Any clean, sweet fat may be 
used. The best known and most commonly used are butter, 
solid vegetable fats, margarine, salad and cooking oil, lard and 
drippings* In general they may be used interchangeably for 
"shortening" in a recipe, remembering the difference in flavor, 
and that since some contain more water than others more fat 
is needed to give the same shortening quality. 

How to Try Out or Render Fat 

Every bit of fat from scraps of meat, bacon drippings, roasts, 
soups and poultry may be made into a mixture useful for gen- 
eral cooking purposes. The scraps should be "tried out" to- 
gether. The proportion of soft fats to hard fats will usually be 
enough to make of the whole a good medium fat. 

Chop the fat into fine pieces or run it through a meat- 
grinder. For each pound of fat allow one-half cup of milk. 
Cook in the top of a double boiler, or in a kettle set over water, 
until the fat is melted. Strain through several thicknesses of 
cheesecloth laid over a strainer. 

Fat may be tried out in exactly the same way without the 
use of the milk, but milk improves the flavor and texture of 
the product. Sweet, sour or buttermilk may be used. 

If the crisp cracklings left after straining are of good flavor 
and color they may be substituted for other fats in various 
dishes, notably in corn-meal and graham-flour mixtures, hashed 
brown potatoes, corn -meal mush that is to be fried, and any 
kind of baked hash. 

How to Clarify Fat 

If fat that has been tried out from scraps and drippings needs 
to be clarified, let it harden, remove it from the container, 
scrape away and discard any sediment that has settled in the 
bottom of the cake and melt it by pouring boiling water over 
it. Boil this mixture thoroughly, strain through several thick- 
nesses of cheesecloth placed over a strainer, and set away to cool. 
When the fat is cold, remove the solid cake from the liquid. 
Discard the impurities in the bottom of the cake. If this 


process is repeated two or three times, a cake of clean fat may be 

If fat acquires, through use, a slightly burned or disagree- 
able flavor, melt it and for each pound or pint add a medium- 
sized potato cut in quarter-inch slices. Heat gradually. When 
the fat ceases to bubble and the potatoes are well browned, 
strain the fat through several thicknesses of cheesecloth placed 
over a strainer, and set away to cool. When ready to use, 
scrape away and discard sediment from bottom of cake. Po- 
tato helps to clarify fat as well as to purify it, for the potato 
is porous and gathers into its pores much of the sediment in 
the used fat. 

How to Care for Fats 

Since the four factors that are instrumental in making fat 
rancid are light, moisture, air and warmth, all fats should be 
kept in a dark, dry, cool place and as far as possible away from 

Oils, particularly, are affected by air. If oil is bought in 
quantity and used a little at a time, it should be transferred 
from the large container to small ones. Each container should 
be filled completely full to exclude air, and should be sealed or 
stoppered. The containers should be kept in a dry, cool place, 
but not so cold that the contents will congeal. The top shelf 
of the refrigerator is usually satisfactory. 

Deep Fat Frying 

Fats for deep fat frying, should be capable of being heated 
to a high temperature without smoking or burning. Smoking 
impairs the flavor, the digestibility and the durability of fat. 
A fat should be capable of being used over and over again, but 
everytime the fat is used the smoking temperature will become 
lower, because of the amount of crumbs or other foreign matter 
which escapes from the food into the fat, unless the fat is always 
strained carefully after frying and clarified frequently. 

Vegetable Fats and Oils are used increasingly for frying. 
They have high smoking temperatures. They can be used over 
and over again and are not likely to burn. They absorb prac- 
tically no odor from the food so can be used for all sorts of 
foods. They are, perhaps, the best all around fats for general 
use in frying. See photographs opposite. 






\ \ 



n^^m^' ^f^ 



Olive Oil has a comparatively low smoking temperature. 
This is partly compensated for, however, by the fact that it 
produces smoke slowly and the smoke is non-irritating. It has 
more decided flavor than the other vegetable oils. 

Lard must be used with great care to avoid overheating, and 
must be well clarified after each time of using. It has a rather 
low smoking temperature, smokes rapidly and produces an 
irritating smoke. Like all animal fats, it absorbs strong odors 
from foods. 

Utensils for Frying 

1. A deep iron bowl or scotch kettle. The bowl has one 
advantage over the flat-bottomed kettle; the sediment from 
food sinks into the curve of the bowl and does not adhere to 

2. A wire basket that fits loosely into the kettle. This is to 
lift food into and out of the kettle. A skimmer will do this 
but it is not so convenient. 

3. A long-handled spoon or fork to hold the basket out of 
the fat while the food is draining. 

4. A pan large enough to hold the basket while it is being 
emptied or filled. 

5. A large pan lined with soft paper on which to drain the 
food that has been fried. 

6. A thermometer for testing the temperature of the fat. 

Directions for Frying 

1. Put enough fat into the kettle to submerge to a depth 
of one or two inches the articles to be fried. Do not fill 
kettle more than three-fourths full of fat. The fat in an 
over-full kettle may bubble over and catch fire. 

2. Heat fat gradually to the desired temperature, which will 
be between 300° and 400° Fahrenheit, always, if possible, below 
the smoking point of the fat. 

3. Put only moderate amounts of food into the fat* at one 
time, because (a) when the very hot fat cooks the food it 
causes the moisture in the food to boil and this vigorous bub- 
bling may cause the fat to bubble over the edge of the kettle, 
with risk of fire; and (b) too much food may so cool the fat 
as to delay the cooking and increase absorption of fat thus 
making a greasy product. 


4. When the food is cooked to the desired brown color, re- 
move at once, drain over the kettle for a few seconds, then 
place on soft paper to finish draining. 

5. After frying is completed, let fat cool until it is safe to 
handle, then strain through several thicknesses of cheesecloth 
placed over a strainer. Clarify it frequently, after each time 
of using, if possible, as it will lengthen the lifetime of the fat. 

If fat used in frying is not overheated, and if it is frequently 
clarified, it may be used over and over again, even if the smok- 
ing temperature is comparatively low. 

If fish is well egged and crumbed before being fried, it will 
not seriously flavor the fat in which it is fried and the fat is 
then useful for frying foods other than fish. 

Testing Fat for Frying 

Fats should never be brought to the smoking point as a test 
of heat. Use a thermometer or drop into the fat a one-inch 
cube of bread from the soft part of the loaf. Judge the heat 
of the fat by the length of time it takes the bread to brown. 

1. If the fat is the right temperature for large pieces of raw 
food — breaded chops, etc., — (3 50°-375° F.) it will take from 
1 to 1 54 minutes, for bread to brown. 

2. If the fat is the right temperature for smaller pieces of 
raw food or raw batters and doughs (360°-390° F.) the piece 
of bread will brown in 50 to 60 seconds. 

3. If the fat is the right temperature for most cooked foods — 
croquettes, fish balls, etc., (375° to 390° F.) the bread will 
brown in 40 to 50 seconds. 

Have the Right Temperature in Frying — ^If fat is too 
hot, it scorches the food, or does not cook it through, or spoils 
the fat. If it is too cool, the food becomes soaked with fat. Fats 
of low smoking temperature will naturally soak into food a 
little more than fats of high smoking temperature, because the 
food must remain longer in the fat. 

Egging and Crumbing Foods for Frying 

Except in the case of foods like doughnuts, fritters, potatoes 
and fried breads, foods are ordinarily either egged and crumbed 
or dipped in an egg batter before being fried. This is because 
the egg or egg batter hardens in the hot fat, making a case 
about the food which keeps it from becoming fat soaked. 


For crumbing, use dried bread crumbs rolled and sifted or 
soft crumbs forced through a strainer. 

Break an egg into a shallow plate and beat it with a fork 
only enough to mix the yolk and white and not enough to beat 
air into it. Blend into the mixed egg two tablespoons water for 
each egg. 

Place some crumbs on a board. Roll the food to be fried in 
the crumbs, covering all parts with crumbs. 

Dip the crumb-covered food into the egg bath, being careful 
to cover every part with egg. 

Lift food from egg with broad-bladed knife and roll again 
in crumbs. 

Let stand a few moments to dry. The food is then ready 
for frying. Foods may be egged and crumbed several hours 
or even a day before being fried. 


Eggs Help to Bind Foods Together 

Eggs Bind Fats and Liquids Together — ^Fats and liquids 
mixed together tend to separate very quickly. When egg is 
added to this mixture, it is possible, under right conditions, to 
secure a very intimate mixing of the fat and liquid. The best 
known household illustration of this is the combination of oil, 
vinegar and egg in mayonnaise dressing,- which produces mix- 
ture that will keep for a long time. In the case of French dress- 
ing, the oil and acid can often be held together for an hour 
or longer if a small amount of egg-white is added. 

Eggs Help to Combine Ingredients in Batter and 
Dough — ^Although many batter and dough mixtures, such as 
cakes, muffins, pancakes,^ and breads, may be and often are 
made without eggy the use of egg materially improves them. 
Egg brings about a very intimate mixing of fat and liquid not 
only with each other but also with the other ingredients present. 
This gives the product fineness of grain, particularly in mix- 
tures containing fat, and increases its lightness of texture. Cake, 
fancy yeast breads, such as zwieback, brioche, rusks and fancy 
rolls, and quick breads, such as delicate muffins, owe a part o£ 
their delicacy of texture to the presence of eggs in the mixture. 

Egg Increases Power of Batter or Dough to Hold Fat 
— ^By causing a more intimate mixing of fat with other ingre- 


dients, the egg in a batter and dough mixture will permit the 
addition of more fat. If a cake is so rich that it has a tendency 
to fall, the addition of another egg may cure the difficulty. If 
it is not rich enough, yet falls when more fat is added, putting 
in another egg permits the use of more fat. If richer mufiins 
are desired, the same rule holds good; eggs as well as fat may 
need to be added if the product is to retain its lightness. In 
fancy yeast breads such as zwieback, brioche, rusks and fancy 
rolls, the large amount of fat present does not reduce the light- 
ness of the mixture, in part at least because of the effects of the 
egg present. 

Egg Increases Power of Batter or Dough to Hold 
Liquid — ^Egg causes the liquid to be distributed in smaller 
particles throughout a batter and dough mixture. This makes 
it possible for the mixture to hold more liquid, without inter- 
fering with its lightness, than it could hold if the eggs were 
absent. Therefore, a bread or cake dough made with egg can 
be made softer than one in which egg is not used. This adds 
to the delicacy of the product. The popover is the most in- 
teresting illustration of a batter that is very light in spite of the 
large amount of liquid present. 

Eggs Help to Give Lightness and Looseness of Texture 

This property is due to the presence in egg of a tenacious, 
gluelike or viscous substance called albumin. Albumin has the 
power of holding air beaten into it, or gases formed in the mix- 
ture containing it, and of stretching as a result of this. 

Air-Holding Power of Egg Reduced by Fat — Egg-yolk 
is very rich in fat. This is the reason that egg-white is better 
than the yolk for giving lightness and looseness of texture, and 
accounts for the direction, familiar to every housekeeper, not 
to permit any of the yolk to escape into the white when separat- 
ing eggs, if the white is to be beaten stiff. In cakes in which 
the air-holding quality of egg-white needs to be used to great- 
est advantage, the egg-white is beaten alone and is folded lightly 
into the mixture at the last minute, so that the fat in the mix- 
ture may not reduce its viscosity. 

Air-Holding Power of Egg Increased by Sugar — ^In 
limited amounts sugar increases the tenacity or viscous properties 
of egg. This fact is interestingly illustrated in cakes, where the 
addition of sugar, within limits, increases the lightness of the 


cake. When sugar is added to beaten egg-white, in limited 
amounts, it increases the air-holding property of the egg, and 
the meringue is lighter than the beaten egg alone. When the 
sugar is added to unbeaten egg-white, in limited amounts, and 
the two are beaten together, not only can the product be made 
very light but a meringue made in this way holds the air for 
a much longer time than when it is made by beating the egg 

Eggs Thicken Liquids, Making Custards 

The value of eggs in custard making is due to the fact that 
raw eggs are fluid and readily mix with water or milk. When 
the mixture containing the egg is heated, the particles of egg 
become solid and the liquid is thus thickened. 

Proportion of Egg to Liquid in Custard Mixtures 

^^1 i M^kes a mixture that has sufficient body to bake 

1 whole egg or / -^^ small cups or for a medium thick soft custard. 

2 egg-yolks ) 

Makes a mixture that has sufficient body to bake in 
.... 1 a large baking-dish and hold its form while in the 

i/^^^ 1 / ^^^^' *^^' ^^^^ baked in small cups, to retain the 

1/2 whole egg orj ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^p when turned into another dish. 
^SS'Y^ s ' Good foundation for ice-cream if less than one- 
fourth to one-half its bulk of cream is to be used. 

1 cuo liquid ^ Makes a mixture that has sufficient body, when 

2 whole eggs or ( t>aked in a large baking-dish, to hold the form of 
1 whole eee C ^^^ ^^^^ when turned into another dish. Good 
and 2 ece-volks\ foundation for frozen custard where no cream is 

/ used. Good foundation for salad dressings. 

Effects of Temperature on Eggs 

The texture of eggs cooked alone or in custard mixtures is 
directly affected by the temperatures at which they are cooked. 

Cooked at 180° to 200° Fahrenheit (below the boiling-point 
of water) 5 the egg-white is firm but delicate and very tender 
and friable or easily broken apart. The egg-yolk is tender and 

Cooked at 212° Fahrenheit (at the boiling-point of water), 
the egg-white is firm, but somewhat tough. The egg-yolk is 

Cooked at 3 50° to 400° Fahrenheit (the temperature of fat 


hot enough for frying) , the egg-white is leathery where touched 
by the fat, and the yolk is leathery where touched by the fat. 

Why Custards Whey or Curdle 

Custards usually whey or separate or curdle because they are 
cooked at too high a temperature or too long a time. Milk that 
is a little sour may cause curdling of a custard. 

The best way to prevent wheying, separating or curdling is 
to regulate the temperature and time of cooking all custards by 
cooking them over or surrounded by water slightly below the 
boiling-point, by removing them from the heat when they are 
done, and by being sure that milk uised in making them is en- 
tirely sweet. 

If a soft custard begins to whey, separate, or, as it is usually 
called in this case, curdle, it should be removed immediately 
from the heat. The pan containing it may be set into a pan 
of cold water, and the custard may be beaten vigorously to 
redistribute the particles of egg and milk solids. 

Precautions For Custards Made With Acids — ^If a soft 
custard mixture is to be made with vinegar or acid juices, such 
as lemon-juice or tomato-juice, the custard should be removed 
from the heat the minute the mixture begins to thicken. 
Hot acid coagulates egg and then very soon begins to digest it. 
This process makes it thin instead of thick. If an acid custard 
mixture has become thinned by cooking it for a minute too 
long, it must be thickened by adding more egg or by thicken- 
ing it with flour, following the directions for starchy sauces. 
Custards made with acid require more egg than other custards 
to secure the same degree of thickness. 


Scald the liquid. This saves time in making all custards. 

Thoroughly mix eggs, seasoning (as salt)j and flavoring (as 
sugar) by stirring but not by beating. 

Gradually add hot liquid to egg mixture. 

For Firm Custards, pour custard mixture into baking-dish, 
set baking-dish in pan of hot water and cook in slow oven 
(300°-350° F.) or in a steamer at 180° to 200° F. until firm, 
keeping water in pan constantly below the boiling-point. The 
custard is done when the blade of a knife run into the center 
of the custard comes out clean. 


For Soft Custards, cook in top of double boiler, keeping 
the water in the lower part constantly at 180° to 200° F. or just 
below the boiling-point. Stir constantly until the mixture 
stops frothing, coats the spoon, and has the thickness of cream. 
Remove at once. 

Always cook custard mixtures over hot water or sur- 
rounded by hot water. 


The value of milk in the daily meals is so great that every 
effort should be made to extend its use in cooking. 

Whole Fresh or Pasteurized Milk need hardly be dis- 
cussed since all homemakers are familiar with its use. Vitamin 
D Milk is a new form carrying an inci^eased content of this 
vitamin. It is desirable, however, to describe other forms of 
milk which today play a prominent role in up-to-date kitchens. 

Evaporated Milk is the most important of these. It is whole 
milk concentrated to double richness by evaporating part of the 
natural water content. No sugar is added. Evaporated milk has 
all the nutritive value of whole milk. When irradiated it carries 
an increased content of Vitamin D. It is an especially suitable 
food for babies. 

For cooking, where whole milk is called for, an equal amount 
of water should be added to evaporated milk. In place of cream, 
it is used undiluted. Because this milk is homogenized, reducing 
the butterfat globules to tiniest particles, it produces excellent 
results in making cream soups, sauces, and other dishes where a 
fine, smooth consistency is desired. 

Dry Milk made by evaporating all water leaves the milk 
solids in powdered form with the food value of pasteurized milk. 

Condensed Milk, which contains a large amount of added 
sugar, is used for making some desserts. 

Skim Milk may be used in cooking, but the fact must be 
remembered that the fat removed has carried with it important 
vitamins which must be returned as butter and cream. 

Buttermilk, produced when the fat is removed as butter, is 
similarly deficient although valuable for its lactic acid. 

Sour Milk is often needed for the invalid, for cooking or 
baking. It can be made from fresh milk by the addition of 2 

tablespoons white vinegar or lemon juice to each pint of milk. 
Allow to stand in a fairly warm place at room temperature for 
one-half hour, then return to refrigerator. The same propor- 
tions obtain for evaporated or irradiated evaporated milk after 
it has been diluted one -half according to directions. In baking, 
use one-half teaspoon soda for every cup of sour milk or cream. 
For Sour Cream add one tablespoon white vinegar or 
lemon juice to one cup cream or each cup evaporated or irradi- 
ated evaporated milk as it comes from the can. 


If there is any question about the cleanliness of fresh milk 
to be used for drinking, it should be pasteurized or boiled. 
Infants or small children should never be fed any milk about 
which there is the slightest doubt. 

Flash Process — ^Put it into a covered co'ntainer set over hot 
water. Heat until the milk reaches a temperature of 160° to 
165° F. Hold at this temperature for one-half to one minute. 
Cool as quickly as possible and keep in a cold place. 

Holding Process — Heat until milk reaches 140° to 150° F. 
Hold at this temperature for about 30 minutes. 

Pasteurized milk, if kept too long, is apt to putrefy instead 
of becoming sour. If any pasteurized milk is left over and 
there is danger of its spoiling before it can be used, it may be 
mixed with a little sour milk and set in a warm place until 
it all becomes sour. Sour milk may be kept for some days. 


Flash Method — Put it into a shallow pan and cook quickly 
over direct heat so that the milk is brought as rapidly as possible 
to the boiling-point. Stir constantly to prevent scorching, 
making the figure eight with the spoon, as this brings the spoon 
the greatest number of times in contact with the part of the 
kettle receiving the most heat. 

When the milk has boiled up once, remove from the fire 
and cool as rapidly as possible. 




— Irradiated Evaporated 
Milk Institute 



Milk boiled by this rapid method is believed to be less affected 
in nutritive value than pasteurized milk. 

Boiled milk, like pasteurized milk, spoils rather than sours. 


To whip easily cream must be thick. This requires that it 
must contain not less than 20 per cent butter fat. Best results 
are obtained when it contains 25 to 40 per cent butter fat. 

Fresh cream does not whip well even when it contains more 
than 20 per cent butter fat. This is because lactic acid is 
produced as cream ages, and the acid thickens the cream. The 
addition of one-half teaspoon commercial lactic acid to each 
pint of cream will do the same thing that is accomplished by 
twelve to twenty-four hours standing. 

Warm cream will not whip well because warmth thins cream. 
As cream is chilled, the fat congeals and the cream thickens. 
Cream set on the ice for two hours will whip easily, if it is rich 
enough and old enough. The best temperature for whipping 
cream is between 3 5° and 50° Fahrenheit. Cream is doubled in 
bulk after whipping. 


Milk, bowl and beater should be thoroughly chilled to about 
40° F. If the milk fails to whip, it is not cold enough. Scalding 
the milk prior to chilling causes it to whip a little more 
readily and somewhat stiffer, but scalding is not absolutely 
necessary. To scald the milk, cover the unopened cans with 
cold water. Bring water to a boil and continue boiling for £.ye 

Lemon juice can be added for even greater and "permanent" 
stiffness, when the lemon flavor is suitable to the food with which 
the whipped milk is to be combined. When lemon juice is used, 
first whip the milk until stiff. Then add two tablespoons of 
lemon juice for every cup of milk. Continue whipping long 
enough to blend in the lemon juice. 

Evaporated milk has only about one -fifth of the amount of 
fat contained in whipping cream. Instead, it has a much greater 
content of whole milk solids. For that reason it is an ideal 
ingredient for a dessert which completes an already rich meal. 



Alkaline or Base-Forming Foods 

Acid-Forming Foods 



Bread, white and 



whole wheat 

Turnips and tops 

Brussels Sprouts 


Beans, lima, kidney, 


Cheese, all but cream 

navy, soy 


Com, fresh, canned 



and dried 


Celery, Chard 









Chicory, Endive 

Eggs, whole 



Fish, fresh 


Cheese, cream 

Fish, smoked 

Sweet potatoes 



Beans, pods, snap 


Meats, fresh 

Oranges or juice 


Meats, smoked 







Lemons or juice 








Prunes, Plums 


Peaches, Figs 



Peas, fresh, canned 



and dried 

Wheat, flour and 








THOUGHT should be given to the expenditure of the money 
allotted to food, as a balanced diet, so necessary to health, 
depends on the wise apportionment of that allowance. The fol- 
lowing rules apply to the average healthy family; they may be 
modified by each housewife to meet her own special needs. 


Spend as much for milk as is necessary to secure for each child 
three-quarters of a quart to a quart of milk a day and for every- 
one else in the family from one-third to one-half quart of 
milk a day. If you can not afford whole milk, buy skim milk 
for the children. Cheese may replace a part of the milk for 
adults if they prefer it. Two ounces of cheese may be substi- 
tuted for about one-third of a quart of milk. 

Fruits and Vegetables 

It is desirable to include fruit twice a day. Use fresh fruits 
in the height of their season. When they are cheapest, preserve 
them for winter use. Dried fruits, such as prunes, apricots, 
peaches and raisins, can always be bought in the markets and 
are probably the most inexpensive of all fruits. Oranges are 
particularly wholesome and should be used as often as possible 
unless replaced by tomatoes. 

Women and little children will eat about two average potatoes 
and ^ lb. other vegetables daily. Adolescents and men at hard 
work can eat two to three times that amount. 


Buy cereals in variety. Be sure to include a generous pro- 
portion of cereals made from the whole grain. These contain 
elements of nutrition that are lost when the outer coat is 
removed, and also furnish part of the necessary roughage in the 
diet. Such cereals are especially desirable when it is difficult to 
use as great a quantity of vegetables and fruits as these rules call 




For each grown person, every day, buy at least one and one- 
half ounces of fat (butter, cooking fat, cream, fat from meat, 
etc.). For children buy at least one-half as much, unless the 
chMd is getting a quart of whole milk daily; in that case^ he is 
getting a large part of his fat allowance in the milk. 

Meat and Other Protein Food 

Ordinarily, do not try to serve flesh foods (meat, fish, and 
poultry) more than once a day. Milk, eggs, and cheese supply 
a desirable quality of protein or muscle-building foods and 
may be served instead of meat. The more milk one has, the 
less meat he needs. Peas, beans and cereals can not replace the 
high-quality protein found in meat, eggs, milk and cheese, but 
they have great value in supplementing the animal proteins. If 
they are used instead of meat, some milk, eggs or cheese should 
be included in the meal. The weekly allowance of meat foods 
need not be higher than one and three-quarters pounds for each 
person in the family, in order to furnish appetizing meals. This 
means an average daily portion of not more than a quarter of a 

A child under four or five years of age is well off without 
any meat at all. If he has an egg every day in addition to his 
three-fourths of a quart or quart of milk allowance, he will get 
adequate protein food. 

A child four or five years old may have a little meat-food 
in addition to his milk allowance. He should have no more 
than a small serving (an ounce or less) each day of lean beef^ 
mutton, lamb, chicken, lean fish or oysters. 


Buy only moderate amounts of sugar, molasses, honey or 

How to Select Canned and Package Goods 

If the average household is to be supplied with the vegetables 
and fruits needed in the abundance recommended in this book, 
some provision must be made to have a supply on hand during 
the months when fresh products are not available. In some 


households, these will be stored, canned, or otherwise preserved 
at home. In others, they must be purchased fresh from the 
market or bought in preserved form from the dealer. 

It would be a profitable thing for every housewife to learn 
sizes in canned gpods and demartd certain standards. She should 
keep a record of good and poor grades so that she may ask for 
the quality she prefers. Canned goods that are used frequently 
should be purchased in case lots, as a wholesale or reduced price 
can be obtained in that way. 

The canneries have the sizes of cans well standardized and the 
housewife will find it to her advantage to know the common 
sizes. The following list gives the size of the can by numbei 
together with an approximate estimate of its contents: 

Standard Sizes in Cans and What They Contain 

No. y^. cans — ^sardines, potted meats such as deviled ham, 
condensed milk — contain 4 to 4 J/2 oz.; approximately Yz cup. 

No. Yz cans — ^shrimp, lobster, salmon, pimiento, condensed 
milk — contain 754 to 8 oz.; approximately 1 cup. 

No. 1 cans (short or small)— tunafish, canned soup, milk, 
boned meats such as chicken — contain 10 to 13 oz.; approxi- 
mately 154 cups. 

No. 1 cans (tall or square) — salmon, asparagus tips — contain 
1 lb.; approximately 2 cups. 

No. 2 cans — vegetables such as peas, corn, beans and some 
fruits, such as pineapple and berries — contain 1 lb. 4 oz.; 
approximately 2{/2 to 3 cups. 

No. 2 Yz cans — fruits such as pineapple, peaches, pears, plums, 
berries; also many vegetables, such as beets, asparagus stalks in 
square tins, spinach — contain 1 lb. 14 oz. to 1 lb. 15 oz.; 
approximately 3 54 cups. 

No. 3 cans — tomatoes, beets, sauerkraut, pumpkin and fruits 
— contain 2 lbs. to 2 lbs. 1 oz. ; approximately 4 cups. 

No. 10 cans — mince-meat, apple sauce, marmalades, jamsj^ 
pickles, sauerkraut, baked beans, corn on cob, in fact, nearly 
all canned goods for large quantity use — contain 6 lbs. 8 oz. to 
7 lbs. and over for fruits and vegetables and 7 lbs. 8 oz. to 8 
lbs. 12 oz. for marmalades and jams. Approximately 3^ 

While the size of can is standardized, there is a variation in 
weights of cans put up by different canneries. This difference 


in weight is probably due to a more solid pack or a greater 
density in sirup content in the heavier cans and, this being the 
case, the housewife should know not only the number but also 
the weight she can expect in a can of any given size. 





' I ^ODAY the modern woman carefully plans her meals. She 
-*• realizes that meals must appeal to the appetite and to the 
eye, but what is more important, they must be properly bal- 
anced to build healthy bodies, to stimulate vigor and energy, 
and to build up resistance against the elements and disease. The 
modern woman, in preparing a food budget, knows that bulky 
foods are essential, but not any more or less than the powerful, 
natural chemicals which we know today as vitamins. The 
modern woman has learned to distinguish between vitamins and 
calories. She knows that vitamins have to do with the chemical 
properties of many kinds of food, supplying the resistance- 
building and life-giving properties we shall discuss shortly at 
greater length. Calories, on the other hand, are units of heat 
formed during digestion of many foods and varying in a re- 
markable degree with the kinds of food eaten. Fresh vegetables 
and fruits provide little heat when digested and hence are said 
to be "low in calories," while fats, starches and sugars produce a 
high degree of heat and so are called "high calorie foods." When 
more of these are eaten than can be used up as energy, the 
remainder is deposited as fat. That is why we gain weight by 
eating foods of high caloric content and lose when their amount 
is reduced. 


The food dollar will be used to advantage and serve all its 
necessary purposes, if it is divided into five, spent and served as 

One-Fifth or more for whole milk, cream, cheese and cod-liver oil for growing 
children. Plan to give each child 1 quart and each adult at least 1 pint of 
milk in some form, per day. 

One-Fifth for vegetables and fruit, with emphasis on the green leaf and yellow 
fruits and vegetables. Serve at least 1 cooked vegetable, besides potatoes, 
and 1 fresh vegetable each day. Serve fresh fruit twice a day, with citrus 
fruit at least once. 

One-Fifth or less for meats, fish and eggs, serving liver in some form at least 
once a week. 

One-Fifth for breads and cereals, especially the whole grains. 

One-Fifth for fats, sugar and other groceries. 




The healthy body is built and maintained by: 
Protein — whelps make flesh and blood 
Calcium — for bone, teeth, glands, nerve and muscle 
Phosphorus — for bones, teeth, glands, muscle and nerve 
Iron — with Copper and Manganese to help make blood 
Iodine — for the funaioning of the thyroid gland 
Fat — heat, energy and padding for nerve and muscle 
Sugars and Starches; — supply heat and energy as well as fat — necessary for 
the proper functioning of the liver and the digestion of fat 

Health can not be maintained nor the body function properly 
without abundant supplies of Vitamins. They are: 
Vitamin A — ^promotes growth, increases resistance to infeaive 

diseases and prevents certain eye diseases 
Vitamin B — ^promotes growth, stimulates appetite, protects nerve 

and brain tissue and function 
Vitamin C — ^promotes growth, protects jawbone and teeth and the 

walls of the blood vessels 
Vitamin D — ^promotes calcification of teeth and bones, hence 

protects against rickets and its deformities 
Vitamin E — ^proteas the growth and funaion of the reproduaive 

glands and organs 
Vitamin F — ^promotes growth and protects skin, hair and kidneys 
Vitamin G — ^promotes growth and normal nutrition and prevents pellagra 


PROTEIN jMilk, eggs, cheese, all meat, poultry and game, all fish and sea 

"Xfoods, peas, beans, corn, all nuts, all grains. 
CALCIUM rCheese, almonds, milk, green vegetables and tops, dried peas, 

l^beans, figs and dates, all sea food, egg yolk, olives, pecans. 

rCheese, cashew nuts, almonds, dried peas, beans, lentils, Lima 
PHOSPHORUS 4 beans, all salt-water fish, liver, egg yolk, chocolate, unrefined 

[grains, all meats and poultry, walnuts, peanuts, pecans. 

("Liver (calf, chicken, lamb), oysters, green vegetables and tops, 
IRON 4 egg yolk, dried peas, beans, lentils, Lima beans, raisins, currants, 

[dates, prunes, avocados, almonds, fresh meats. 
COPPER fAlmonds, oysters, oatmeal, dried lentils, beans and peas, huckle* 
MANGANESE \ berries, dates, pecans, shrimp, turnip tops, whole wheat. 

{Sea foods and salt-water fish are the best sources of iodine, also 
iodized salt and cod-liver oil. 
TButter, cheese, nuts, cream, fat meats, poultry and fish, margarine, 
FATS -j lard, fish carmed in oil, cottonseed oil, corn oil, olive oil, cod-liver 

[oil, avocado, egg yolk, chocolate, olives. 

r Sugar, molasses, honey, dried fruits, sweet chocolate, maple sugar 

SUGARS "^^aind sirup, sorghum, jams, jellies, preserves, beets. 

^^^ r Potato, sweet potato and yams, rice, corn, tapioca, cornstarch, 

STARCHES 4 arrowroot, all dried peas and beans, lentils, all grains, all floors, 

[Jerusalem artichokes, winter squashes, pumpkin, okra, all nuts. 











Almonds , 







Barley, whole 

Beans, dry or canned 

Beans, string 


Beef fat 

Beets (roots) 

Beet leaves 


Brazil nuts 

Bread, white, watcrf 

Bread, white, milkf 

Bread, whole wheat, watcrf . 
Bread, whole wheat, milkf. . 




Cabbage, green, raw 

Cabbage, head, cooked 




Celery, bleached stems 

Celery, green leaves 


Cheese, whole milk* 

Cheese, cottage 



Chinese cabbage 


Cod-liver oilff 


Corn, yellow 

Corn meal 

Corn oil 

Cottonseed oil 

Cranberry (or juice) 




— to A 
A to AA 
















— to A 

AA to AAA 


















































* Supplies a small amount of Vitamin D 
+ When irradiated, an cxceJIent source of Vitamin D 
tt An excellent source of Vitamins A and D 






Dandelion greens 




Egg white 

Egg yolk* 






Fish, fat* 

Fish, lean 

Grapefruit (or juice, fresh or canned) 


Grape juice 



Hickory nuts 

Ice cream (regular) 




Lemon juice 


Limes (or juice) 



Milk, wholet 

Milk, "scalded" 

Milk, condensedf 

Milk, cvaporatedt 

Milk, dried, whole 

Milk, dried, skim 

Milk, fresh, skim 





Onions, raw 

Onions, cooked 

Orange (or juice) 

Orange peel 




Peaches, raw 













— to A 













B toBB 















Cto — 







— to A 








Cto — 


B to- 


— to A 
























A to AA 






AA to AAA 


c • 

























— to A 

— to A 






— to A 



— to A 















— to A 



A to AA 



* Supplies a small amount of Vitamin D 

t When irradiated, ao excellent source of Vitamin D 



















































— to A 
















— to A 

























— to A 

















































— to A 








— to A 


















— . 



















Peanut butter 


Peas, green 

Peas, dry 


Peppers, green 


Pine nuts 

Pineapple, raw 

Pineapple, canned . 

Potatoes, white 







Rice, white 

Rice, whole grain or brown 

Roe, fish 



Rye, whole 

Salmon, canned 




Squash, Hubbard 

Squash, summer 




Sweet potatoes 

Tomato, raw or canned . . . . 


Turnip greens 



Water cress 


Wheat bran 

Wheat embryo 

Wheat, whole 


Yeast bouillonf 

t WhcQ irradiated, aa excellent source of Vitamin D 




Food Calories 

Almonds, 12 : 100 

Almonds, chocolate, 5 100 

Apple 34 

Apple, baked, 2 teaspoons sugar 200 

Apple, baked, 1 teaspoon sugar 150 

Apple, brown Betty, J^ cup 250 

Apple pie 300-350 

Apple tapioca, J^ cup 205 

Asparagus, 10 large stalks, no butter 50 

Asparagus, 10 large stalks, with butter 150 

Asparagus, 10 large stalks, with Hollandaise sauce 240 

Avocado, J^ fruit 120-300 

Bacon, broiled, four small slices 100 

Banana, average size 100 

Beans, dried 393 

Lima beans, dried 398 

Beans, string, }^ to 1 cup serving 22-44 

Beef, round steak, lean, 4-ounce serving 170-220 

Beet greens, J^ cup serving 22 

Beets, red 50 

Blackberries, fresh, J^ cup 100 

Blackberries, cooked, with sugar, )^ cup 200 

Blueberries, fresh, ]/2 cup 160 

Bluefish, broiled, small serving 100 

Brazil nuts, 2 100 

Bread, white 70 

Bread, Boston brown 52 

Broccoli 45 

Butter, 1 teaspoon 100 

Butter, ordinary serving 50-100 

Cabbage, cooked 32 

Cabbage, raw, shredded, 3^ cup 13 

Cantaloupe, J^ 50 

Carrots 30-40 

Cauliflower 25 

Celery 15 

Cream of celery soup, per cup 200 

Chard 36 

Cheese, 1-inch cube 70 

Cherries, 10 large ones 50 

Chestnuts, 7 average 100 

Chicken, roast, small slice 100 

Chocolate cake 200 

Chocolate cream candy, average piece 80-100 

Chocolate cream mint, Ij^-inch diameter 100 

Chocolate drop cookie, 2-iQch diameter 60 


Food Calories 

Chocolate eclair 260-400 

Chocolate fudge, 1-inch cube 80-90 

Chocolate malted milk, large glass 465 

Coleslaw, 3^ cup 50 

Corn bread, average piece 120 

Corn flakes, % cup 100 

Crackers, graham 100 

Crackers, soda 85 

Cream, heavy, per teaspoon 60 

Cream, whipped, per teaspoon 35 

Cream, thin, per teaspoon 30 

Cucumbers 12^ 

Currants, dry, ^ cup 182 

Cup custard, J^ cup 150 

Dates, 3 or 4 100 

Doughnut 200 

Duck, small helping 120 

Egg 70-75 

Eggnog, 1 cup 200 

Farina, cooked, ^ cup 100 

Fig, average, dry 100 

Filberts, 8 to 10 100 

French dressing, 1 teaspoon 67 

Grapefruit, 3^, average size 70 

Grapefruit, J^, average size, with honey or sugar 140 

Grapefruit juice 45 

Grape juice 100 

Grapes, large bunch 100 

Grapes, Malaga, 20 to 25 '. 100 

Griddle cake, 4 or 5 inch 100 

Halibut 85-110 

Ham 270-400 

Hard sauce, 1 teaspoon 100 

Hominy, dry 400 

Honey, 1 teaspoon .* 25 

Kale, cooked without fat, % ^^V 20 

Kohlrabi, creamed, 3^ cup 100 

Lemon 30 

Lemon meringue pie 450 

Lettuce, 34 head 12 

Lettuce, 34 head, with salad dressing 100-150 

Liver, }4, pound 145-220 

Macaroni 425-50O 

Macaroons, each 50 

Mackerel 85-100 

Mayonnaise dressing, 1 teaspoon 100 

Milk, per glass 110-170 

Milk, irradiated evaporated, 1 cup, diluted to drink 175 

Mince pie 45O 

Muffin , , I25-I5O 


Food Calories 

Mutton 225-500 

Napoleon, average size 453 

Oatmeal 150-250 

Olives, each I5 

Onions, cooked 50-60 

Orange 100 

Orange juice, small glass 50 

Oysters, average size 6-16 

Peaches, fresh 35 

Peaches, canned, 1 with 3 teaspoons juice 100 

Peanuts, 3^ pound 620 

Peas, fresh, cooked, Ys cup 50 

Peas, dry, cooked 400 

Pecans, 6 nuts 100 

Peppers, green, average size 20 

Pineapple, canned, 1 slice, 3 teaspoons juice 100 

Pineapple, fresh 50 

Plums, 3 or 4 large, fresh 100 

Popover 100 

Pork 300-620 

Pork, salt 1000 

Potato, 1, average size 100 

Potato chips, 8 to 10 100 

Prunes, average size, 1 25 

Pumpkin pie 225 

Radish, average size 3 

Raisin pie 450 

Rice, steamed, }4 cup 70 

Rice pudding, plain, 3^ cup 200 

Rice pudding, with egg, 34 cup 133 

Salmon, canned 225 

Shrimps, without oil, each 5 

Spinach 25 

Squash pie 225 

Strawberries, "^ cup 65 

Strawberry shortcake 480 

Strawberry shortcake, with whipped cream 530 

Sugar, 1 teaspoon 17 

Sweet potato }-^ 

Tomato, fresh or canned 105 

Tomato juice ^5 

Tuna, canned with oil. jl5 

Tuna, canned without oil l^^ 

Turnips ^5 

Turnip greens ^5 

Vanilla sundae with chocolate sauce r?^ -,«,. 

Veal 115-200 

Walnuts, 6 1°9 

Water cress 1^ 

Watermelon 15 

Wheat breakfast food, 1 ounce 1^ 


ALTHOUGH it is desirable that each meal should be well 
selected, the food for the entire day is the real measure of 
good nutrition. The food -selection chart should be used to de- 
termine the types of food to be selected. The art of combining 
these foods into wholesome and satisfying meals is the art of 
menu making. 

Every meal should be planned to meet first the needs of the 
youngest and weakest member of the family. Foods that are 
good for children are equally good for adults but foods that 
are good for adults may be very bad for children. It is easier 
to suit a child's dietary to the adult than to suit an adult's 
dietary to a child. 

Points to Keep in Mind in Making Menus 

In order to encourage good digestion and to make sure that 
the family enjoys the meal as well as receives benefit from it, 
all of the following factors should be considered: 

The Staying Quality of Food— Does it leave the stomach 
quickly or slowly? For healthy, active adults working out- 
doors, a great deal of food that has considerable staying quality 
may be highly desirable. For indoor workers and for children 
this type of food may be the wrong choice. 

Fats and fat-rich foods all have staying quality. Cream 
sauces, cereals and similar foods have moderate staying qualities. 
Liquid foods, foods containing meat-juices or fruit acids are 
likely to encourage quick passage of food along the digestive 
tract. This is one reason for beginning a meal with meat soup 
or fruit in some form. 

The Most Satisfactory Conditions of digestion and elimi- 
nation are encouraged by use of generous amounts of bulky, 
moist foods, such as fruits, succulent vegetables, whole cereals 
and water. 

Too Much Sweet Food should not be included, since it may 
give rise to excessive fermentation in the digestive tract. 

Too Much Meat and Eggs should not be included, since 


tliey may give rise to excessive putrefaction in the digestive 

The Texture of Food plays an important part in its attrac- 
tiveness. Crisp foods should be associated with soft ones. 
Variations in texture, even in a single dish, always appeal: oat- 
meal with cream and a sprinkle of coarse sugar; rice pudding 
with raisins; ice-cream with cake; crackers with cheese; crisp 
salad with soft dressing. 

The Appearance of Food is important to civilized man. 
Beautiful color and dainty, attractive arrangement play a large 
part in a successful meal. 

The Flavor of Food plays an important part. Too often, 
however, food is selected only on the basis of what tastes good. 
The main background of the diet should be made up of bland, 
mild-flavored foods, like milk, bread, cereals, many vegetables. 
The accent should come by the use of the more highly flavored 
foods such as meat, fruit, sugar, condiments and herbs of 
various kinds. 

Suggestions for the General Plan of a Day's Meals 


Fruit, fresh, canned, dried, or fresh stewed. 

Milk, or cocoa made with milk, for the children. Milk^ 
cocoa, tea, coflFee or other beverage for adults. Milk on cereal 
for all the family. 

Cereal, preferably whole, for all the family. 

Bread, toast or muffins with butter. 

If a heartier meal is needed, it may be desirable to add eggs, 
bacon or other fat meat, and potatoes, adapting the method of 
cooking to the children. 

Doughnuts, cookies, jam, jelly, marmalade, and pancakes 
with sirup should be considered desserts, even at breakfast time,} 
to be eaten only after more wholesome foods have been taken. 

Lunch or Supper 

An egg, cheese or milk dish. 

Succulent vegetable or salad. 

Bread and butter, toast, muffins, or plain sandwiches. 

Milk for children. Any preferred beverage for adults. 


Sweets in moderation. Only light desserts such as fruit, 
simple pudding, and cookies should be served at supper. 

The meal may be made more elaborate, if desired, but should 
always partake of simplicity. 


Meat or other flesh or an egg or cheese dish. Dried beans 
may be used if milk or eggs are provided in the meal. 

Potatoes, unless the meal includes dried beans, macaroni or 

Another vegetable. Two vegetables (not potatoes) should 
be used with dried beans, macaroni or rice. 

Bread and butter. 

Salad may be served in addition to the meal or in the place 
of dessert. Raw vegetables that may be served as salad are 
particularly desirable. 

Sweets in moderation. 

If all the milk that a person requires has not been used, the 
remaining amount may be served as a beverage. 

If a more elaborate dinner is desired, the meal may begin 
with soup or an appetizer, such as a fruit cocktail or grapefruit^ 
oysters in some form, or a canape. The problem of the formal 
meal is discussed in the section that follows the simple menus 
given below. 



Strawberries with Cream Baked Pears 

Corn Flakes Graham Muffins French Toast Maple Sirup 

CoflFee Milk Coffee Milk 

c, J A • Sliced Oranges 

r> ^fT u ?f' ''°'' A -r Scrambled Eggs and Bacon 

Corn-meal Mush Buttered Toast r^ ^ ^ 

Coffee Milk 

Coffee Milk 

Granular Wheat with Raisins Grapefruit 

and Top Milk Codfish Balls 

Oatmeal Gems Eggs Baldng Powder Biscuits 

Coffee Milk Coffee Milk 


Breakfasts — Continued 
Any Fruit in Season Oatmeal with Top Milk 

Ham Omelet Graham Biscuits or Bacon and Eggs 

Coffee Milk Toast Marmalade 

Coffee Milk 

Oatmeal and Prunes 

with Top Milk 

Corn Muflfins Boiled Eggs 

Coffee Milk 

Hot Baked Apples 

Sausage Cakes Popovers 

Coffee Milk 

Ready to Eat Cereal 

Sliced Bananas with Top Milk 

Poached Eggs on Toast Toast 

Coffee Milk 

Luncheons or Suppers 

Banana and Nut Salad 
Muffins Honey Milk 


Spaghetti with Tomato Sauce 

Waldorf Salad 

Brown Bread Sandwiches 

Milk Tea 

Delmonico Potatoes 

Corn Oysters Canned Fruit 

Molasses Cookies 

Cream of Potato Soup Wafers 

Asparagus Salad 

Toast Apple Jelly 


Cream of Tomato Soup 
Apple and Celery Salad 


Creamed Salmon on Toast 
Graham Bread and Butter 
Sliced Oranges with Coconut 

Cream of Potato Soup 

Toasted Cheese Sandwiches 

Fresh Fruit 

Potato Salad 
Sausages or Cold Ham 
Apple Sauce Biscuits 

Lima Beans in Casserole Muffins 

Grapefruit and Celery Salad 

Tea Milk 

Cream of Tomato 




Bread Sandwiches 

with Cheese Filling 

Fruit Salad 



Cabbage au Gratin 
Plain Sandwiches 

Lettuce Salad with French 

Apricot and Rice Pudding 



Luncheons or Suppers — Continued 

Pork and Beans 

Pickle, Celery and Lettuce Salad 

Brown Bread Plum Sauce 

Tea Milk 

Macaroni and Cheese 

Stewed Tomatoes Bread 

Baked Apple with Tapioca 

Tea Milk 

Creamed Salmon Baked Potatoes 

Pickles Bread 

Orange and Bermuda Onion Salad 

Tea Milk 

Scalloped Oysters 

Toasted English Muffins 

Canned or Fresh Fruit 

Tea Milk 

Cheese Souffle Baked Potatoes 

Waldorf Salad Rolls 


Cold Meat 

Tomato and Celery Salad 

Hot Gingerbread and Whipped 



Tea Milk 

Cheese Fondue Vegetable Salad 


Cereal Pudding with Dates 

Tunafish Salad 

French Fried Potatoes 

Graham Gems 
Floating Island Custard 

Luncheons or Suppers Without Meat 

Creamed Asparagus on Toast 
Stewed Tomatoes 

Cottage-Cheese Salad 
Prune Whip Custard Sauce 

Lettuce and Peanut Butter 


Banana Salad 

Apple Sauce Cookies Milk 

Stuffed Baked Potatoes 

Cheese, Pickle and Pea Salad 

Drop Biscuits 

Pineapple Ginger Snaps 

Scalloped Oysters Waldorf Salad 

Graham Muffins 

Floating Island Custard 


Tomato Soup 

Rice Croquettes with Cheese 


Green Peas 

Baked Apple with Raisins 

and Nuts 


Brown-Bread and Cream-Cheese 

Apricots Vanilla Wafers 

Tea or Milk 


A Vegetable Luncheon 

On one plate a small serving 

four or five vegetables, as: 

Potato Turnips Squash 

A Green Vegetable 

Beets Carrots 



Broiled Steak 
Mashed Potatoes 

Asparagus Salad 
Rolls Butter Grape Conserve 
Chocolate Pudding 

Hamburg Steak with Tomato 
Potato Cakes 

Creamed Cauliflower 
Rolls Butter 

Cranberry Sauce Cookies 

Breaded Pork Chops Gravy 

Riced Potatoes Buttered Spinach 

Combination Fruit Salad 

Bread Wafers 

Liver and Bacon 

Creamed Potatoes 
Cabbage and Celery Salad 
Sliced Bananas with Lemon- Juice 

Veal Cutlets in Casserole 
Creamed Potatoes Eggplant 

"Watercress Salad 
Apple Pie Cheese Coffee 

Stuffed Beef Heart 

Glazed Sweet Potatoes 

Buttered Turnips Cole Slaw 

Tapioca Cream Coffee 

Clear Vegetable Soup 

Roast Chicken Giblet Gravy 

Boiled Rice Wax Beans 

Asparagus Salad 

Fnxit Gelatin Coffee 

Swiss Steak Baked Potatoes 

Creamed Onions 

Caramel Rennet-Custard Pudding 

Pot Roast in Tomato Sauce 


Buttered Peas Brown Bread 

Fresh Vegetable Salad 

Fruit Jelly with Custard Sauce 

Grapefruit Broiled Steak 

Potatoes on the Half Shell 

Spinach Hot Rolls 

Chocolate Ice-cream 

with Mint Sauce 

Roast Mutton Brown Gravy 

Creamed Turnips 

Mashed Potatoes 

Currant Jelly Bread 

Lemon Sponge with Custard 



Roast Beef Brown Gravy 

Mustard or Horseradish Sauce 

Franconia Potatoes 

Fried Parsnips 

Pumpkin Pie spread with Plum 

Jam and Whipped Cream 

Roast Pork Brown Gravy 

Apple Sauce or Small Baked 


Glazed Sweet Potatoes Spinach 

Macedoine of Fruit with Whipped 


Sponge Cakes 

Meat Loaf Scalloped Potatoes 

Peas Nut Bread 

Lettuce Salad, Thousand Island 


Fresh or Canned Fruit 

Small Cakes 



Dinners — Continued 

Pork Chops Baked with Apples 

Scalloped Potatoes 

String Beans Bread 

Indian Pudding 

Fish Chowder with Water Wafers 

Grapefruit Salad 

Graham Bread and Butter 

Queen of Puddings 

Broiled Chicken Riced Potatoes 

Corn Fritters Rolls 

Tomato Jelly Salad 

Apple Pie with Cheese 


Pie with Potatoes, Carrots 
and Turnips 
Tomato Salad Bread 
Prune Whip Custard Sauce 

Broiled Halibut 

Creamed Potatoes 
Chili Sauce 
Cole Slaw Brown Bread 
Rice Custard 

Tomato Soup Bread Sticks 

Baked Ham 

Southern Sweet Potatoes 

Green Peas Rolls 

Lettuce Salad French Dressing 

Meringues with Fruit and 

Whipped Cream 


Cream of Corn Soup 

Baked Hash Spinach with Egg 

Chocolate Bread Pudding 


Salmon Loaf with Creamed Peas 

Mashed Potatoes 

Apple and Celery Salad 

Banana Cream Pie 

Fruit Cocktail 

Stuffed Turbans of Flounders 

French Fried Potatoes 

Creamed Peas Bread or Rolls 

Tomato Salad 

Fruit Ice Cakes Coffee 

Dinners Without Meat 

Cheese Souffle 

Mashed Potatoes 

Buttered String Beans 

Radish and Cucumber Salad 

Strawberry Shortcake 

Cream of Vegetable Soup 

Scalloped Tomatoes 

Stuffed Baked Potatoes with 


Waldorf Salad Corn Muffins 

Creamed Rice Pudding 

with Apricots 

Chilled Fruit 
Stuffed Tomatoes 

Parsley Potatoes 
Creamed Asparagus 
Pumpkin Pie Milk 

Baked Rice and Cheese 

Buttered Beets 

Stuffed OHve and Lettuce Salad 

Nut Bread Milk 

Date Pudding Lemon Sauce 


Boston Roast 
Spinach with Eggs 

Head Lettuce Salad 
Bread Pudding with Cream Sauce 


The Problem of the Formal Meal 

The purpose of food is to satisfy hunger and to give pleasure. 
After hunger is satisfied, more food is a hindrance to health. 
After the appetite has been stimulated by a variety of foods, to 
stimulate it further jades it. 

At one time it was the custom to serve long and elaborate 
dinners having many courses and much repetition of type foods. 
Gradually the realization has grown that elaborate meals are 
not justified from any point of view, social, physiological or 
economic, and that even the most formal meal must follow the 
rules of health. 

Formal meals which conform to laws of health and good taste 
may be arranged according to the following general plan: 

First Course 

The Appetizer — Any one of the following types of dishes, 
with proper accompaniments, serves to whet the appetite: 

Canapes or tiny open sandwiches made with highly flavored 
mixtures. Raw oysters or clams; oyster or clam cocktails. 
Grapefruit or fruit cocktail; avocado served with lemon- juice; 
cantaloup, watermelon or similar fruit. Soup, preferably a 
clear stock soup. 

Second Course 

To Satisfy the Appetite — ^For dinners, the piece de resis- 
tance, or main course, may be any one of the following — roasts 
of meat, poultry, baked fish or game, with the proper accom- 
paniments of vegetables and a starchy food such as rice or 

For luncheons, the main course may be any one of the fol- 
lowing — a small steak, chops, made dishes or entrees of meat, 
fish, poultry, game, eggs, or cheese, served with a succulent 
vegetable, preferably a green vegetable, and rolls. 

Third Course 

Light, Refreshing and Crisp — The salad course may be 
any simple vegetable salad with a suitable accompaniment of 


dressing and breadstuff. Meat salads or heavy mixed or com- 
plicated salads should not be served in this type of meal. 

Fourth Course 

The Sweet or Bonne Bouche — ^This course may consist of 
any frozen dessert, sponge, whip, meringue with fruit, or any 
individual tart or pastry. 

Fifth Course 

To Keep the Sweet from Being Too Well Remembered 
— ^This course includes a demi-tasse of coffee, with sugar, and 
cream if desired. It may include fruit or crackers and a cheese 
with high flavor. 

If the person giving a formal dinner or lunch has not been 
converted to the new idea of simplicity and desires a more 
elaborate meal than the type just outlined, more courses may be 
introduced. An entree may come between the appetizer and 
the main course. Soup may follow fruit or raw oysters. Fish, 
may be served as a separate course, with meat to follow. An 
entree may be introduced between the fish and meat courses. 
All of these procedures are correct by custom. 

Order of Courses 

The courses in a meal are served in the following order: 

1. Appetizer 6. Salad 

2. Soup 7. Dessert 

3. Fish 8. Crackers and Cheese with Coffee 

4. Roast 9. Nuts and Raisins 

5. Game 10. Fruit 

For the place of the entree, see chapter. Entrees and Made- 
Over Dishes. 


St. Patrick's Day Luncheon 

Cream of Spinach Soup 

Fried Chicken Parsley Buttered Potatoes 

Green Pepper and Grapefruit Salad 

Lemon Ice with Mint Leaves 

Small Cakes 

Green Mints Coffee Hard Green Candies 


Thanksgiving Dinners 

No. 1 

Clear Soup Bread Sticks 

Salted Almonds Celery Olives 

Roast Turkey Giblet Sauce Chestnut Stuffing 

Mashed Potatoes Brussels Sprouts 

Cranberry Jelly 

Lettuce or Romaine Salad with French Dressing Cheese Wafers 

Frozen Pudding or Hot Mince Pie 

Bonbons CofFee 

No. 2 

Grapefruit Baskets 


Baked Guinea Hen w^th Gravy Crabapple Jelly 

Candied Sweet Potatoes Cauliflower au Gratin 

Tomato Jelly Salad Graham Bread Sandwiches 

Individual Pumpkin Pie with Whipped Cream 

Candied Orange Peel 


No. 3 


Baked Loin of Pork with Gravy Browned Potatoes Apple Sauce 

or Baked Ham with Southern Sweet Potatoes 

Tomato and Celery Salad French Dressing 

Thanksgiving Plum Pudding Foamy Sauce 


Christmas Dinners 

No. 1 

Oyster Cocktails in Green Pepper Shells 

Celery Ripe Olives 

Roast Goose with Potato Stuffing Apple Sauce 

String Beans Potato Puff 

Lettuce Salad with Riced Cheese and Bar-le-Duc 

French Dressing Toasted "Wafers 

English Pliun Pudding Bonbons 







No. 2 

Cream of Celery Soup Bread Sticks 

Salted Peanuts Stuffed Olives 

Roast Beef Yorkshire Pudding 

Potato Souffle Spinach in Eggs 

White Grape Salad with Guava Jelly, French Dressing 

Toasted Crackers 

Plum Pudding, Hard Sauce Bonbons 


Wedding Menus 

No. 1 


Chicken a la King Buttered Rolls 

Ohves Celery 

Molded Fruit Salad 

Ice-cream Bride's Cake Groom's Cake 

Coffee Candies 

No. 2 

Creamed Sweetbreads in Ramekins 

Buttered Rolls Olives 

Grapefruit Salad Wafers 

Ice-cream in Fancy Molds 

Bride's Cake Groom's Cake 

Coffee Candies 

No. 3 

Hot or Iced Bouillon in Cups 

Creamed Lobster or Shrimps in Croustades 

Hot Buttered Rolls Asparagus-tip Salad 

Bride's Cake Strawberry Ice-cream Groom's Cake 

Candies CoflFee 

No. 4 

Molded Chicken Salad with Mayonnaise 

Olives Radishes 

Buttered Rolls 

Frozen Strawberries with Whipped Cream 

Bride's Cake Groom's Cake 

Nuts Coffee Mints 


Afternoon Tea 

Assorted Sandwiches Small Cakes 

Tea passed with Sugar, Cream and Sliced Lemon 

Bonbons Nuts 

Japanese Tea 

Sweet "Wafers Toasted Sponge Cake 

Tea with Sliced Lemon 

Nougat Candy Salted Nuts 

Afternoon or Evening Refreshments 
No. 1 

Fruit Salad with Mayonnaise, Boiled Dressing or Whipped Cream 

Small Sandwiches 

Coffee or Chocolate 

Candies Small Cakes Nuts 

No. 2 

Chicken Salad 

Olives Rye and "White Bread Sandwiches 

Ice-cream or Fruit Ice 

Maple Cake Coffee 

No. 3 

Chicken Salad Sandwiches 
Ice-cream Petits Fours 

Fruit Punch CoflFee 

Chafing Dish Suppers 
No. 1 

Fruit Cocktails 
Creamed Crab Flakes Bread and Butter Sandwiches 


No. 2 

Welsh Rarebit Toasted Crackers 

"Water Cress Salad with French Dressing 

Olives Coffee 


Children's Party 

Fruit Cocktails 

Chicken Sandwiches Jam Sandwidies 

Vanilla Ice-cream Small Cakes 

Birthday Cake with Name, Date and Candles 

Orangeade Candy 

School Reception 

Fruit Ice or Ice-cream Small Cakes Candies 

Punch Nuts 

For Hikers 

Camp Hamburgs to Broil 

Whole Tomatoes Potatoes to Bake 

Olives Carrot Sticks 

Cup Cakes Cans of Fruit Juices 

Bridge Supper 

Jellied Meat Loaf 

Vegetable Platter with Sour Cream Dressing 

Toast Melba Clover Leaf Rolls Saltines 

Matron Mousse Coffee 

Crystallized Fruit Salted Nuts 

Men's Card Party 

Platter Cold Meats and Strong Cheese 

Potato Salad Spaghetti Casserole 

Rye Rolls Poppyseed Rolls Salt Rolls 

Olives Dill Pickles Gherkins Radishes 

Rum Cake ^j. g^^j. ^i^hout Dessert 


Cocktail Party 

Assorted Cocktails and Dry Wines 

Salted Almonds Olives Potato Chips 

Assorted Canapes 


AS much care is needed in selecting and preparing the food 
for the child's lunch at school as for the other meals 
served to the child. If the lunch is inadequate or lacking in 
food essentials throughout the school year, the child's whole 
nutrition will be seriously affected, and his work at school will 
suffer. The school lunch is one of three meals, not just a 
"snack," and should possess the following characteristics: 

1. It should be abundant in amount for a hungry, healthy 
child. A little too much is better than too little. 

2. It should be chosen with regard to the nutritive needs of 
the child and in relation to the whole day's food. 

3. It should be clean, appetizing, wholesome and attractive. 


Select from the following chart and make the school lunch 
bear its full share of responsibility for carrying the foods the 
child needs. 

Milk — ^ to 1 quart daily. 

Vegetables — ^Two servings daily (in addition to potatoes). 
Fruit — Two servings daily (fresh, canned or dried), one of fresh 

fruit or fresh or canned tomatoes if possible. 
Cereals — ^Whole cereal bread, usually. Whole cereal breakfast food, 

Water — 1 Yz quarts liquid daily (may be included in other foods) . 

How to Use the Selected Foods 

Foods selected from the above groups may be included in 
the school lunch in the following forms: 

Sandwiches — ^Made as often as possible from whole cereal 
breads^ as graham^ whole wheat, oatmeal. Made to include 
some substantial food which will increase the value of the meal. 
Supplied in sufficient number to satisfy hunger. Made care- 
fully and well. 

Succulent Foods — ^Whole orange, whole tomato, whole 
apples, apple sauce^ peaches (whole or sliced) 2 celery, stewed 



fruit, prunes, baked apple, sliced fruit, dates, berries. Fruits 
and vegetables are especially important in the dietary of the 
growing child and pains must be taken always to include ade- 
quate amounts of them. They are not always easy to include 
in the school lunch, yet if the child is to be well nourished, 
some way must be devised to get them in. 

Milk Always — ^This should never be omitted. It may be 
carried in a special container provided for the purpose or it 
may be included in the hot dish. 

One Hot Dish if Possible — The value of hot food in the 
lunch is now so generally recognized that many country and 
town schools have made provision for serving at least one hot 
dish at the noon hour. If not available at school, hot food may 
be carried in the lunch box. A vacuum container will solve 
the problem satisfactorily. 


(Milk appears in some form in each lunch.) 

1. 4. 

Cream of Spinach Soup (in Boston Brown Bread Sandwiches 

vacuum container) with Cottage Cheese Filling 

Raisin and Nut Bread and Butter a i c ^ amer; 

Sandwiches ^ . Apple Sauce 

Apple Sauce Graham or Oatmeal Crackers 

2. 5. 

Cream of Tomato Soup (in Cream of Potato Soup with Pars- 
vacuum container) ley (in vacuum container) 
Ground Meat Sandwiches Peanut Butter Sandwiches 
Sliced Fruit Milk Chocolate Stewed Prunes Plain Cake 



Cream Cheese Sandwiches Celery i i j t- 

Tomatoes and Rice (in vacuum Scrambled Egg Sandwiches 

container) Lettuce Sandwiches 

Custard with Jelly and Graham Milk (in container. See next page) 
Crackers Orange Molasses Cookie 


Preparation of Food 

Sandwiches — Since sandwiches form a main part of the 
school lunch, their preparation is most important. 

Wholesome breads should be used for sandwiches. Graham, 
whole wheat, oatmeal, brown, raisin, and nut bread are ex- 
cellent. Cold bran or whole wheat muffins or filled rolls are 
often tempting. 

Fillings for the sandwiches for the school lunch require some 
special preparation. The filling should be abundant in amount 
and should play an important part in the sandwich. 

Cheese, meat, eggs, nuts, dried fruits or vegetables should be 
put through the food-chopper. Cream cheese, peanut butter 
and other compact substances should be thinned with cream. 
Ground meats, eggs, and vegetables should be moistened with 
a small amount of salad dressing or cream and vinegar. Suc- 
culent vegetables should be provided, if possible. Finely 
chopped celery, lettuce, water cress or sliced tomato may be 
used alone or with cottage cheese. Finely cut pineapple or 
orange may be used in sandwiches. 

Jellies, jams and conserves make sweet sandwiches or a tiny 
jar of the fruited sweet may be tucked into the lunch box. 

Dried figs, dates, raisins, thoroughly washed and steamed in 2 
small sieve or strainer over boiling water for thirty minutes and 
then ground and moistened with a small amount of fruit- juice 
or salad dressing, make excellent sandwiches. 

Pickles, chow-chow and relishes should take a subordinate 
place in the school lunch box. 

The chapter on Sandwiches (See Index) , gives full directions 
and recipes for a variety of sandwiches. 

Hot Dishes — Special vacuum containers make it possible to 
send hot cocoa or hot soup with the lunch, also a creamed 
vegetable, a hot pudding or other hot food. These containers 
should never be filled the night before the lunch is prepared. 
If foods prepared for dinner are to be used for the school 
lunch, these foods should be kept in a cool place, uncovered, 
over night and reheated in the morning. 

Milk — ^If there is any possibility that the milk will not keep 
sweet for three hours, it may be put while cold into the vacuum 
container. Good milk properly kept should be in good con- 
dition if carried in a milk bottle or small glass fruit- jar. 


Liquid and Semi-Solid Foods — Stewed prunes and canned 
fruits niay be carried in any small screw-top container. A cold 
rice pudding or other pudding, custards or similar desserts may 
also be carried in this manner. 

Packing the Lunch 

All foods not in containers should be wrapped separately in 
waxed paper before being placed in the box. The neatly 
wrapped articles should be placed, so far as is possible, in the 
order in which the food will be eaten, so that those found first 
may be eaten first without disturbing the remainder. The 
heaviest foods, however, should be placed at the bottom. 

Articles should be packed compactly in order to prevent the 
food from shaking about. Empty space may be filled neatly 
with paper. When space seems lacking, the difficulty may be 
overcome by more careful packing, by resorting to such ex- 
pedients as cutting fruits or cookies in half^ or by packing sand- 
wiches the other way of the box. 

The Lunch Box 

Select a box that can be kept clean. Lunch boxes should 
be washed, scalded and aired daily. Those made of light- 
weight metal are best. Many attractive boxes are now made 
with a vacuum bottle which fits the box. These are highly 
desirable. A lunch box should not be air-tight, as a circulation 
of air prevents the mingling of odors. All food should be pro- 
tected from dirt by wrapping. 

Accessories — ^A small vacuum container of cup-like shape 
for hot foods, a screw-top container for liquid or semi-solid 
food, plenty of waxed paper, and paper napkins are essential 
lunch box accessories. 

"Without the Hot Dish — In many places the school, the 
Parent-Teacher Association or some woman's club provides milk 
and/or prepares one hot dish at school to be sold to children 
for a few cents. In this case the lunch box need contain only 
the sandwiches, vegetables and fruit. The greatest care should 
be exercised that vitamins and minerals are not sacrificed to 
bulk. Carrot sticks, parsley, whole tomatoes, radishes, cabbage 
leaves, oranges or grapefruit will take care of this. 


THE social life of a household, whether the household is a 
simple one or an elaborate one, centers about its dining- 
table and whether that dining-table is simply or elaborately- 
dressed, it should, by its harmony and unity of setting, indicate 
that it is arranged according to a definite artistic standard. 
Every accessory that builds the table-picture — the silver, china, 
glass, and linen — furthers the art of gracious living in the house- 


Perhaps in greater degree than any other domestic appoint- 
ments, does china present an opportunity for indulgence of per- 
sonal whim and the exercise of good taste on the part of the hos- 
tess. Today there are patterns for every occasion. Breakfast 
china is gay, sprightly; color runs rampant upon it; often whole 
gardens shine on its face. But it would not be used for a 
dinner, which demands fine china of exquisitely fine design. 
Luncheon is still another thing. Its china may vary as the 
season — or as the whim of the hostess. 

Modern day impatience with formula and rite is nowhere 
more eloquently expressed than in the growing custom of using 
different patterns for different courses, all related by the thread 
of harmony. The hostess of today considers sameness identical 
with boredom. If she uses a cobalt and gold service plate, she 
may elect to use a simple gold-banded entree plate. The fish 
plate perhaps may have yellow bands to match the flowers in 
the center. The roast plate may present a pattern border, 
touched with gold, and yellow, and blue. Her dessert plate will 
be utterly different from any of the foregoing: it may strike 
an entirely new note; but it will not be discordant or jarring. 
Obviously, all dishes used in one course should match. 

Plates of Various Sizes and How They Are Used 

In the following list the measurements, in inches, are from 
extreme rim to rim. 



Place Plate (also called cover plate, service plate, lay plate) . 
10 to 11 inches. 

Dinner Plate (roast plate). 10 inches, but seen as large 
as 1 J4 inches. The size of the dinner plate is fairly large, due 
to the current practice of placing attendant vegetables on the 
plate with the meat. The day of side dishes, each bearing a 
particular variety of vegetables, has definitely passed. 

Entree Plate. SYz to 9 Yz inches. A most convenient size, 
for, in addition to its use in serving entrees, it is often employed 
as a salad plate, or a fish plate: even a dessert plate when the 
finger bowl is borne in with the dessert silver on the plate, the 
finger bowl being removed later. 

Dessert Plate. Zj/z to 8 inches. Used for miscellaneous 
desserts, and salads. It becomes the cake plate at tea. 

Bread and Butter Plate. 6 to 6^ inches. Universally 
used now: the butter chip, for individual butter service is 

Soup Plate. 8 to 8 ^ inches at rim, for the usual type o£ 
soup plate with wide, flat rim. There is also a bowl soup plate^ 
or "coup*' soup, which has no rim at all. Soup plates are not 
as commonly used as at one time, due to the spreading favor 
accorded the cream soup cup and the bouillon cup for luncheons 
and informal meals. 

Cups and Bowls 

Cream Soup Cup. This is a low, broad cup, handled on 
both sides. Its width is from 4Y2 to 5 inches, and its depth 
about two. It is tised for the serving of purees, bisques, cream 
soups, and is extremely popular for luncheons. 

Bouillon Cup. A tea cup with two handles. Clear soups, 
consommes, bouillons are served in it. 

Chilled Cocktail Bowl. This is distinctly an innovation 
in china service. It is a low, wide bowl, fitted with a separate 
small container. The space between the bowl proper and the 
inner cup is filled with crushed ice. Used for grapefruit, 
shrimp cocktail, and many other foods best served chilled. 


Of late years, an awakening appreciation of the charm of 
glass has taken place. Perhaps the appeal of glorious color. 


so striking in this substance, accounts for it. Blue in varying 
tones was some years ago in wide favor; then amethyst dis- 
placed it. Rapidly came amber, and green, which maintain a 
deserved respect, because of their adaptability. Rose, canary, 
sapphire, in quick succession — no color today is unrepresented. 

Glass is often selected to "go with" certain tones of china. 
The hostess with a sense of fitness has a glass service for each 
of her dinner services. For her severely formal tables she uses 
glittering crystal, etched or cut, engraved or gold decorated. 

But there is ample opportunity for her to indulge her love 
for color to the full, to arrange tables with an eye to the dining- 
room effects^ or to build them according to her own color 

Kinds of Glasses 

Goblet. The goblet is the aristocrat of table glass. In its 
usual form it is a flaring round bowl resting on a tall slender 
stem. In certain styles, however, the "stem" becomes a mere 
button. Goblets are always provided with a foot, however 
small. The goblet is the dominant member of the "place glass" 
group, and all glasses of a service take their shape from it, fol- 
lowing its contours very closely. 

Other Place Glass. In addition to the goblet, there may 
be placed at each cover at least one other glass for the cup or 
other beverages. At very formal dinners two extra glasses are 
often placed, but never more. 

The shapes and sizes of these supplementary glasses vary as 
their purposes. On the continent, for example, there is a 
definite type of glass placed for certain wines. Thus a glass for 
sherry is differently shaped from one for claret: it is more 
sharply tapered and considerably smaller. 

For the most part the glasses of this type that we see in 
America are either the claret, or the tall shallow champagne 
glass. The claret, whose capacity makes it a fine utility glass, 
is used for almost any kind of cup. On the other hand the tall 
champagne glass is often placed for its high decorative value. 
Few glasses are as graceful as this shallow bowl on its slender 

Sherbet. The sherbet glass is a medium depth broad bowl 
on a short stem. In it are served sherbets, ice-cream, frozen 
(desserts. Much used now, however, for this purpose is the tall 


shallow champagne glass, perhaps because of its more imposing 
height and dignity. 

Hollow Stem Champagne. This glass is similar to the tall 
champagne glass, except that the stem instead of being solid 
is hollow to the very bottom. While its primary use was for 
serving champagne, today we often serve in it ginger ale, and 
other carbonated drinks. The hollow stem releasing a train of 
sparkling bubbles is picturesque indeed. 

Finger Bowl. The finger bowl is a low broad bowl^ vari- 
ously shaped. It is usually seen without a "foot," but certain 
styles have such supports. Finger bowls are fitted with match- 
ing under-plates, but their use is optional. 

Grapefruit Bowl. This is a double bowl for chilled food 
cocktails. It consists of a large bowl on a stem. Within it is 
placed a smaller "cup" or "lining." The grapefruit or other 
cocktail is put in the small cup, and the space between the cups 
is filled with crushed ice. 

Tumbler. In its simplest form, a tumbler is simply a glass 
cylinder with one end closed. But the glass designer does 
wonders with it. He mounts it on a foot: he shapes its sides in 
lovely contours: often he makes it angular instead of round. 

The sizes commonly used are: 

Apollinaris Tumbler, This is a small, narrow tumbler used 
for liquids that are served in small quantities, such as orange 
juice, grape juice, mineral water. It is often used for water 
when space is at a premium, as on breakfast trays, or at bridge 
tables. It holds about £.Ye ounces. 

Table Tumbler, Also called water tumbler. It is a low 
tumbler, containing about ten ounces, and is used to serve water 
informally, at simple meals. 

There is also a water tumbler of about the same capacity, but 
narrower and taller, sometimes called the "Ale tumbler." 

Highball Tumbler, A tall tumbler, used to serve "long 
drinks," or iced tea, iced coffee, iced chocolate, and so forth. It 
holds about 12 ounces. 

Iced Tea Tutnbler, A normal iced tea tumbler, sufficiently 
large to contain plenty of ice. Its capacity runs from 14 to 16 

Besides the Pieces in General Use Described AbovEj; 
there are all manner of articles blown for special uses: trays for 
hors d'oeuvres; salad bowls, salt dips, saucers for berries, and 
plates of various sizes. 



The silver on your table is a declaration of your taste. 
Whether it is sterling or plate, there is, in an excellent pattern 
and in the perfect form and proportion of the utensils, an 
unmistakable aristocracy that gives distinction. 

Modern methods of manufacturing silver plate have made 
it not only durable but beautiful as well. Plated silver ranges 
from the very durable triple-plated ware, (heavy weight) which 
lasts a lifetime, through the double plate (medium weight) 
which has good wearing qualities, to the single plate which is 
light weight. 

When you choose a pattern of silver, examine all the pieces^ 
to be sure that you approve of the shapes of all the pieces, 
that the pieces are perfectly balanced, that the handles are 
comfortable to hold, and that the tips of the handles of the 
knives and forks fit perfectly into the center of the palm 
of the hand. Find out how long the pattern has been on the 
market, and, if possible, how long it is to be made, so that you 
will not suddenly discover that the pattern has been "discon- 

Place silver, or flat silver as it is sometimes called, consists of 
the knives, forks, and spoons necessary for general use at table. 

Knives and Forks 

The dinner knife and fork, although imposing members of 
the silver-family, are not the most important members, for 
their use is limited to the main course of dinner. 

The luncheon knife and fork offer the greatest variety of 
uses. They may be used "around the clock," for breakfast, for 
luncheon, for supper, and for certain courses at dinner, such as 
hors d'oeuvres, entree, fish, salad, for dishes served in a rame- 
kin, for dishes served at informal entertaining, and for large 
and small sandwiches. 

Smaller than the luncheon knife and fork are the tea knife 
and fork, with their increasingly-recognized number of uses. 

Butter spreaders are necessary in your first list. 

Later if you are not content to use the medium size knives 
and forks or the tea knives and forks for special courses like 
fishj entree, salad, and fruit, you may buy fish knives and forksj 



entree knives and forks, and salad knives and forks (or, if you 
prefer, individual salad forks,) and fruit knives, or preferably, 
fruit knives and forks. 


Accompanying the medium size knife and forkj and of a 
size between a teaspoon and a tablespoon, is the dessert spoon, 
the spoon of a variety of uses, from eating soup and cereals, 
to eating desserts such as pudding and compote of fruit. 

Teaspoons have a great variety of uses, and while these are 
the first kind of small spoon to be bought you will want 
to add when you can, orange spoons, bouillon spoons, ice-cream 
spoons, coflfee spoons, £vq o'clock teaspoons, and iced tea spoons. 

A List of Useful Serving Pieces 

2 or 3 Tablespoons 

2 or 3 Dinner Forks (for serving) 

Medium size Carving Set (or 

steak set) 2 pieces (or large 

size carving set) 
Butter Knife or Butter Pick 
Gravy Ladle 
Sugar Tongs 

Pie or Tart Server, long and flat 
Cold Meat Fork 
Olive Spoon (pierced) or Olive 

Berry Spoon. A very convenient 

serving-spoon which can be 

used in serving berries, large 

vegetables, casserole dishes, 

and puddings 
Jelly Server, for jelly, marmalade, 

honey, etc. 
Preserve Spoon 
Long Handled Fork and Spoon, 

for serving salad from a cen- 
tral bowl 
Pickle Fork, usually two-tined 

Pierced server, usually called a 
tomato-server, useful in serv- 
ing sliced tomatoes, fritters, 
poached eggs, sliced pineapple, 

Salad Dressing Ladle, smaller 
than gravy ladle. Can also be 
used for serving whipped 

Lemon Fork 

Asparagus Server 

Entree Server, wide and flat 

Cake fork 

Sardine Server 

Ice Tongs 

Ice Spoon 

Sugar Spoon 

Sugar Sifter for powdered sugar 

Ice-cream Knife or Ice-cream 

Cheese Server 

Melon Knife 

Grape Scissors 


White linen damask is the classic covering for the dinner- 
table. Linen and lace are often combined and sometimes 


elaborate all-lace table-cloths are used. When a lace cloth is 
used, it is placed on a bare table. 

In the colored damasks every woman will find an opportunity 
to vary her table setting effects occasionally with a harmonious 
combination of pastel shades in table-cloth and glass and china 
and flower-centerpiece. But the conservative woman still vises 
white damask for her formal dinners, and undoubtedly will 
continue to do so. 


Before you buy your table-cloths, carefully measure your 
table, and allow a twelve- to fifteen-inch hangover for your 
dinner cloths, and an eight- to twelve-inch hangover for your 
luncheon cloths. 

Table-cloths should be French-hemmed, with the hem three- 
eighths of an inch to one-half an inch wide, and napkins, also 
French-hemmed, have hems of from one-eighth of an inch to 
one-quarter of an inch wide. 

A white linen damask cloth is as appropriate to the formal 
or informal luncheon as to the formal or informal dinner. Gay 
colored sets of damask or of less formal materials are often 
used. Linen runners, with small luncheon napkins to match^ 
are popular, especially on long tables like refectory tables. An 
especially beautiful table is sometimes left bare except for the 
lace rounds under the centerpiece, plates^ and glasses. Damask 
napkins are used with these. 

Luncheon sets are appropriate for use at breakfast, luncheong 
an informal dinner on the porch, or an informal supper. 

For the tea table one may use an embroidered or hemstitched 
teacloth, or a simple or elaborate lace cover^ or a combination 
of linen and lace. 


Table-cloths and napkins should match. For formal dinners 
an unusually large napkin is smart, but nowadays napkins, like 
most other "furnishings," have shrunk, and one rarely en- 
counters dinner napkins larger than twenty-eight inches and 
usually not larger than twenty- four inches. 

Luncheon napkins are from thirteen inches to eighteen inches 
square. White hemstitched luncheon napkins are often used 
with a white linen damask cloth. 


Breakfast napkins, often colored or with a colored border to 
match the cloth, are usually a bit smaller than luncheon napkins 
but may be the same size. 

Appropriate to the appointments of the tea table are the 
small tea napkins, sometimes of fine handkerchief linen with 
scalloped edges, sometimes of damask with hemstitched borders, 
and sometimes of heavy linen with drawnwork borders. In 
houses with Early American furnishings — and with excellent 
laundry technic — the old-fashioned damask napkins with 
fringe edges add a charmingly quaint touch. But with uncer- 
tain laundering these are very apt to be unattractive looking. 


The pattern or design of the cloth and napkins and the type, 
design, and size of the monograms embroidered on them should 
make a perfect unity. 

For table-cloths, the size of the monogram should be from 
two and one-half to five inches. For dinner napkins from one 
to two inches. For luncheon and breakfast napkins and doilies, 
from three-quarters of an inch to an inch and a half. 

When the bride-to-be is marking her trousseau linens, it is 
best form for her to use the initials of her maiden name. How- 
ever, there is no hard and fast rule for this marking, and she 
may if she prefers use the initials of the first and last names of 
her maiden name and the initial letter of the groom's last name. 

If an initial is used instead of a monogram it should be the 
initial of your last name. When only one letter is used, it is 
usually a block letter — sometimes ornate — ^since a single letter 
in script is not very effective-looking. 

How to Measure for the Placing of the Monogram 

Spread the cloth on the table, place the end of your measur- 
ing stick at the corner of the table, and point it in the direction 
of the corner diagonally opposite. Measure from twelve to 
fifteen inches, mark this oflf, and place your monogram there 
unless it will, in this place, interfere with the design in the 
damask. In that event, raise it or lower it to make it artistically 

On a table-cloth of two yards square or less usually only 


one monogram is placed. Larger sizes usually have two mono- 
grams diagonally opposite each other. 

Dinner napkins should be marked with a smaller monogram 
of the same design as that used on the table-cloth. They are 
now usually embroidered in what is known as the "center of 
the side." Fold the napkin into thirds, and again into thirds 
in the opposite way. On the top of the center square with the 
selvedge toward you, place the monogram in the approximate 

Tea napkins may be monogrammed with the two or three 
initials used on the other napkins. In very fine linen ones, cut- 
out monograms are often used. 


Have in mind a definite plan. 

Consider carefully the artistic height for your table decora- 
tions: table decorations that are too high are awkward, and 
those that are too low become monotonous to the eye. 

No table decorations should obstruct the view of the guests 
(although at large, formal dinners, when the conversation can- 
not be general anyway, they may be tall). 

All tall decorations should be narrow (e. g. candles). 

Avoid over-decoration and inappropriate decorations. Don't 
crowd your table or make it look heavy. 

Discriminate between a formal party and an informal party, 
and adapt your decorations accordingly. 

Keep in mind the color-scheme of your room, and the colors 
of the food in your menu, and harmonize the color of your 
table decorations with these. 

Adapt your flowers to the type and proportions of your 


Centerpieces are of infinite variety, their beauty and dis- 
tinction being limited only by one's imagination and one's 
budget. Flowers are still — and probably always will be — the 
most lovely decoration for the center of the table. The fashion 
of supporting a few flowers in flower-holders in low silver or 
glass bowls makes possible simple and very effective arrange- 
ments. Unusual effects may be obtained with central mirrors 


and with mirrored tables, with fruits, with formal combinations 
of flowers and fruits, with crystal trees and flowers, with deli- 
cate figurines, and even with amusing accessories of simple or 
elaborate kinds. But one must be careful that the designs 
built with unusual accessories are beautiful and appropriate 
and not simply bizarre. 

Compote Dishes and Candles 

To balance the centerpiece, decorative silver or glass — or 
gold! — compote dishes, two or four in number, are usually 
placed toward the ends of the table. These dishes, containing 
bonbons or mints or nuts, may be low, medium, or high, accord- 
ing to the proportion required by the other table decorations. 

Four candles, or more if the table is very large, are used in 
candlesticks of glass or silver or fine china, and sometimes of 
pottery for an informal dinner on an Italian or Spanish table. 
Instead of candlesticks handsome silver candelabra may be 
placed on each side of the centerpiece. 

The candles should be lighted before the guests enter the 
dining-room, and allowed to burn until they leave the dining- 
room, even if they stay so long in the dining-room that the 
candles burn down to their sockets! 

The height of the candles should, of course, be adapted to 
the height of the candlesticks — very tall candles in low stand- 
ards, and shorter ones in the standard of average height. Low 
candlesticks with tall slender tapers are interesting and effec- 
tive, but their use is more appropriate to informal occasions. 
Formal functions seem to need the dignity of tall candlesticks. 

Candles for formal dinner tables usually are the color of 
natural wax or, if that is not obtainable, of white. As a matter 
of fact, many hostesses use candles of this color on their tables 
for all their parties. Of course colored candles may be used 
to carry out a decorative scheme, and are festive and appro- 
priate for special occasions. 

Candles are now never shaded. 

Service or ^^Cover" Plate 

A service plate (sometimes called a "place plate" or "lay 
plate," and, most appropriately, a "cover plate"), which is 


about one inch larger than a dinner plate, is used in formal 
service. A service plate is a background plate on which other 
plates are placed. Since its function is largely decorative, it 
should be as handsome as your circumstances permit. Service 
plates are usually of beautiful china, though sometimes they 
are of gold or silver or silver plate or even glass. If they are 
of china, they do not match the rest of the china in design^ 
since they are usually far more ornate. In advance of the 
meal, the service plate is set in the center of each cover, one 
inch, or sometimes two inches, from the edge of the table. No 
food is served directly on the service plate. On it are placed 
the plates containing the first courses of the meal, such as fruity 
oysters, and soup. It is not removed until it is exchanged for 
the plate of the first hot course after the soup. 

Large service plates are not used for breakfast, and it is 
usually inconvenient to use them in homes where there is no 
service, or in homes where the food is served at the table by the 
hostess or host or both. 

Place Cards 

Place cards are used at formal dinners and luncheons for con- 
venience in seating the guests. A place card should be simple 
(plain white ones are best) of about the size of a visiting-card. 
It is sometimes engraved with the hostess' monogram or crest 
embossed in plain white. Sometimes at feature parties, such as 
Hallowe'en or Valentine's Day, decorative place cards are used to 
carry out the motif of the entertainment. The name of the 
guest is written on the card, the title — Mrs., Miss, or Mr. — be- 
fore the name. Place cards are usually placed above the cover 
so that they do not conceal the beauty of either the place plate 
or the napkin. 

Salts and Peppers 

Salts and peppers may be tall, gold or silver ones, or they 
may be low silver or crystal ones, or a silver pepper shaker ac- 
companied by a low salt cup lined with old blue glass. For 
breakfast use, they may be of china or pottery, consistent with 
the informality of the breakfast table or tray. 

It is customary to place a set of salts and peppers between 
every two covers if the party is large, or a pair at each corner 
of the table, if few are dining, or at two corners of a small 


table. Individual sets are sometimes placed. Whether salt 
shakers or salt cups are used is a matter of choice, but with 
salt cups small salt-spoons should be provided. 

Bread and Butter Plates 

These convenient little plates are used at breakfast and 
luncheon, and at family and other informal dinners. Since 
butter is not served at formal dinners, bread and butter platesj 
are not usually placed. However, there is now a tendency to 
place bread and butter plates on the table, except at the most 
formal dinners, many hostesses maintaining, and quite rightly, 
too, that these plates are of great convenience, in affording a 
harbor for the roll or bread and for the celery, radishes, and 
nuts that are passed at dinner. 

Bread and butter plates are removed after the salad course, 
with the salts and peppers. 

The Napkin 

The napkin is usually placed at the left of the forks and 
parallel with them. If the napkin is folded in a square or other- 
wise folded so that the corners are up, it is placed so that the 
open corners are toward the plate. 

Often one sees the napkin placed on the service plate, but 
unless space demands this, it is not to be recommended. Service 
plates are usually of such loveliness that none of their beauty 
should be sacrificed. 

It is no longer good form to put bread or a dinner roll in the 
napkin — too many embarrassing moments resulted from that 
custom, for it was most natural, when one was engrossed in 
conversation, to take up the napkin unthinkingly and discover 
the roll perversely flying for the regions under the table. 

Finger Bowls 

There are three methods of placing finger bowls: 
First, if the finger bowl is needed after fruits at the begin- 
ning of a meal, or after corn on the cob, artichokes, and other 
food that demands the use of the fingers, it may be placed to 
the left of the cover when the table is laid or it may be brought 

in toward the end of the course and placed to the left of the 

Second, if the dessert plate and finger bowl are served to- 
gether, the finger bowl is placed on the dessert plate, usually 
with a small fine white or cream doily between it and the plate, 
and the dessert silver placed on the sides of the plate, the fork on 
the left and the knife or spoon (depending on what the dessert 
may be) on the right. The guest removes the silver, placing 
the spoon or knife to the right, and the fork to the left, of the 
cover. Then he removes the finger bowl and doily and places 
them on the left of the cover, leaving the plate ready to receive 
the fruit or dessert. 

Third, if the dessert is served in individual portions, say 
in a sherbet glass or some other container, which precludes the 
placing of the finger bowl on the dessert plate, the finger bowl, 
on a doily on a plate, is placed in front of the guest after the 
last course. 

If especially beautiful glass or silver finger bowls and plates 
are used, many hostesses now omit the doily between, maintain- 
ing that it destroys the harmony between the bowl and the 

The bowls, half-filled with tepid water, may be placed on 
the side table before the meal is announced. 


Precision and decision are demanded in table-setting: mathe- 
matical precision in laying the table-covering and in placing 
the silver and other table-appointments, and artistic decision in 
the choice and harmonious arrangement of the table-appoint- 

Spreading the Cloth 

"Wlien the table-covering is the conventional table-cloth, first 
place the silence-cloth, of white, thick, doublefaced material, 
which usually extends five inches over each side of the table. 
This is sometimes tied in place to prevent slipping. 

Over this, spread the table cloth, perfectly laundered. There 
should be in the table cloth only one crease, the straight central 
crease, and the cloth should be most carefully adjusted so that 
this fold is placed exactly in the center of the table. The op- 


—Sterling Silversmiths Guild of America 

I he 5et(/lce not dlnnet 









—Reed & Barton 



posite edges of the cloth should fall at equal distances from 
the floor. The cloth should fall from twelve to fifteen inches 
below the edges of the table. 

Placing the Decorations 

Now having placed the background for your table-picture, 
focus your composition by placing the table decorations, the 
centerpiece, candlesticks or candelabra, and compotes. 

For a table of six covers, four candles or two candelabra are 
sufficient. The candlesticks are usually placed about halfway 
between the center of the table and its edge, but their position 
depends on the general form and design of the decorations. 
The candles are unshaded. 

Compotes, filled with bonbons or mints or nuts, are usually 
placed between the candlesticks and the edge of the table — 
their position too, depending on the general structural scheme. 

Setting the Covers 

Now you are ready to set the covers. 

A "cover" is the place set for one person at the beginning of 
a meal. It consists of a service plate (called sometimes a "place 
plate," and most appropriately called, a cover plate) , silver 
utensils, napkin, and water glass. 

In setting a cover allow, if possible, the standard space of 
twenty- four inches, this space being measured from the center 
of one plate to the center of the next one. Allow fifteen inches 
for depth. 

Place the cover plate in the exact center of the place, and 
so that the pattern is up, in other words so that the pattern- 
design is given its full beauty-value. 

All the lines of the cover should go either across the table 
or lengthwise of it. Avoid diagonal lines because they attract 
the attention of the eye and take away from the harmony of 
the design. 

Place the knives in a straight line, on the right of the plate, 
parallel to each other, and the spoons on their right. On the left 
place the forks, also in a careful straight line, and lay the napkin 
at the left of the forks with its edges parallel to the forks and 
knives and spoons. When the cover includes a bread and butter 
plate, lay the butter spreader on the edge of the plate so that 


It is parallel to the edge of the table with the handle toward the 
right. Salt and pepper sets should' follow this rule of placing, 
as should the handles of dishes that are placed on the table, and 
if a piece of silver is placed on a dish at the table (for instance, 
the spoon on the plate under the fruit cocktail) it too should 
be placed parallel to the pieces of silver at the sides of the 

There are several other important rules for setting a cover^ 
and the basic idea of these rules applies to informal meals as 
much as it does to formal meals. 

Knives, since they are used in the right hand, are placed at 
the right of the plate, with the cutting edge toward the plate- 

Spoons, with the bowls up, are placed at the right of the 

Forks are placed at the left of the plate, with the tines up. 
This is because the fork is held in the left hand when the knife 
is in the right hand. If an oyster fork is necessary, it is placed 
on the right of the knives and spoons — and parallel to them — 
or on the plate on which the oysters are served. 

The Silver should be placed in the correct sequence — so 
that the person eating may use first the utensils farthest from 
the plate and "work toward the plate." Not more than three 
knives and three forks (not counting the butter knife or oyster 
fork) are laid at one cover. If necessary, additional pieces are 
laid just before the course is served. Usually the silver is laid 
for the courses through the salad course, and the dessert silver 
is either placed at the cover before the dessert is served, or 
brought in on the dessert plate. For every item of food in the 
menu the necessary piece of silver should either be placed at 
the cover or brought in before the service of the course. 

The Napkin is placed on the left of the forks. If it is folded 
in a square, the open corner is the lower corner, nearest the 

The "Water Glass is placed above the tip of the dinner 
knife. If there is a glass for another beverage, it is placed 
to the right of the water glass or in a line slanting down from 
the goblet to the right. If there are more than two glasses, they 
are grouped artistically. 

The Bread and Butter Plate is placed above the tips of 
the forks so that it will be on a line with the water glass. The 
butter spreader is placed on the bread and butter plate parallel 


to the edge of the table, the handle toward the right and the 
cutting edge down. 

The Place Card is best placed above the plate. 

The Edge of the Service Plate, the tips of the handles 
of the silver utensils, and the lower edge of the napkin shovild 
be placed in exact alignment, usually one inch from the edge 
of the table. Some hostesses prefer that the silver be placed 
two inches from the edge of the table, so that there is a mini- 
mum of danger of its being brushed off the table. 

Salts and Peppers are usually placed between every two 
covers, or individual sets may be placed, or, if there are only a 
few covers, sets may be placed at the ends of the table. 

Salted Nuts may be placed in small individual dishes above 
the covers, or in silver or glass compotes. 

Covers should be placed directly opposite each other. 

The Chairs are placed so that the line of the table-cloth 
is not broken. 


Styles of Service 

There are three styles of service: 

Russian: In this style of service all the food is served from 
the kitchen, by attendants. The host and hostess take no part 
in the service. No food is put on the table except the decorat- 
ing dishes of nuts, candy, and fruits. The food may be placed 
in individual portions before the guest, or may be separated 
into portions and arranged on serving-dishes for each guest to 
help himself. 

English or Family Type: In this service all the food is 
served at the table by the host, hostess, or both. 

Combination or Mixed Service: In this service the main 
course is usually served at the table, while the soup, salad, and 
dessert are served from the kitchen. Sometimes, the salad is 
served from a large salad bowl, and the hostess serves the dessert 
at table. 

Service Suggestions 

Methods — ^There are three methods of table service. Tli« 
one often preferred is the left hand service, that is, the placing^ 
passing, and removing of all dishes at the left. Beverages are, 


of course, an exception, and these are placed at the right. In 
the left hand service, the waitress uses the hand farthest from 
the guest, that is, the left hand. The left hand service permits 
the guest to use his right hand in helping himself. In the right 
hand service the waitress places and removes all dishes from the 
right, using the right hand, but she passes a dish at the left, 
using her left hand. Often a combination of these two services 
is used: that is, the dishes are placed and passed at the left, and 
plates are removed from the right. A hostess decides which 
method seems to her the easiest and most practical for her 
household, and directs her service accordingly. 

Order of Service — In many houses the hostess is served first. 
This is a relic of the old custom of taking it for granted that 
the giver of the feast prove the absence of poison by first tast- 
ing of the food or drinking of the beverage! Some hostesses too 
justify this custom by maintaining that, when complicated foods 
are served, the hostess indicates to her guests the methods by 
which they can most conveniently serve themselves. 

However, the custom of serving the honor guest first is grow- 
ing, and many hostesses now insist on giving the chief guest 
this additional compliment. 

The former custom of serving all the ladies first and the 
gentlemen afterward is no longer in vogue, for this method 
consumed too much time and delayed the service. Now guests 
are served in the order in which they are seated, usually begin- 
ning with the honor guest or the hostess and proceeding to the 

The Ever-Present Plate — ^It is an important rule of good 
service that there must be a plate before each guest until the 
salad course is removed. As soon as one plate is removed, an- 
other is put in its place. The first course — if a pre-soup course 
— ^is either served from a large dish, in which case a plate is 
placed for it on the cover plate, or is brought in on a plate which 
is set on the cover plate already on the table. 

When the first course is removed the soup plate is set on the 
cover plate. Then, if the next course — an entree, or fish, or 
the main course — ^is, as usual, to be served on a heated plate, the 
service plate is removed with the soup plate as this heated plate 
is put before the guest. 

The "Service Napkin" — On the palm of her left hand^ 
Tinder the dish that she is passing, the waitress holds a napkin 


folded in a square — the so-called "service napkin" or "serving 
napkin." She does not use a tray to bring dishes to the table 
or to remove them from the table. 

Using a Tray — ^When a waitress is passing two or three 
small articles such as the cream-pitcher and sugar-bowl, or extra 
pieces of silver, she uses a serving-tray, with a doily on it to 
keep the articles from slipping. 

Filling Glasses — ^Water glasses are filled three-fourths full. 
The water pitcher should be three-fourths full. When a glass 
is being filled it should not be lifted from the table. If neces- 
sary, the waitress uses a napkin to catch the drip. Beverages 
are placed and glasses are filled at the right. 

Knives and Spoons are placed at the right, and forks are 
placed at the left. 

Bread, in the form of plain or pulled bread, rolls, or toast^ is 
passed after the soup has been served. 

If the First Course of an informal dinner or luncheon is a 
cold course, it may be on the table when the guests enter the 
dining-room. If it is hot, it is served after the guests are seated. 

Before Passing a Dish to a Guest the waitress should 
see that adequate silver is placed on the dish — usually a serv- 
ing-fork on the left and a serving-spoon on the right — ^in a 
convenient position. She should, if necessary, rearrange the 
silver before offering the dish to the guest. 

Food Should be Placed on the Table, passed, and re- 
moved in the order of its importance in the course. 

If a Salad is Served With the Meat Course, it is placed 
on the more convenient side of the plate. If there is no extra 
glass on the right side, it is usually more convenient to the guest 
to have the salad placed on the right. 

Hot Food Should be Served Hot on heated dishes. 

Cold Food Should be Served Cold on cold dishes. 

When the Host and Hostess do the Serving at Table, 
the host serves the meat, and often the vegetables, and the hos- 
tess serves the soup, salad, dessert, and beverage. 

In the Maid-Less Household, the hostess will find great 
convenience in the tea-wagon or any other kind of serving- 
table that may stand at her right, ready to help her. 

Before the Dessert Course, the table should be cleaied 
and crumbed. The salts and peppers, the bread and butter 
plates, and all other accessories or dishes that will not be used 


in the dessert course, are removed on a tray. When the table 
is crumbed a small folded napkin and a plate should be used, 
and the crumb-clearing is done at the left of the guest. 

When the Dessert is Finished, the dessert plate is ex- 
changed for an after-dinner coffee cup, if the coffee is served 
at table. 

At the End of the Coffee Course, the cups are ex- 
changed for finger bowls if these were not placed with the 

There is Increasing Inclination to serve after-dinner 
coflFee in the drawing room, living room or the library. The plan 
has many advantages. The original reason was to give guests 
more freedom and more luxury — dining-room chairs are stiflF 
at best. But in large families, young adults and children are 
eager to be excused — the former for their own plans and the 
latter have school work to do, besides which they do not or 
should not drink coffee. The adults want to continue their dis- 
cussions without interruption, while they have coffee, liqueurs 
and smokes at their leisure. 

Besides, in many American homes, servants come in by the 
day or the hour. Serving coffee in the living room, in addition 
to the comfort it gives host and guests, allows maids to finish 
the cleaning-up process with more speed and care as well as 
more freedom. The coffee service can be done last or even left 
until morning without catastrophe. In the maidless home, the 
dining-room doors can be closed, the lights turned out and both 
hostess and guests forget the work that awaits the former, in 
the glow of the larger, more comfortable and less formal living 
room. Moreover, in many modern homes the dining room has 
disappeared and its function taken over by an enlarged living 
room, with or without a dining alcove or solarium but almost 
always when there is a garden, by the terrace used for meals 
out of doors. In homes with this arrangement there should be 
an appropriate screen to set around the table used for dining, 
when the guests move into the living room proper or onto the 
terrace. Often when there is a dining alcove, these screens are 
attached to opposing walls as permanent fixtures of the room, 
and need only to be swung out to meet around the disheveled 
table. For kss formal entertaining see page 724. 


SKILL in carving depends upon two things: first, a knowl- 
edge of the anatomy of that which is to be carved, and 
second, good tools with which to work. 


For the Average Family, two carving knives are desirable; 
one with a long, keen blade for large roasts, and a smaller, 
lighter one for steaks, cutlets and poultry. One two-pronged 
fork can be used with both knives. 

For a Small Family, where large joints are not served, the 
smaller knife will be adequate. 

The Carving Knife Should be Sharp when it is brought 
to the table. It should never be sharpened at the table. 

The Carver Should Remain Seated while carving and 
should carve enough for all who are at the table before he 
begins to serve anyone. 

The Platter Should be Large Enough to give room not 
only for the meat that is to be carved but also for the carved 

A Serving Spoon should be provided for the gravy. 



First separate the meat from the bone by cutting along the 
edge of the bone with the thin point of the knife. 

Beginning with the wide or bone end of a porterhouse or 
sirloin steak, and following the grain of the meat, divide each 
section into portions an inch or slightly more in width, depend- 
ing on the number to be served. 

In porterhouse and similar steaks, the tenderloin and the 
wider section are more tender and have a finer flavor and text- 
ure than the narrow section. Give a serving of the finer quality 
meat and one of the less choice meat to each person. 

The small or flank end of a porterhouse steak is of poor 



quality, suited only for stewing or braizing, and should not 
be served with the rest of the steak. 

Add to each portion a bit of garnish, a spoon of dish gravy, 
and if the steak is planked, a serving of vegetables. 

Roast Beef 

Carve all roasts across the grain of the meat. The thickness 
of the slices varies with the kind of roast that is being carved, 
and may be influenced by the personal preferences of the people 
for whom the carving is being done. Generally the slices 
should be thin, but whether thin or thick, they should be even 
and attractive looking. 

Fillet or Tenderloin Roast — Hold the roast firmly with 
the fork and cut the meat squarely across the grain in slices 
slightly less than one-half inch in thickness. Begin with the 
thick or forward portion. Serve one slice to each person. 

Loin, Round or Rump Roast — Cut across the grain, as 
with a tenderloin roast, but carve the slices as thin as possible, 
because the meat is less tender than the fillet. 

Standing Rib Roast — Place the roast cut side up on a platter 
with the ribs to the left. Thrust the fork firmly into the side 
below the upper bone and cut slices Ys to 54 inch thick toward 
the fork, across the grain, until the bone is reached. Cut several 
slices and then separate from the bone by cutting down with the 
point of the knife along the bone. 

Chuck Pot Roast — Place the meat with the rib side toward 
the carver. Insert the fork straddling the narrow strip of 
cartilage running down the center of the meat and cut off the rib 
bone. Cut horizontally across grain into slices ^4 inch thick, 
beginning at the right front corner and cutting up through the 
slice at the center of the roast. When one side is sliced reverse 
and cut other side. 

Short Ribs — Place meat so that ribs are at the back. Thrust 
fork into meat and cut down between the bones. A bone may 
be served with each slice. 

Rolled Roast — A rolled roast should be held together for 
carving by skewers thrust directly through the roll across the 
grain of the meat. Set the roast on end and thrust the fork 
firmly into the side an inch or two from the top. Then, hold- 


ing the knife horizontally, cut thin even slices across the entire 

Remove the skewers one at a time as you reach them in 
carving, and move the fork downward from time to time as 


Leg of Lamb 

Let the small bone extend toward your left and have the 
curved side of the meat uppermost. Thrust the fork into the 
center muscle and cut thin slices downward, across the grain 
of the meat, till the knife strikes the bone. To release the 
slices, insert the point of the knife beneath them and cut along 
the surface of the bone. 

If the leg of lamb is boned, cut slices straight through, across 
the grain of the meat. 

Loin Roast of Lamb, Veal or Pork 

The backbone should be cut through at each rib before the 
meat is roasted. Let the roast lie on the platter with the bones 
down and the smaller end of the roast at your left. Carve 
down between the ribs and serve one rib to each person. 

Crown of Lamb 

Carve down between the ribs and serve one rib to each per- 

Saddle of Mutton 

Let the roast rest on the platter with the bone down and 
the end diagonally toward you. Make a cut through the 
center the entire length of the backbone, separating the meat 
into two similar parts. Remove the meat from the bone on 
each side by running the knife point between the meat and 
the bone. Carve the meat into slices slightly less than half 
an inch thick, cutting across the grain. 

— National Live Stock and 
Meat Board 


— Institute American Poultry Industries 


W^ ,, 



pICE 1 

— National Live Stock and 
Meat Board J 



Roast Turkey or Chicken 

Let the bird rest on its back on the platter, with the drum- 
sticks pointing toward your left. Grasp the carving-fork 
firmly in the left hand, with the tines pointing toward the 
bird's neck and the tips turned from the bird. Insert it into 
the leg so that one tine goes diagonally through the drumstick 
and the other through the second joint. 

Cut all around the hip joint. Press against the side of the 
bird with the flat of the knife and use the fork as a lever to 
bend the leg back. This will separate the hip joint and the leg 
can be lifted off without diflficulty. 

Without removing the fork, lay the leg down flat, with 
the open end pointing-, toward ^he left, and insert the knife 
from right to left between the tines of the fork. Press the 
knife down and it should go through the joint. At first you 
may have to do a little feeling around to locate the joint, but 
with practice you will learn how to insert the fork so that when 
the knife is placed between the tines it will fall directly over 
the joint. 

Next thrust the fork into the side of the bird, rather low 
down, and cut the breast downward in thin even slices. 

Slice the meat from the second joint and serve a slice of 
white meat and a slice of dark meat to each guest. 

If more portions are needed, turn the bird so that it is 
lying with the carved side down. Separate the second leg in 
the same way you did the first, and slice the breast. 

If the wings are needed they may be cut from the bird and 
divided in the same manner as the legs. 

Ordinarily the tips of the wings and the drumsticks are 
not served with the roasted bird but are reserved for other uses. 

Roast Ducks 

Follow the same method as for turkeys and chickens, but 
keep in mind that a duck's joints are much farther toward the 
back than those of turkeys and chickens. 

With Wild Duck, only the breast is served. Half a breast 
is usually removed in one portion and served to one person. 



Arrange the bird on the platter so that the neck is toward 
you. Insert the fork in the second joint; cut the flesh around 
the hip joint; bend the joint over sharply with the knife and 
separate it from the body. Separate the drumstick from the 
second joint or leave them together, as you prefer. Split the 
breast in two. Serve half the breast and a second joint or 
whole leg to each person. 


Special carving sets are procurable for fish. If such a set is 
not at hand, the best thing to use is a dinner knife, with silver 
plated or stainless steel blade, and a silver fork^ preferably of 
the type known as a cold meat fork. 

In carving any fish try to serve as little bone as possible and 
avoid breaking the flakes of the fish. 

Baked or Planked Fish 

If the fish has been slashed before baking, cut through these 
slashes, to, but not through, the backbone. If there are no 
slashes, cut the flesh crosswise at intervals of about two inches. 
Slip the knife under each section and lift it from the bone. 
When one side of the fish has been served, lift up the back- 
bone and divide the lower half. 

Middle Cuts or Thick Pieces of Fish 

Middle cuts or thick pieces of large fish, such as salmon and 
cod, are placed on the platter with the skin up. Carve the fish 
in thick slices down to the bone, then slip the knife under the 
portions and remove them from the bone. 

Split Fish 

When fish are split down the back and broiled or sauted, 
divide them through the middle, lengthwise, then divide each 
half into as many portions as are needed. Very small fish are 
served whole. 


/^ARNISHES serve two purposes. First, they make food 
^^ more attractive to the eye, thus stimulating the flow of 
digestive juices and aiding digestion; second, they add bulk or 
"roughage" to the diet or increase the nutritive value of the 

Garnishes Should be Simple, appropriate and easy to pre- 
pare. They should not be used to disguise deficiencies or poor 
quality of any dish. Edible garnishes are more appropriate 
man those that are used merely for appearance. At least one- 
third of a dish should be left free of garnish and the garnish 
should be so placed that it does not interfere with the service, 

With a Few Exceptionsj such as candied or maraschino 
cherries, sweet picklesj preserved whole currants, strawberries, 
cranberries, etc., sweets are not used to garnish savory dishes. 

Toast or Puff Pastes should not^ as a rule^ be used on the 
same dish with potatoes. 

Garnishes for Soups 

One of the simplest garnishes for soup is a tablespoon of 
salted whipped cream sprinkled with a dash of paprika or a 
little parsley chopped very fine. 

Eggs are used as garnishes of soups in the form of a baked 
custard cut in fancy shapes, or as egg balls. (See Soup Ac- 
cessories.) The whole yolks poached in salted water just bdow 
the boiling-point may be used; one yolk is served with each 
pkte of soup. 

Noodles, tapioca, spaghetti or macaroni cut in fancy shapes^ 
or quenelles (See Soup Accessories) make simple and attrac- 
tive garnishes for soup. 

Cooked vegetables cut in thin strips or in Julienne style or 
in fancy shapes or slices, are often used to add color^ flavor and 
nutritive value to a soup. 

Soups may be garnished also with cubes of bread or puff 
paste buttered and browned in the oven or fried in deep fat. 



Garnishes for Egg Dishes 

Eggs are often served with toast in some form. They may 
be garnished with crisp slices of bacon and a spray of parsley or 
they may be served on a bed of chopped spinach, mashed potato 
or chopped meat. A sauce or puree is a very attractive garnish 
for poached eggs. Eggs are sometimes garnished with grated 
cheese or cooked egg-yolk put through a sieve. 

Garnishes for Hot Vegetables 

Mashed vegetables are sometimes garnished with bits of but- 
ter and a sprinkling of paprika or chopped parsley. Vegetables 
that are cooked and served whole are often covered with grated 
cheese and put into the oven long enough to brown the cheese. 
Slices of hard-cooked eggs or egg-yolk put through a sieve 
may be used as a garnish for spinach. 

Garnishes for Meat, Fish, Game and Poultry 

Garnishes often used with roasts of beef, lamb or mutton are 
browned potatoes, croquettes of potatoes or rice, mashed potato 
cups filled with green peas or diced vegetables, slices of carrot, 
parsnip or turnip sauted or fried in deep fat, or boiled onions 
and sprays of parsley or cress. 

Roast pork may be garnished with any of the above or with 
baked apple or sauted apple rings filled with jelly. 

Fried bananas make a suitable garnish for roast of mutton. 

Chops and steaks may be served with a simple garnish of 
parsley or cress and a slice of lemon or in a border of French 
fried potatoes, Saratoga chips or lattice potatoes. 

Creamed meat dishes may be served with triangles or rounds 
of toast, in borders of rice or mashed potato, in croustades of 
bread, in timbale cases or patty shells or in cups of rice or 
mashed potato. 

Sausage, meat balls or chops are attractive arranged about a 
mound of rice, mashed potato, macaroni or spinach. 

Roast or fried chicken may be served in a border of celery 
or of fried oysters or with a simple garnish of parsley or cress. 

Roast duck is attractive with endive and slices of orange and 
olives or with rice cups filled with currant jelly; roast goose 
with broiled sausage, gooseberry sauce, apple or barberry jelly 


or cooked rings of apple; roast quail with squares of fried mush 
and cubes of currant jelly. 

Fish steaks, broiled fish or baked fish are usually garnished 
with slices of lemon and parsley or cress. Slices of hard-cooked 
eggs are often used as a garnish for fish. Fat fish such as salmon 
may be garnished with slices of cucumber or of tomato or 
whole tomatoes stuffed. Fish may also be garnished with po- 
tatoes, peas, onions or tomato in any form. 

Other garnishes that may be used are celery curls, olives, 
radishes, mushroom caps, small green pickles, strips of green 
pepper or pimiento. 

Garnishes for Aspics and Salads 

The best and simplest frame for any salad is a bed of lettuce 
leaves or shredded lettuce, cabbage or cress. Many salads are 
made more attractive by a sprinkling of chopped nuts or capers, 
minced green pepper or red pimiento or a grating of cheese. 
A half nut-meat, two or three radishes cut to resemble roses, 
dates or prunes stuffed with nuts or cream cheese, olives whole 
or sliced, tiny new onions or sliced green pickles all add flavor 
and color. 

Truffles are wild, edible, subterranean fungi that are raised 
principally in France. They are too expensive to be used in 
large quantity but are highly prized as a flavorful garnish for 
aspics, salads and sauces. Becaiise of their black color they 
make an effective contrast to the pale or vivid colors of the 
more common foods. 

Very attractive decorations for meat, fish, salads or aspic 
are vegetables cut into simple flower designs. Cucumbers, 
beets, turnips, Russian radishes and carrots with chopped 
greens are the materials to have at hand. For a lily, cut a 
long cucumber in half crosswise. Stand up on this cut surface 
and with a sharp knife cut narrow strips, not too thin, from 
tip to within an inch of the base. Continue until all the white, 
too, is cut into strips resembling petals. Into the center in- 
sert a long narrow carrot, root end up, to simulate the yellow 
stamen. If necessary wrap base with a rubber band to hold 
tightly. Beets and round turnips can be peeled and cut to 
resemble budding roses. The turnips can be stained with vege- 
table coloring if desired. Flat slices of turnip or Russian radish 



cut to resemble daisies have a center of carrot and a sprinkle 
of chopped green. Calla lilies may be made of thin slices of 
larger turnips. Roll until the edges meet in cornucopia shape 
and fasten with a toothpick. Insert a long slender carrot or 
carrot strip for the stamen and fasten with another toothpick. 
Broccoli, leek, shallot, or spinach leaves may be attached. Easter 
lilies are made the same way except that the petal is split after 
rolling the calyx. 




CEREALS or grains are tlie seeds of certain grasses, the most 
important of which are wheat, oats, rice, barley, corn, 
rye and buckwheat. To most persons "cereals" designate 
only breakfast cereals; and, while the term "cereal foods" 
actually does include also commercial products made from 
cereals such as macaroni and spaghetti, corn-starch and the 
different flours, the present chapter deals only with cereals in 
the breakfast-cereal sense. There are many kinds of breakfast- 
cereal products on the market. Most of them are made from 
the cereals listed above but they differ because of variety in 
the processes of their manufacture. The so-called breakfast- 
cereals have a wide usefulness in meals other than breakfast. 

Storage of Cereals 

'VTith a suitable storage place, cereals and flour may be kept 
for several months. Unless there is a cool, dry place for storing 
them, they should be purchased only in amounts that can be 
used in a few days. This is especially true in warm weather. 

Cereal products are liable to spoilage for two reasons: they 
may become wormy, or they may become rancid. Products 
made from the whole grain are more subject to spoilage than 
the refined products, because the whole products contain the 
germ, which is high in fat, and it is this that becomes rancid; 
it is this, also, that offers suitable material for the development 
of eggs laid by insects. 

Cereals should be purchased from a merchant whose store is 
known to be kept in a sanitary condition. Closed glass jars 
are excellent for keeping cereals. If package cereal is purchased, 
it should be placed in closed glass jars after it is opened, thus 
insuring against infection by insects. 

Whole or Refined Cereals 

Seeds are made up of starchy material in a network of protein, 
and protected by several coats of fiber generally referred to as 
bran or cellulose. In the process of manufacture a part or all 
of the outer coats may be removed so that the actual composi- 


tion of the cereal is a matter determined by the method of 
manufacture. If a large part is removed, the cereal is called 
highly refined.; if a small part is removed, it becomes less 
highly refined; and if the coats are not at all, or but slightly 
removed, it is called "whole." Therefore, the terms "whole" 
and "refined" refer to the amount of outer coating which the 
cereal contains and not to the size of the particles into which 
the grain is ground. 

One way to determine whether cereals are whole or refined 
is by the color. The less highly refined cereals are apt to be 
dark in color, and the more highly refined cereals are light in 

Pre-Cooked Cereals 

Cereals were formerly bought uncooked, but by modern 
methods of manufacture they may be partly or entirely cooked. 
Thus we have, in oats or wheat, a partly cooked product; and 
the long list of ready-to-eat cereals or entirely cooked products 
which need only a few minutes of reheating to be ready for the 

Cooking Cereals 

Two of the important secrets in cooking cereals so that they 
are acceptable are: 

1. To alk)W enough water to swell and soften all the starch. 

2. To cook them long enough to swell the starch and soften 
the cellulose present so that the starch may be exposed to the 
action of heat and water. 

Cereals high in starch and low in cellulose or bran absorb 
more water than do cereals containing proportionately less 
starch and more cellulose or bran. Also, coarsely ground or 
unground cereals require more time to cook than the finely 
ground ones. These facts determine the method used in cook- 
ing. A refined cereal will require a proportionately larger 
amount of water than a whole cereal, though it will require 
less time in the cooking; a coarsely ground cereal will require 
longer time than a finely ground cereal. 

Thorough cooking of cereals is necessary for two reasons: 
first, celliilose requires plenty of time to soften; and second, 
starch gains in flavor by cooking. 

Methods of Cooking — Cereals may be boiled directly over 
the heat; steamed, as in a double boiler; or cooked in a fireless 

cooker. The first is the quickest process but requires attention 
in order to prevent sticking; and, even when stirred frequently, 
some sticking may occur. Since the slower cooking develops 
the flavor and more thoroughly softens the cellulose, the use of 
either double boiler or fireless cooker is recommended. 

Amount of Water Needed — ^Tastes differ greatly con- 
cerning consistency of cereals. Some persons like a thin cereal, 
almost a "gruel"; others prefer a thicker product, or "mush," 
while still others choose a thick "porridge." The following sug- 
gestions are only general. The directions on the packages are 
safe to follow in cooking any uncooked or partly cooked cereal, 
then if a thicker or thinner product is desired it is easy to de- 
termine the proportions that best suit the family and make your 
own rules. 

In General: 

1. Rolled cereals, such as rolled oats or rolled wheat, require about 
two parts of water to one of cereal. 

2. Coarsely ground cereals from the whole grain, and unground 
whole grains require about four parts of water to one of cereal. 

3. Finely ground refined cereals require from five to six parts of 
water to one of cereal. 

Where directions are lacking for any cereal bought in bulk, 
the following table will serve as a fair guide. 

Amounts of Water to Use with Various Cereals 

To One Cup 

Use Cups Water 

Will Make Cups Product 


5 to 6 

5 + 

Hominy Grits 

4 to 5 

4 + 


4 to 5 

4 + 

Oats, rolled 

2 to lYz 

2 + 


4 to 5 

4 + 


4 to 5 

4 + 

Wheat, finely 


5 to 6 

5+ • 

Amount of Salt Needed— -Tastes differ again here, but a 
safe rule from which to vary is to use one teaspoonful to each 
quart of water used. 

Swelling of Cereals — ^The amount of swelling is the same 
as the amount of water required; that is, rolled cereals swell 
about twice, coarsely ground or whole cereals swell about four 


times; and finely ground and refined cereals swell from five to 
six times. 

Time Needed For Cooking — Cereal products have a nat- 
urally delicious flavor, although not pronounced, which is 
brought out by long slow cooking, and the right proportion of 
water and salt. 

Long slow cooking used to mean four to six hours, but manu- 
facturing processes have cut the time considerably — ^to fifteen 
or twenty minutes in the case of some of the fine grained wheat 
products, and even three to five minutes for partially cooked 
cereals. However, a longer cooking only improves them. 

In trying a breakfast cereal for the first time, follow the 
directions on the package; then if you wish, adapt them to 
the consistency and saltiness you prefer. 

Some cereals may be boiled — notably rice, and those partially 
cooked products that need only three to five minutes cooking, 
and so demand but little constant attention. The standard ways 
of cooking cereals are steaming in a double boiler or baking 
in a slow oven, as in making creamy rice and Indian puddings. 
The baking method has obvious advantages, and can well be 
extended to include cereals for breakfast or entrees, omitting 
the sugar and flavoring. 

If cereal is cooked in the evening for the following breakfast. 
It may stand in the double boiler all night and be heated in the 
morning. It is well not to stir it in the morning until it is 
thoroughly hot, because stirring when cold is apt to cause 
lumps which resist being made smooth. 

Variations in Use of Cereals 

Cereals may be cooked in milk instead of water, or a part of 
the water may be replaced by milk. This method offers an 
easy way of increasing the milk content of a meal and makes 
the cereal dish more nutritious. Raisins, dried fruit or fresh 
fruit supply a pleasing addition to cooked cereals. Dates or 
figs cut into pieces and stirred into the cereal before serving 
make a very appetizing change. 

To prevent a hardening over of the cereal due to standing, 
two or three tablespoons of water may be poured over the top 
of the cereal after the cooking process at night is finished. 




% pound chicken or 3 doves garlic 

% pound veal or beef 2 teaspoons salt 

3 ounces chili powder 1^ cups hot water 

1 small onion Bay leaves 



4 cups yellow corn meal 2^4 cups stock 

1 teaspoon salt ^/^ pound fat 

1 pound comhu^s 

The *'redi-cut" cornhusks may be bouglit. Field cornhusks 
must have both ends removed; immerse in cold water while 
filling is prepared. 

Bofl both meats in water to which have been added one small 
onion, a clove of garlic and two bay leaves. When meat is tender 
remove and drain stock, setting it aside to use in making en- 
velope. Cut meat into amall cubes. Heat 3 tablespoons of fat, 
add meat and brown. Mash 2 cloves of garlic and add to meat. 
Stir the chili powder and spices with hot water and mix well 
with the meat. Cook mixture 10 minutes. 

To make the envelope: Mix 4 cups yellow corn meal, salt, 
half the stock and all of fat. Beat well with a wooden spoon 
and then add remainder of the stock. It is very important that 
the mixture be well beaten to make it Kght. Dry cornhusks on 
the inside, spread thinly with mixture; add one teaspoon of 
chili meat filling and roll up Hke a cigarette. Fold both ends 
down. Stack in a steamer and cook until well done. If a steamer 
is not available, place an ordinary kitchen pot lid c«i bottom 
of a deep kettle. Cover with husks and stack taniales over this 
in "pyramid" style. Pour four cups of boiling water over 
tamales, cover tightly and cook over a low flame for 45 minutes 
or one hour. Always serve tamales hot. 


BREAD as a universal article of food has much in its favor. 
Flour, its chief ingredient, is not quickly perishable and 
is rather easily stored and transported. Bread itself keeps well, 
is mild in flavor, is inexpensive and furnishes material needed 
by the human machine. 

Excellent bread can be made of good bread flour, salt, water 
and yeast. Better bread can be made if sugar and fat are added. 
It is in the handling of the dough, not in the proportions of in- 
gredients, that much bread is ruined. 

Flours and Meals Used in Bread-making 

"While flours and meals made from oats, corn, rice and other 
seeds are used to some extent with wheat flour in making yeast 
breads, by far the larger amount of yeast bread is made from 
wheat flour only and most of it is made from highly refined 
white flour. This is because the gluten of wheat flour possesses 
properties of toughness and elasticity which enable the dough 
containing it to stretch and hold gases produced in it by the 
action of yeast or introduced into it by baking-powder. The 
dough rises and becomes light. 

However, the quality of wheat flour depends upon the season 
in which the wheat is grown. Winter wheat is sown in the 
fall, remains in the ground all winter and is harvested in the 
summer. This grain is generally poor in gluten, but rich in 
starch. "Winter wheat is used largely for pastry flour. Spring 
wheat is sown in the spring and is harvested in the summer at 
about the same time as the winter wheat. The grain is generally 
rich in gluten but poor in starch. Spring wheat flours are best 
for bread making. Standard flours are a mixture of spring and 
winter wheat^ and they vary little in quality. 

In Selecting a Flour For Bread-making every effort 
should be made to secure a flour of good bread-making prop- 
erties. Bread flour, when rubbed between the fingers, has a 
granular feeling. It will not hold its shape when pressed in 
the hand. Bread flour can be xised successfully in making 
cakes and pastries. 



A Good Pastry Flour differs from bread flour in contain- 
ing more starch and not only less gluten but a less elastic gluten 
than bread flour. It has an oily feeling when rubbed between 
the fingers, and holds its shape when pressed in the hand. 
Pastry flour can not be used successfully in making bread. 

Whole- Wheat or entire-wheat flour, combined in right 
proportions with white flour, can be made into excellent bread. 

Graham Flour, although coarse, may, rightly combined 
with white flour, be made into excellent bread. 

Proportions of Flour and Liquid in Dough 

For one cup of liquid use approximately three cups of flour. 
This proportion varies widely because of differences in the 
absorptive powers of different flours. A good bread flour will 
take up more water than a poor bread flour. Flour, except 
graham or whole wheat, should always be sifted before being 


The most satisfactory temperature for the growth of yeast 
is from 75° to 95° F. It ceases to grow when the temperature 
is below 30° F. and is killed at about 212° F. Yeast should not 
be softened in very cold water if immediate activity is desired. 

Compressed Yeast — A cake of fresh compressed yeast 
breaks with a clean edge and has no odor of putrefaction. It is 
creamy yellow and uniform in color. When old, compressed 
yeast becomes slightly slippery, is streaky, and has an un- 
pleasant odor. Only fresh compressed yeast should be used in 
bread-making. In compressed yeast the yeast plants are alive 
and ready for action, hence bread-making with compressed 
yeast requires less time than with dry yeast. 

Dry Yeast — ^Dry yeast is a mass of yeast plants mixed with 
corn-meal and dried. As yeast will live for some time and yet 
can not grow without moisture, these dry cakes will keep for 
many weeks. The dried plants are inactive and even when 
warmth and moisture, food and air are supplied, they take 
some time to become active again. 

Liquid, Railroad or Starter Yeast — This consists of po- 
tato water, sugar and salt, in which yeast plants are in an active 
condition. The starter must be stored in a cool temperature 
to retard the action of the yeast. The disadvantage of liquid 
yeast lies in the fact that other yeasts than those best suited 


for bread-making may be thriving there also, and soon bread 
made from this perpetual yeast may have a characteristic flavor. 
Starter should be thrown out occasionally and remade with a 
fresh yeast cake. 

Amounts of Yeast 

From one-sixth of a cake to four cakes of compressed yeast 
may be used to one cup of liquid in making bread. The amount 
of yeast within this range does not affect the flavor of the bread 
if the dough is handled properly. With the minimum amount 
of yeast, the process will take six hours or more; with the maxi- 
mum amount of yeast, it may, with skillful handling, be com- 
pleted in one hour and twenty minutes. From two tablespoons 
to one cup liquid yeast may be used for each loaf of bread. 

Methods of Using Yeast 

Compressed or dry yeast should be softened in from one- 
fourth to one-half cup of lukewarm water to which one tea- 
spoon of sugar has been added. The compressed yeast may be 
used immediately. The dry yeast may be set aside in a warm 
place for an hour before it is added to the batter. 

Liquids for Bread-making 

All liquids should be boiled or scalded before being used, 
to kill any organisms which might develop in the dough. 

Milk is the best liquid because of its contribution to the food 
value as well as to the appearance of the loaf. It gives a white 
crumb and a rich golden brown crust. The loaf retains its mois- 
ture better than when no milk is used. 

Water is cheap, but has no food value. It produces a satis- 
factory loaf, however. 

Potato Water produces a characteristic crust excellent in 
flavor and hastens the action of the yeast. It darkens the bread 
slightly but gives a loaf which retains its moisture and does not 
get stale as quickly as when water alone is used. 

Miscellaneous Materials Used in Bread 

Sugar is added to improve flavor, to produce a better bloom 
in the crust and to hasten the activity of the yeast. Too much 
sugar slackens or softens the dough. In making large quantities 


of bread, the liquid is decreased if a large quantity of sugar is 

Salt is used to improve the flavor of bread. Too much salt 
retards the activity of the yeast. 

Fat is added to give slight tenderness to both crust and crumb 
and to improve the keeping qualities of the loaf. Any soft fat 
of mild flavor may be used as shortening in bread. 

Eggs give a yellow color to the crumb and a brown rich bloom 
to the crust. Because of their leavening power, eggs add to the 
lightness of the loaf. 

Currants, Raisins, Dates and Other Fruit add flavor 
and nutrition but have little effect on the texture of the dough. 

Nuts add shortening in addition to flavor and food value. 

General Directions for Making Bread 

Scald All Liquids to ensure destruction of micro-organisms 
which might interfere with the action of the yeast plant. 

Add Fat, Sugar and Salt to the hot liquid and let it cool 
until it is lukewarm. 

Add the Yeast Cake, softened in a small amount of water 
to which one teaspoon of sugar may be added. 

Add the Flour, sifted before measuring, except graham 
and whole-wheat flours, which are measured before they are 
sifted. There are two methods of mixing flour into dough: 


Add one-half of the flour to the liquid-and-yeast mixture 
and beat thoroughly. Set in a warm place. When the batter 
is light, add the remaining flour, or enough to make a dough 
of the desired stiffness, and knead thoroughly until it no 
longer sticks to the board. 


Add to the liquid-and-yeast mixture all the flour to be used 
or enough to make a dough of the desired stiffness and knead 
thoroughly until it no longer sticks to the board. This method 
may always be used with compressed yeast. 

Kneading Bread— Press the dough away with the palms of 
your hands. Stretch the dough from the edge, folding the 







—Wheat Flour Institute 


back edge over to the center. Press the dough away with the 
palms of your hands, exerting sufficient force to cause the part 
folded over to adhere to the mass under it, and repeat folding. 
Turn dough one-quarter around and repeat kneading. Con- 
tinue turning, folding and kneading until dough is smooth 
and elastic and will not stick to an unfloured board. 

First Rising of Dough — Put the dough into a greased 
receptacle large enough to hold at least three times the bulk of 
the dough. Grease the top of the dough, cover the receptacle 
and set in a warm place. Let the dough rise until it trebles its 

Second Rising of Dough — Remove dough from receptacle, 
bring the top around the under side and fold edges together. 
This leaves a ball-shaped mass, round and smooth on the upper 
surface. Bread carefully shaped in this way seems to give a 
much better product than seamy rough dough. Put back in 
receptacle. Grease the dough, cover the receptacle, return to 
warm place to rise again. This second rising is not essential 
but is worth while because it improves both the texture and 
the flavor of bread. 

Shaping into Loaves — Shape by folding the sides of a piece 
of dough under while pressing the dough so as to lengthen it. 
The top should be kept perfectly smooth and the only crease 
in the dough should be on the under side as the loaf is placed 
in the tin. If a soft crust is desired, grease the dough. To braid, 
cut into three, roll lengthwise, pinch together at one end, and 
proceed. Cover and allow to rise until double its bulk. 

Baking Bread — A loaf of average size should bake from fifty 
to sixty minutes at a beginning temperature of about 400° F. 
After fifteen or twenty minutes, the temperature of the oven 
may be reduced. A moderate heat for sixty minutes produces 
better bread than a hot oven for thirty minutes. 

The baking process may be divided into four periods: 

First 1 5 minutes the dough should continue to rise. 

Second 1 5 minutes the dough should crust over and brown 

Third 1 5 minutes the center of the loaf should bake and the 
crust continue to brown. 

Fourth 15 minutes the loaf should shrink from the sides of 
the tin and should be browned evenly over its entire surface. 
It should have a hollow sound when tapped. 


Bread is baked to complete the rising, kill the yeast plants, 
drive otf the carbon dioxide and alcohol, dextrinize the crust, 
harden the cell walls of the crumb and develop the desired 

Tests for Determining When Bread Is Done 

1. When the color is a rich golden brown. 

2. When the loaf shrinks away from the sides of the pan. 

3. When the sides of the pan sizzle when touched with 

a damp finger. 

4. When a clean toothpick inserted comes out free from 

any particles of the dough. 

5. When the loaf gives a hollow sound on being tapped. 

Characteristics of a Good Loaf of Bread 

Size and Shape — ^A medium-sized loaf made of dough 
weighing from one pound to one and one-quarter pounds costs 
less to bake and is more likely to be thoroughly baked than a 
very large loaf. A moderate-sized loaf is about four or £.ve 
inches deep, eight or nine inches long, and four or five inches 

The careful shaping of the dough is the first step necessary 
in making a well-shaped loaf of bread. 

Color — ^Bread should have a good bloom and be golden 
brown in color with a depth of crust on top, bottom and sides. 
The crumb should be cream- white in color with no dark streaks 
through it. A grayish color indicates poor flour or poor 
handling of the dough. 

Texture — ^Nothing is more difficult to describe than texture, 
nothing more indicative of quality. Perfect texture of the 
crumb depends on kneading the dough until it is smooth and 
elastic and until it can be kneaded on an unfloured board with- 
out sticking. It depends on having the dough rise to double 
or treble its size once or twice before it is made into the loaf^ 
and once in the tins. It depends on careful baking. To de- 
termine the texture of the crumb, cut the loaf in two. The 
holes should be small and uniform with no streak near the bot- 
tom of the loaf and no lumps through the loaf. Press the 


center of the loaf with the knuckles; if the elasticity and mois- 
ture are right, the loaf should spring back to shape. 

The crust should be smooth without large holes on the bot- 
tom and without a split on one side of the loaf. If the top 
crust is rough it may be due to insufficient kneading or to 
putting the dough into the tins before it is perfectly smooth. 

Flavor and Odor — A well-made, well-baked loaf will 
taste slightly sweet, neither too fresh nor too salty, and will 
have no suggestion of acidity, rawness or mustiness. 

Common Causes of Inferior Bread 

Poor Flour — A cheap flour is an expensive flour because it 
makes a loaf inferior in texture, color, flavor and volume. 

Old Yeast — ^Dead yeast plants can not leaven bread. Old 
compressed-yeast cakes or dry yeast which has been stored 
away until many of the yeast plants are dead will act very 
slowly if at all and will not give best results. 

Too Much or Too Little Kneading — Over-kneaded 
dough becomes sticky and will not rise well in the oven. Un- 
der-kneaded dough makes streaked bread, poor in texture, 
which sometimes contains lumps that might have been worked 
out in the kneading. 

Too Much Flour — ^Too stiff a dough rises very slowly and 
therefore often is not allowed to rise sufficiently. This is a 
green dough and produces a loaf with poor flavor. 

Over-Rising — ^Too long rising gives a very porous loaf with 
little flavor, a pale crust and a porous crumb with broken, irreg- 
ular cells. This bread crumbles badly. If the rising continues 
too long, the bread is sour. 

Under-Rising — ^This gives a bread of dark crust which has 
blisters just under the crust. The loaf is small and flat. It 
browns easily in the oven. Such dough is said to be green. 

Too Cool an Oven — ^Bread will continue to rise too long 
if the oven temperature is too low. The result is bread that is 
very porous in the center and upper part of the loaf. 

Too Hot an Oven — ^The dough crusts over immediately 
and can not continue to rise the first ten or fifteen minutes it 
is in the oven, or the crust may break as it is forced up — 
usually on one side more than the other. The crust becomes 
very brown while the center is underdone. 

RoPM in Bread— This appears during hot, damp weather. 


It is due to the presence of a bacillus and the ropy, stringy- 
quality does not develop immediately after the bread is baked. 
Rope gives bread a very disagreeable odor and makes it unfit 
for use. 

If rope develops all utensils used in making bread and con- 
tainers in which bread is stored should be sterilized with boil- 
ing water. Vinegar equal to two per cent, of the amount of 
flour used should be added to all bread made until the supply 
of flour is exhausted. This is approximately one-half ounce 
(one tablespoon) of vinegar to one and one-half pounds of 

Mold — Bread wrapped while hot molds quickly. Containers 
used for storing bread should be washed and aired frequently, 
and immediately if mold is found. 

Care of Bread After Baking 

Bread should be removed from the tins as soon as it is taken 
from the oven, and placed on racks or crosswise of the tins so 
that air can circulate on all sides of it. Quick cooling prevents 
loss of moisture. 

Varying from Recipes in Making Bread 

Water may be substituted for milk in all bread recipes. This 
is not always desirable, however, as one purpose of milk is to 
increase the nutritive value of bread. 

In recipes using compressed yeast, one cup potato yeast may 
be substituted for one cake compressed or dry yeast. When 
potato yeast is used it is necessary to use a little more flour. 


2 cups milk ^ to 2 compressed yeast 

lYz teaspoons salt cakes softened in Y^ to Yz 

1 teaspoon to 2 tablespoons cup lukewarm water 

sugar 6 to 8 cups sifted flour 

Shortening, if desired, up to (enough to make a dough) 

2 tablespoons 

Scald milk, add salt, sugar and shortening and cool. When 
lukewarm add the softened yeast. Add flour to make a stiff 
batter, beating well. Add flour enough to make a firm but not 
stiff dough. Mix and turn on to a floured board. Knead until 


the mixture is smooth and elastic to the touch and until it does 
not stick to the hands or to the unfloured board. Put into a 
greased bowl, brush over top with melted fat. Cover and set 
in a warm place to rise. When it has almost trebled in bulkj 
fold it under and let it rise again. When light, shape into loaves 
and put into greased bread tins. Let rise until almost treble in 
bulk. Bake in a hot to moderate oven (400° F. to 375 ° F.) for 
fifty to sixty minutes. Remove from pans and cool as quickly 
as possible. Well-made and thoroughly baked bread should 
keep from five to ten days in a thoroughly clean, well-aired 


Vi cup boiling water 1 cake yeast softened in 

1J4 teaspoons salt J4 cup lukewarm water 

1 tablespoon sugar 4 cups flour (enough to make 

1 tablespoon fat medium dough) 

2 cups mashed potato 

Combine in order given, following general directions for 
bread-making, straight dough method (page 100). 


(Liquid, Railroad or Starter) 

'6 medium-sized potatoes ^ cup sugar 

4 pints boiling water 3 tablespoons salt 

1 cup flour 1 yeast cake softened in 

Yz teaspoon ginger 1 cup lukewarm water 

Pare potatoes and cut in small pieces. Cook in the boiling 
water until well done. Mash the potatoes or force them 
through a colander. 

Mix sugar, salt, ginger and flour. Pour over these ingredi- 
ents the hot, cooked, mashed potatoes with the water in which 
they were cooked. When lukewarm add the softened yeast. 
Keep at room temperature twenty- four hours. 

Pour into sterilized crock or jar. Cover and store in a cool, 
dark place. Liquid yeast may be used for two weeks. It is 
not desirable to keep it longer. When making new liquid 
yeast, use t>ne cup of the old liquid yeast or a compound yeast 
cake to start it. 



Yz cup corn-meal Yz cake compressed yeast, 

1^ cups water softened in ^ cup warm 

154 teaspoons salt water 

2 tablespoons sugar 2^ to 3 cups flour (enough 

1 tablespoon shortening to make medium dough) 

Cook the corn-meal in the water ten minutes; add salt, sugar 
and fat to the mush. Cool until lukewarm, stirring occasionally 
to prevent a film. When cool add the yeast and beat well. 
Add the flour and mix well. Knead, using as little flour on 
the board as possible. Put into a greased bowl, let rise imtil 
it almost doubles in bulk. "Work it down and let it rise again. 
Mold it into loaves, place in pan and let rise until it has almost 
doubled in bulk. Bake in a moderate oven (400° to 350° F.). 


2 cups scalded milk /4 to 1 yeast cake softened in 

2 tablespoons shortening Yz cup warm water 

Ya cup molasses White flour to make a medium 

1 Y2 teaspoons salt dough 

^ cup raisins, chopped and floured 

Follow general directions for making bread, either sponge 
method (page 100) or straight dough method (page 100). Add 
raisins after the bread is kneaded. 


2 cups scalded milk J^ to 1 yeast cake softened in 
\Yz teaspoons salt Yz cup warm water 

2 tablespoons molasses or 1 cup wheat flour 

2 tablespoons sugar About 5 cups graham flour 

Follow general directions for making bread, adding only the 
white flour at first. Let the mass stand in a warm place until 
light. Stir in graham flour to make a stiff batter. Pour into 
a baking-dish and when it has almost doubled in bulk bake for 
one hour in a moderate oven (400° to 3 50° F.) . If a less moist 
bread is desired, enough flour, part white and part graham, 
may be used to make a dough and the bread may be made by 
the straight dough method (page 100). 




2 cups scalded milk 5 cups whole-wheat flour 

2 to 4 tablespoons sugar 2 to 3 cups white flour — 

1 to 2 tablespoons shortening enough to make a medium- 

1 Yz teaspoons salt stiff dough 

1 yeast cake softened in ^ cup warm water 

Follow general directions for making bread (page 100). 


Follow recipe for whole-wheat bread, using rye flour instead 
of whole-wheat and adding caraway seeds if desired. 


1 cup rolled oats 1 tablespoon melted shortening 

2 cups boiling water 54 to 1 yeast cake, softened in 
Yz cup molasses or brown or Y2. cup lukewarm water 

white sugar AY2 cups sifted flour 

\Yz teaspoons salt 

Let the rolled oats steam for an hour in the boiling water. 
Cool and add the yeast, molasses, salt, and melted fat. Then 
stir in the flour and set away to rise. When light, beat 
thoroughly, place in greased bread-pans, let rise again, and bake 
in a moderate oven (400° to 3 50° F.) one hour. If a less moist 
bread is desired, add enough white flour in the beginning to 
make a medium dough and follow directions for straight dough 
method (page 100). 


2 cups scalded milk 2 egg-whites 

1 yeast cake softened in XYi teaspoons salt 

54 cup lukewarm water 4 cups gluten flour 

"When the milk is cool, add the softened yeast, the salt, the 
gluten flour, a little at a time, and finally the slightly beaten 
whites of eggs. The mixture should be of a consistency to drop 
from a spoon rather than to pour and should be baked in 
greased pans filled about half full. Follow general directions 
for rising (page 101 ) . When ready, bake one hour in a moderate 


oven (400° to 350° F.). If a less moist bread is desired, add 
enough white flour to make a dough, after beating in the 
gluten flour, and follow directions for straight dough method 
of making bread, (page 100). 


1/2 yeast cake li/^ teaspoons sugar 

2 cups sifted flour % cup milk 

1/g teaspoon salt J/2 cup butter 

Crumble yeast into sifted dry ingredients and mix well. Add 
cold milk and make into a soft dough. Turn onto a lightly 
floured board and knead until light and elastic. Roll into a long 
narrow strip ^ inch thick. Divide butter into 5 portions. On 
half of strip place 1 portion of hard butter, thinly sliced. Fold 
over remaining half of strip and press down firmly. Let stand 
10 minutes in refrigerator. Repeat 4 times. After last rolling 
wrap in waxed paper and chill in refrigerator overnight. In 
morning cut dough into portions. Roll out each portion Yz inch 
thick and shape into crescents, pocketbooks, twists or any other 
desired shapes. Place on baking sheet. Brush with milk and 
melted butter. Sprinkle with salt or poppy seed if desired. 
Place shaped rolls in refrigerator, cover with waxed paper and 
let chill Yz to several hours or until needed. Bake at once in hot 
oven (400° F.) 18 to 20 minutes. Makes 16 rolls. 


2 cups scalded milk 6 cups flour (enough to make 

1 Y2 teaspoons salt a smooth, tender dough) 

4 tablespoons sugar 4 tablespoons shortening 

1 yeast cake softened in Ya cup warm water 

If a greater amount of sugar is used the rolls will be sweeter. 
If a greater amount of shortening is used, the rolls will be 
richer and more tender. Not less than two or more than eight 
tablespoons of sugar or fat should be used, however. 

Follow general directions for making bread (page 100) 
kneading in a little less flour and permitting the dough to be- 
come lighter during each rising process both after it is shaped 
and before the rolls are placed in the oven. 



Plain Rolls — When dough is Hght, cut or tear it into 
pieces about the size of a small eg§ or a walnut. Fold the 
sides under until the top of the roll is perfectly smooth. Brush 
the top with fat. Place in greased bread tin or on bread sheet 
or in individual molds. When light, bake in a hot oven (400°- 
425° F.) 

Cinnamon Rolls — ^Follow standard roll recipe. When 
dough is light, roll into a sheet about one -fourth inch thick, 
spread liberally with melted butter, sprinkle with sugar and 
cinnamon. Add currants if desired. Roll like jelly-roll. With 
sharp knife or shears cut slices from the roll and place them 
an inch apart on a well-greased sheet. When light, bake in 
hot oven (400° -42 5° F.) about twenty minutes. When baked, 
the tops may be brushed with the yolk of egg diluted with a 
tablespoon of milk and returned to oven to brown. 

Clover-Leaf Rolls — ^Follow standard roll recipe. When 
light, break dough into small pieces about the size of marbles. 
Brush with fat and place three or four of these tiny balls close 
together in greased muffin rings or pans. When very light, 
bake about fifteen minutes in hot oven (400° -42 5° F.). The 
success of these rolls depends on having the three balls together 
equal only as much dough as an ordinary roll would require 
and letting them rise very light before baking them. 

Crescent Rolls — ^Follow standard roll recipe, adding flour 
to make a stiffer dough than for most rolls. When light, cut 
the dough into small pieces the shape of triangles. Brush with 
fat. Roll each triangle, beginning at the base. Press dough 
lightly with palm of hand, bringing ends around to form a 
crescent. Place on tins some distance apart. When light, bake 
in hot oven (400° -42 5° F.) fifteen minutes. Brush with egg- 
yolk mixed with milk and return to oven for browning. 

Dinner Rolls — ^Follow standard roll recipe, using four 
tablespoons shortening, desired amount of sugar and two egg- 
whites. Add one-half the flour, beating until smooth, then 
add the beaten whites of eggs. Add the remainder of the flour, 
knead lightly and let rise. When light, cut or break dough 
into rolls the size of walnuts. Shape, place on well-greased 
pans, one-half to one inch apart, let rise and glaze with white 
of egg diluted with water. Bake in hot oven (400° -42 5° F.). 


Finger Rolls — ^Follow standard roll recipe and when light 
cut and shape into long pieces about the size and shape of a 
finger. Place on well -greased pan, brush with melted fat or 
egg-white. When light, bake in hot oven (400° -42 5° F.). 

Luncheon Rolls — ^Follow standard roll recipe using 6 to 
S tablespoons of shortening. Add two well-beaten eggs after 
one-half the flour has been added. Add remaining flour and 
knead. "When light shape into small biscuits. Place one inch 
apart in well-greased pan. When double in bulk, brush with 
egg-yolk diluted with milk and bake in hot oven (400°- 
425° F.). 

Parker House Rolls (Pocket-Book Rolls) — Follow 
standard roll recipe. Four tablespoons each of sugar and short- 
ening give excellent results. When light, roll dough one- 
fourth inch thick. Cut with biscuit-cutter, brush each circle 
with melted fat and crease through the center of each roll with 
the dull edge of a knife. Fold each roll over double. Place 
on well-greased pan one inch apart, brush with melted fat and 
when very light bake in hot oven (400° -42 5° F.). 

Twisted Rolls — ^Follow standard roll recipe. When light, 
break dou^ into small pieces and roll out with palm of hand 
into rolls about seven inches long and one-half inch thick, 
taking an end of each strip between the thumb and forefinger 
of each hand, twist in opposite directions and bring the ends 
together. Shape the two ends alike, place one-half inch apart 
on well-greased pans, brush with melted fat or egg-yolk diluted 
with milk. When light, bake in hot oven (400° -42 5° F.). 

Tea Biscuit — Follow standard roll recipe. When dough is 
light, roll and cut with biscuit-cutter. Place on well-greased 
pans one-half inch apart. When light bake in hot oven (400°- 
42r F.). 

English Muffins — ^Follow standard roll recipe, making a 
very soft dough. Knead lightly until smooth and elastic. Work 
down and when light again roll out with rolling-pin to about 
one-fourth inch in thickness. Cut in circles. When light, bake 
on tmgreased hot griddle. As soon as they are brown on one 
side, turn them over. When both sides are browned, bake 
more slowly until finished. They may be browned on the 
griddle and then put into the oven to finish baking. 

A modification of this recipe may be made by adding only 
enough flour to make a drop batter. Let it rise until light. 
Drop batter into large, greased English muffin rings, arranged 


on a greased baking-sheet. Bake in a hot oven (400° -425° 
F.) until nearly done. Turn rings upside down and complete 


1 cup milk 1 yeast cake dissolved in 

4 tablespoons shortening ^ cup lukewarm water 

1 Yz tablespoons sugar 1 t%,% 

Yz teaspoon salt 3 Yz cups flour 

Scald the milk and cool it. Cream the shortening and sugar, 
add the milk and salt. Add the dissolved yeast, the egg-white, 
well beaten, and the flour. Knead and let it rise. Shape into 
sticks about the size of a lead pencil. Put into a floured pan, 
far apart; the sticks must not touch one another after they have 
risen. When light, put into a hot oven (400° *F.) then de- 
crease the heat so that the sticks may become dry and crisp. 


2 cups scalded milk 2 yeast cakes softened in 
lYz teaspoons salt Y2 cup lukewarm Water 

1 cup sugar 9 cups flour (enough to make 

1 cup shortening soft dough) 

6 eggs 1 Y2 cups currants 

Add scalded milk to salt, sugar and shortening. When luke- 
warm, add the yeast. Add one-half the flour and beat well. 
Let rise until very light. Add slightly beaten eggs, currants 
and remaining flour. Knead lightly, let rise and when light 
place in well-oiled bread-pans. Let rise and when light bake in 
moderate oven (400° to 375° F.). When the bread is a fe\v; 
days old, cut in thick slices and toast. 


1 cup scalded milk 1 yeast cake softened in 
% teaspoon salt Ya cup warm water 

14 cup sugar 3^ cups flour 

6 tablespoons shortening 1 tg^ 
% cup finely chopped nuts 

Add the scalded milk to the salt, sugar and fat. When luke- 
warm add the yeast. Add one-half the flour and beat well. 
Let rise until very light. When light add the Qg% and the re- 
maining flour and beat well. Let rise. Divide the dough into 


two parts and shape each in a long, round piece and form two 
circles, placing the circles on a baking-tin. Brush with white 
of egg and sprinkle with finely chopped nuts. With a large 
pair of scissors cut toward the center of the ring, but not quite 
to the center, at intervals of two inches, placing the cut section 
each time flat on the tin, giving it a petal-like appearance. 
When light, bake in a hot oven (400° F.). 


1 cup scalded milk ^ teaspoon salt 

Yz to 1 yeast cake softened in 2 tablespoons sugar 

y4 cup warm water Yz cup shortening 

3 Yz to 4 cups flour (enough 1 egg 

to make a soft dough) 

Cool the milk, add the yeast and one-half the flour. When 
light add salt, sugar, shortening, egg and remaining flour. Knead 
lightly on well-floured board. Let rise until double in bulk, 
roll out and cut with biscuit-cutter. Place on well-oiled pans, 
let rise and bake in hot oven (400° F.). 


2 cups boiling water 1 tablespoon molasses 

Yz cup corn-meal 1 teaspoon salt 

Yz yeast cake 2 cups buckwheat flour 

Y4 cup warm water 1 teaspoon soda 
Yi cup hot milk 

Pour the boiling water over the corn-meal and let stand until 
it swells. Soften the yeast in the lukewarm water. After the 
corn-meal is cool, add the molasses, salt, yeast and flour. Beat 
thoroughly and set in a warm place to rise over night. It 
should rise and fall again by the morning. Then add a teaspoon 
of soda dissolved in the hot milk^ stir well^ and bake on a hot 

When the cakes are desired frequently (say, three times a 
week), fresh yeast will not be required after the first making, 
if a little more than a pint of the batter is reserved each time 
and kept in a cool place to be used instead of the yeast. Mo- 
lasses in buckwheat cakes helps to give them a good color in 
frying. Without it, they may be gray and unattractive. 


—Wheat Flour Institute 
—Modern Science Institute 


.- W 




1 cup scalded milk 1 yeast cake softened in 
y^ teaspoon salt % cup warm water 
4 tablespoons sugar 3^ cups flour 

2 tablespoons shortening 1 tgg 

Add the scalded milk to the salt, sugar and shortening. When 
lukewarm, add the yeast and one and one-half cups flour. 
Beat thoroughly. When very light, add the beaten Qg% and the 
remaining flour. Mix well and let the dough rise until double 
in bulk. Shape into portions small enough to fit into muffin- 
tins. Brush the top with egg-white slightly beaten and sprinkle 
with chopped nuts. Let rise in a well-oiled tin and bake in 
a hot oven (400''-425° F.). 


1 cup scalded milk % cup sugar 

1 cake yeast softened in % teaspoon salt 

Yx cup warm water 4 tablespoons shortening 

2 cups flour (about) Sugar, cinnamon 

Cool the milk and add the yeast and one-half the flour. Beat 
well and let rise until very light. Add the slightly beaten Qgg^ 
sugar, salt and melted fat, mix thoroughly and add remaining 
flour. Let rise until almost double in bulk. Pour into shallow, 
greased pans. When light, sprinkle thickly with sugar and 
cinnamon. Bake twenty minutes in a hot oven (400° F.). 
Serve hot. See page 476 for Upside-Down Cakes. 

1 cup scalded milk 1 yeast cake softened in 
^ teaspoon salt 5/4 cup warm water 

Yz cup sugar 4^ cups flour (about) 

Yz cup shortening 3 egg-yolks 

Add scalded milk to salt, sugar and shortening. When luke- 
warm, add yeast and one and one-half cups flour. Beat well 
and let rise until very light. Add the egg-yolks and the re- 
maining flour. Knead lightly and let rise until double in bulk. 
Roll out dough to one inch thickness and cut into rounds. Set 
these close together on a greased pan and let rise. Glaze the 
surface of each bun with a little egg-white diluted with water. 


With a sharp knife cut a cross on top of each bun. Bake about 
twenty minutes in a hot oven (400° F.). Just before remov- 
ing from the oven, brush with sugar and water. Fill the cross 
with a plain frosting. A cup of raisins may be added to the 
dough, if desired. 


1 cup milk, scalded 2 yeast cakes 

1/^ cup butter % cup lukewarm water 

2 teaspoons salt 4 eggs, well beaten 
y2 cup sugar Melted butter 

A\/2 cups bread flour 

Scald milk and add butter, salt and sugar; stir until butter 
dissolves. When tepid, add yeast previously soaked in water, 
and beaten eggs. Sift flour before measuring, beating well into 
mixture. Allow to rise in warm place six hours. Refrigerate 
over night or until ready to use. Form quickly into small balls 
to J/3 size of mufEn tins or glasses. Brush tops with melted 
butter and let rise until double in bulk. Bake in hot oven 
(400° F.) for 20 minutes. 

For Braids — Dust a bread-board lightly with flour and roll 
brioche dough gently into a sheet about one-half inch thick. 
Cut the dough in strips one-half inch wide, leaving one end 
uncut. Place on greased baking-sheet and brush the cut edges 
with melted fat. Fold the strips over each other to form a 
braid. Pinch both ends of braid together, flatten, and press 
down on pan to prevent strips separating and losing shape. 

To Make Bow-Knots — Twist strips of brioche dough lightly 
and tie in a bow-knot. Bring the ends down and press to the 

For a Dessert — A very good simple dessert is made by bak- 
ing this mixture in small shapes in mufiin-tins and serving it 
with chopped fruit and a fruit sauce poured over it. 


1 cup scalded milk 1 yeast cake softened in 

1 teaspoon salt ^ cup lukewarm water 
% cup sugar 3 ^ to 4 cups flour 

2 tablespoons shortening 1 z^% 

Yz teaspoon grated nutmeg 

Add scalded milk to salt, sugar and fat. When lukewarm, 
add the softened yeast. Add one and one-half cups flour. Al- 


low the sponge to stand in a warm place until it is so light that 
it will fall at the slightest touch. Add the egg, nutmeg, and 
remainder of the flour and knead. The dough should be softer 
than bread dough. Cover and set in a warm place to rise. Toss 
on a lightly floured board and roll until three-fourths inch 
thick. Cut with a doughnut cutter and let rise. Fry in deep 
fat (3 60° -3 70° F.) two to three minutes. When frying, put 
the raised side of the doughnut down in the fat. The heat 
will cause the top side to rise by the time the doughnut is ready 
to turn. 


1 cup milk 1 tablespoon melted shorten- 

2 tablespoons white corn-meal ing (may be omitted) 
1 teaspoon salt Flour 

1 tablespoon sugar 

Scald the milk. Allow it to cool until it is lukewarm; then 
add the sugar, corn-meal and salt. If shortening is used, add it. 
Place in a fruit can or a heavy crock or pitcher and surround 
by water at about 120° F. Water at this temperature is the hot- 
test in which the hand can be held without inconvenience. 
Approximately this temperature can be secured by mixing equal 
parts of boiling water and cold (not icy) water. Allow the 
mixture to stand for six or seven hours, or until it shows signs 
of fermentation. When it is fermented sufficiently the gas can 
be heard as it escapes. This leaven contains enough liquid for 
one loaf. If more loaves are needed, add 1 cup water, 1 tea- 
spoon salt, 1 tablespoon sugar, and 1 tablespoonful shortening 
for each additional loaf to be made. Beat thoroughly and put 
the sponge again at the temperature of about 120° F. When it 
is very light, add more flour gradually until the dough is so stiff 
that it can be kneaded without sticking to the hands or to the 
board. Knead ten or fifteen minutes; put at once into the 
pans; allow to rise until about two and one-half times its 
original bulk, and bake. This bread is never so light as bread 
raised with yeast. A loaf made with one cup of liquid therefore 
will come not quite up to the top of a pan of standard size. 


1 cup milk, scalded 14 ^P sugar 

1^ cup butter 1 teaspoon salt 


2 cakes compressed yeast 2 eggs 

14 cup lukewarm water 5-6 cups flour 

Pour hot milk over butter, sugar and salt. Crumble yeast 
into lukewarm water to soften. Cool milk to lukewarm, add 
yeast and well-beaten eggs. Beat in flour to make a soft dough, 
then turn out on a floured board and knead until smooth. Form 
into a ball and place in a greased bowl. Cover and let rise until 
double in bulk. When light, shape into a long roll about one 
inch in diameter. Coil the roll into a greased cake pan, begin- 
ning at the outside edge and covering the bottom. Brush with 
honey topping. Let rise until double in bulk and bake in mod- 
erate oven (375° F.) 25 to 30 minutes. 

Honey Topping: 

y^ cup butter 1 egg white 

2/^ cup confectioners' sugar 2 tablespoons honey, warmed 

Cream all ingredients together and brush over Twist before 


Many ways to prepare stale bread for use in canapes are 
found on page 159. Use the cookie cutter freely to produce 
additional designs. For bread croustades see page 329. If a 
lid is wanted, cut slice of stale bread to fit and toast, using an 
olive or radish attached with a toothpick for a knob handle 
(page 314). 

Day-old rolls make excellent quick canapes. Cut off one end, 
scoop out soft center and pack the shell tight with any good 
canape paste: anchovy butter, sardine paste, deviled lobster 
paste, Roquefort cheese, or any other favorite. Wrap in wax 
paper and keep in refrigerator. "When needed slice thin, arrange 
carefully on a tin and brown lightly under the broiler. Garnish 
with olive rings, radish slices or parsley. 


QUICK breads are those breads or bread-like mixtures which 
, are made up and baked at once. The essentials of quick 
breads are a liquid and flour. When leavening agents are used 
they act quickly and make the mixture light without a long 
period of waiting. 

Quick breads may be improved in flavor and texture by the 
addition of salt, sugar, eggs, shortening, etc., in various com- 
binations and proportions. Shortening and eggs contribute 
liquid to the mixture, which explains apparent discrepancies in 
proportions given in various recipes for quick breads. 

Ready-to-Use Flours — Prepared flours which contain 
leavening and other ingredients require only milk or water to 
make excellent griddle cakes. The addition of eggs and shorten- 
ing produces a batter suitable for mufiins, waffles, and similar 
quick breads. 

Types of Quick Breads 

There are four types of quick breads — the pour batter, the 
drop batter, the soft dough and the stiff dough; the latter is 
seldom used. 

[The Pour or Thin Batter will pour easily from a spoon or 
a pitcher and can vary in degree of thinness. The breakfast 
puflf and the popover mixtures are examples of the thinnest 
batter, while the griddle-cake and the waffle mixtures are ex- 
amples of a thicker pour batter. 

The Drop, or Thick, Batter does not pour readily, but 
drops In a soft moist mass from a spoon or must be shaken or 
helped free from it. Mufflns and fritters are examples of the 
drop batter. 

The Soft Dough can be handled more or less easily. Biscuits 
and some cookie mixtures are examples of the soft dough. 

The Stiff Dough can be handled easily, and some force 
must be used to roll it out. The Southern beaten biscuit and 
noodles are examples of the stiff dough. 



Approximate Proportions of Liquid to Flour in Making 
Quick Breads 

Pour or Thin Batter — ^Use 1 cup liquid with I to V/z cups flour 
Drop or Thick Batter — Use 1 cup liquid with 1 ^ to 2 cups flour 
Soft Dough — ^Use 1 cup liquid with 2 to lYz cups flour 
Stiff Dough — ^Use 1 cup liquid with 4 to 5 cups flour 

Methods of Mixing Quick Breads 

Muffin Method — This method is usually used for the 
batter type of quick bread. The dry ingredients are mixed and 
sifted, then the liquid and egg (if used) are added, either 
separately or combined. When well mixed, the melted shorten- 
ing is beaten in. 

Cake Method— This method is used for the richer muffins. 
The shortening is creamed, the sugar stirred in, then the beaten 
egg added. The rest of the dry ingredients are mixed and sifted 
and added gradually to the first mixture alternately with the 

Biscuit Method — ^The dry ingredients are mixed and sifted 
and the shortening cut in with knives or worked in with the 
tips of the fingers, it being necessary to keep the fat hard until 
the dough goes into the oven. If the shortening becomes warm, 
or is melted, the result is not flaky and flakiness should be a 
characteristic of biscuits. 

PopovER Mixtures should be thoroughly beaten with an 
egg-beater for several minutes, in order to introduce as much 
air as possible and to break the liquid present into tiny droplets. 
The mixture, being very thin, will not hold air very long, so 
it should be poured immediately into the baking containers, 
which may be of tin, glass, aluminum, earthenware, iron or 
steel. If metal containers are used, they should be hot when 
the batter is poured into them, so that the baking may begin 
as soon as the pans are put into the oven. A hot oven is needed 
at first and until the batter has risen to full height, then the 
temperature should be reduced in order to prevent burning. 

For Griddle-cakes and Waffles the griddles and irons 
should stand perfectly level; then if the batter is poujred 
steadily from a pitcher or from the tip of a large spoon, it will 
spread itself evenly. 

Muffin Mixtures and Similar Batters should be stirred 


and beaten only enough to combine ingredients thoroughly and 
produce smoothness of texture. The muffins should be baked 
at once. 

Soft Doughs should be handled as little as possible and 
kneaded only enough to make a smooth surface, free from dry 
flour. Much kneading develops a stretchiness in the dough 
which detracts from flakiness. The dough should be rolled or 
patted out to one-half inch or more in thickness if thick, soft 
biscuits are desired, or rolled out to one-quarter inch in thick- 
ness if thin, crusty biscuits are desired. The biscuits should 
be baked at once. 

Baking Temperatures For Quick Breads 

All quick breads should be baked in a moderate to hot oven 
(350°-460° F.). 


1^ cups flour 1 teaspoon sugar 

% teaspoon salt 1 cup milk 

2 eggs 

Mix the flour, salt and sugar. Gradually add the milk and 
the well-beaten eggs. Beat thoroughly. Have ready some small 
ramekins or muffin-pans, well greased and piping hot. Fill 
them about half full of the batter and bake in a hot oven 
(450° F.) for twenty minutes. Lower to 350° F. and bake 
fifteen to twenty minutes more. 


3 cups flour 1 tablespoon sugar 
2 teaspoons salt 2 cups milk 

lYz tablespoons baking- 1 e%g 

powder 1 tablespoon melted fat 

Mix and sift the dry ingredients and add the milk, gradually, 
beating constantly to make a smooth batter. Add the beaten 
e%% and the fat and bake on a hot griddle. This makes a thick 
bready cake. If a thinner cake is desired, use more milk. 


Use recipe for sweet-milk griddle-cakes, substituting thick 
sour milk for sweet and using one teaspoon of soda instead of 
the baking-powder. If thicker than liked, use water to thin. 



1 Yz cups stale bread-crumbs ^ cup flour 

1 Vz cups scalded milk J/2 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons shortening 4 teaspoons baking-powder 
2 eggs 

Soak the crumbs in the milk and melted fat until they are 
soft. Add the eggs, well beaten, and the dry ingredients, 
mixed and sifted. Bake on a hot, greased griddle. The cakes 
are very tender and should be turned carefully. 


1 Vz cups buckwheat flour Vz teaspoon salt 

Yz cup wheat flour 1 tablespoon shortening 

5 teaspoons baking-powder XYz cups milk 

1 tablespoon molasses 

Sift dry ingredients together. Add melted fat to milk and 
molasses, then add slowly to dry ingredients. Beat well and 
bake until brown on a slightly greased, hot griddle. 


1 cup boiled rice \Yz cups flour 

2 cups milk 1 tablespoon shortening 
Yz teaspoon salt 2 teaspoons baking-powder 
1 tablespoon sugar 1 t%% 

Put the cooked rice to soak with one cup of milk, and in the 
morning add the salt, sugar, shortening, flour and baking- 
powder. Beat the mixture well, then add the well-beaten t%% 
and the other cup of milk. Bake on a hot greased griddle. 


1 cup corn-meal 1 Yz cups milk 

1 tablespoon sugar 2 cups flour 

1 teaspoon salt 4 teaspoons baking-powder 

2 cups boiling water 2 eggs 

Put the meal, sugar, and salt into a mixing-bowl, and pour 
over them the boiling water. Let stand until the meal swells, 
then add the cold milk. When the mixture is quite cool, stir 


in the flour and baking-powder, mixing well, and lastly add 
the eggs, well beaten. Bake on a hot griddle. The cakes should 
be small, well browned and thoroughly cooked; they need a 
little longer cooking than wheat griddle-cakes. 


1 tablespoon shortening 1 teaspoon salt 

2 cups flour 4 teaspoons baking-powder 

2 cups milk 2 eggs 

Rub the shortening into the flour, and add the salt and bak- 
ing-powder. Beat the yolks of the eggs light, add the milk 
to them and beat well. Add the liquid to the flour mixture, 
stirring until quite smooth. Beat the whites light, add them 
to the batter, and bake on a hot greased griddle. 


3 eggs 1 cup milk 

1 teaspoon sugar Yz cup flour 

Yz teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon shortening 

Separate the yolks and whites of the eggs. To the beaten 
yolks add the sugar, salt and one-half cup of milk. Stir in 
the sifted flour, the other half cup of milk, the melted shorten- 
ing, then fold in the stiffly beaten whites of the eggs. When 
eggs are high, two eggs and a half teaspoon of baking-powder 
may be used. 

Bake on a hot griddle, making the cakes slightly larger than 
usual. Spread each cake with tart fruit jelly and roll while hot* 
Place all on a platter, side by side, with the lapped edge of the 
roll touching the bottom of the platter to keep the cake from 
spreading. Dredge with sugar and, if desired, burn lines on the 
sugared surface with a red hot wire toaster. This gives an 
attractive appearance and a slight flavor of burnt sugar. 


1 tablespoon shortening 1 teaspoon baking-powder 

1 tablespoon sugar 1 cup apples, chopped fine 

2 eggs Cinnamon 
1/4 cups flour Milk 

Cream the shortening and sugar, add the beaten eggs, the 
flour sifted with the baking-powder and cinnamon, and the 


chopped apples. Then gradually add milk to make a medium 
batter. Bake on a griddle as for ordinary pancakes and serve 
in an overlapping row around a platter of pork chops, or serve 
separately with roast pork, either hot or cold. Cooked apples 
or a dry apple sauce may be used with batter in the same way. 


2 cups grated potato Salt 

1 ^ss 


2 tablespoons flour 



Scrub and pare the potatoes and grate into cold water to 
keep them from discoloring. Drain well and add the egg, well- 
beaten, the flour, and sufficient milk to make a stiff batter. 
Season with salt, pepper and onion-juice. Cook in a frying- 
pan with hot fat to the depth of about one-half inch. A large 
spoonful of batter makes a good-sized cake. Cook until well 
browned and crisp and serve as a vegetable with meat and 
gravy. Especially good with a stew. 


1 Yz cups flour 1 cup milk 
Yz teaspoon salt 2 eggs 

3 teaspoons baking-powder 1 tablespoon shortening 

Mix the flour, salt and baking-powder, add the milk grad- 
ually, then the eggs, beaten until very light, and the melted 
shortening. Be sure that both sides of the waffle-iron are hot 
and that it is well greased. After baking each waffle, let the 
iron heat a minute before putting in batter for the next. 


2 eggs 1 tablespoon corn-meal 
2 cups sour cream 1 teaspoon soda 

2 cups flour Yz teaspoon salt 

Beat whites and yolks of the eggs separately. Mix with the 
beaten yolks the cream, flour, corn-meal, soda and salt, and 
finally the egg-whites, beaten until stiff. Bake at once on a 
hot waffle-iron. 





--Wiililour Institute 



1 cup corn-meal 1 cup wheat flour 

1 /4 cups water % teaspoon soda 

1 teaspoon salt Yz cup sweet milk 

1 tablespoon shortening Buttermilk 

2 eggs 

Cook the meal, water, salt, and shortening together for ten 
minutes, stirring constantly. Beat the yolks and whites of 
the eg^s separately until very light. When the mush is cool, 
add the yolks. Sift together the flour and soda? and add to 
the mush, alternating with the sweet milk. Fold in the egg- 
whites, and finally add buttermilk to make a pour batter. 
Bake in a hot waffle-iron. This mixture is improved if it stands 
for a short time before the waffles are baked. 


2 cups flour 1 cup milk 

Yz teaspoon salt 1 egg 

1 tablespoon sugar 2 tablespoons melted short- 

4 teaspoons baking-powder ening 

Mix and sift the flour, salt, sugar and baking-powder. Add 
the milk gradually^ the well-beaten t^g and melted fat. Pour 
into well-greased muffln-tins, filling the tins two-thirds full. 
Bake in a hot oven (400° -42 5° F.) from twenty to twenty- 
five minutes. 


2 cups graham flour % teaspoon soda 

2 tablespoons sugar 1 Y2 cups sour milk 

Yz teaspoon salt Y2 tablespoon shortening 

1 Qgg 1 teaspoon baking powder 

Sift the flour with the other dry ingredients, and turn the 
bran back into it. Add the milk gradually^ the well-beaten 
t%g^ and the melted shortening. Fill well-greased muffln-tins 
about two-thirds full and bake in a hot oven (400°-425° F.) 
from twenty to twenty-five minutes. 



1 cup corn-meal 1 cup milk 

1 cup flour 1 egg 

Yz teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons shortening 

4 teaspoons baking-powder 

Mix and sift the corn-meal, flour, salt and baking-powder. 
Add the milk gradually, then the well-beaten q^^, and melted 
fat. Bake in well-greased mufiin-pans in a hot oven (400°- 
425° F.). 


Use the recipe for corn-meal muffins. Fill greased muffin- 
tins one-fourth full, put a teaspoon of jelly on the top of the 
batter in each cup, cover the jelly with more batter and bake 
in a hot oven (400° -42 5° F.). 


1 cup white corn-meal 1 cup flour 

2 tablespoons brown sugar 4 teaspoons baking-powder 

1 teaspoon salt 1 c^g 

2 tablespoons shortening Yz cup chopped dates 
IY4 cups milk 

Mix the corn-meal, sugar, salt and melted shortening. Scald 
the milk, pour it over the mixture, and let it stand until the 
meal swells. When cool, add the flour sifted with the baking- 
powder, the well-beaten egg and the dates. Beat thoroughly, 
and bake in greased muffin-tins in a hot oven (400° -42 5° F.). 


IY4 cups bread flour Y3 cup milk 

Y4 cup corn-meal 1 tablespoon sugar 

3 teaspoons baking-powder 2 tablespoons shortening 
1 teaspoon salt 1 egg 

Mix and sift dry ingredients and cut in the fat. Beat the 
egg and add it to the milk. Combine the liquid with the dry 
ingredients. Knead slightly, roll out and shape as Parker House 
rolls. Bake in a hot oven (400 ° -42 5 ° F.) for twenty to twenty- 
five minutes. 



54 cup sugar 1 cup milk 

y^ cup boiled rice 5 teaspoons baking-powder 

1 tg^ 254 cups flour 

2 tablespoons shortening 1 teaspoon salt 

Mix sugar, boiled rice, egg, melted shortening and milk. Sift 
baking-powder, salt, and flour together, and add. Bake in 
greased muflfin-pans in a hot oven (400° -42 5° F.) for thirty 


1 cup bran 1 tablespoon melted short- 

^ cup flour ening 

4 teaspoons baking-powder Yz cup seeded raisins 

Yz teaspoon salt I/2 cup milk 

1 Y2 tablespoons molasses 1 Qgg 

Mix and sift the flour, baking-powder and salt, stir in the 
bran, add the molasses, the melted fat, raisins and the milk 
gradually. Then add the well-beaten Qgg and bake in muffin- 
tins in a hot oven (400° -42 5° F.) for thirty minutes. 


2 cups flour 2 tablespoons shortening 

4 teaspoons baking-powder ^ cup liquid (all milk or 

1 teaspoon salt half milk and half water) 

Mix dry ingredients and sift twice. Work in shortening 
with tips of the fingers, or cut in with two knives. Add the 
liquid gradually, mixing with a knife to a soft dough. Owing 
to differences in flours, it is not always possible to determine the 
exact amount of liquid. Toss on a floured board, pat and 
roll lightly to one-half inch in thickness. Shape with a biscuit- 
cutter. Bake in hot oven (450° -460° F.) twelve to fifteen 

Emergency Biscuit — ^Use the recipe for baking-powder 
biscuit, using more liquid to make the dough soft enough to 
drop from the spoon. The amount of the liquid in this recipe^ 
in most cases, will be just half the amount of flour (two cups 
of flour to one cup liquid). Drop the biscuit on to a wefl- 
greased pan^ or into greased muflSn-tins. Bake in a hot oven 
(450°-460° F.). 


%-Wheat Flour Institute 


Baking Powder Biscuit Pie Crust — This is sometimes used 
to top a meat pie or a deep dish fruit pie where a rich crust is 
not desired. Follow directions for baking-powder bisctiit, roll- 
ing the crust to about one-fourth inch thick, or drop it as for 
emergency biscuit, leaving a small opening in the middle for 
the escape of steam. 

Pecan Rolls — Spread biscuit dough with shortening, brown 
sugar and pecans. Roll and cut into 1-inch slices. Bake in skillet, 
muflSn tins or on cookie sheet with sugar-nut mixture instead of 
fruit as for Upside-Down Cakes. See page 476. 


Add one-half cup dates, stoned and quartered, to the recipe 
for baking-powder biscuits. 


2 cups flour 1 teaspoon salt 

Yz teaspoon soda 2 tablespoons shortening 

1 cup thick sour milk 

Follow directions for baking-powder biscuit. The dough 
should be stiffer than for baking-powder biscuit. 


2 cups flour 4 tablespoons shortening 
4 teaspoons baking-powder ^ cup milk 

1 teaspoon salt 

Mix and sift the flour, baking-powder and salt, and chop in 
the shortening. Add sufficient milk to make a soft dough. 
Toss on a floured board and roll into a sheet one-half inch thick. 
Shape with a small round cookie-cutter. Bake on a griddle, 
turning so that both sides are cooked to a delicate brown. Lay 
a napkin on a plate, arrange the scones on it and fold the corners 
of the napkin over them. Split and butter while hot. 


Yz cup shortening 2 cups flour 

54 cup sugar 1 cup milk 

4 teaspoons baking-powder 1 egg 

Cream the shortening with the sugar. Mix and sift together 
the flour and baking-powder and add to the creamed mixture, 


akernating with the milk. Add the beaten egg and bake in a 
loaf or in mufiin-pans, in a moderate oven (3 50° -400° F.). 
When fresh huckleberries are in season, one cup stirred in 
just before baking will be an agreeable addition. 


2 cups flour Yi cup shortening 

1 teaspoon salt Milk and water 

Sift the flour with the salt. "With the tips of fingers work 
in shortening and moisten to a stiff dough with equal quantities 
of milk and water mixed. Place on floured board and beat 
with rolling-pin for at least one-half hour, folding the dough 
every few minutes. Roll to one-third inch thick, shape with 
a biscuit-cutter about two inches in diameter, prick with fork 
and place on greased baking-sheet or inverted dripping-pan. 
Bake twenty minutes in hot oven (400° -42 5° F.). They 
should be light, of even grain, and should crack at the edges 
like crackers. 


2 cups water 1 tablespoon shortening 
1 cup white corn-meal 1 teaspoon salt 

1 cup milk 2 eggs 

Mix the water and corn-meal and bring slowly to the boil- 
ing-point. Cook five minutes. Add the milk, shortening, salt 
and well-beaten eggs. Beat thoroughly and bake in a well- 
greased pan for twenty-five minutes at 400° F. Serve from the 
same dish with a spoon. 


^ cup of fat and cracklings Yz teaspoon salt 

from pork, beef, or chicken 1 cup corn-meal 

fat 2 eggs 

3 cups boiling water 

Add fat and cracklings to the water, and when boiling 
sprinkle in the salt and corn-meal, stirring constantly. Cook 
in a double boiler one hour, cool, and add the well-beaten eggs. 
Turn into a greased baking-dish and bake in a moderate oven 
(350° F.) three-fourths of an hour. 



2 cups corn-meal 1 Yz teaspoons salt 

2 cups sour milk 2 tggs 

2 tablespoons shortening 1 teaspoon soda 

2 tablespoons sugar, white or 1 tablespoon cold water 

Cook together the meal, milk, shortening, sugar and salt in 
a double boiler for about twenty minutes. Allow the mixture 
to cool, then add the well-beaten eggs and the soda dissolved 
in the water. Bake in a shallow iron or granite pan for about 
thirty minutes at 400° F. 

In case there is not time to cook and cool the meal, the fol- 
lowing method of mixing may be used. Mix and sift together 
the meal, sugar, salt and soda, add the sour milk gradually, then 
the well-beaten eggs and the melted fat. Bread made by this 
method does not have as good texture as that made by the first 


1 cup corn- meal 1 egg 

1 cup white flour 1 cup milk 

3 teaspoons baking-powder 2 tablespoons melted short- 

2 tablespoons sirup ening 

Mix and sift the dry ingredients. Beat the egg light, add 
the milk, shortening and sirup. Stir into the dry mixture and 
beat well. Pour into a well-greased, shallow pan and bake 
at 400° F, twenty-five to thirty minutes. 


1 cup sour milk Yz teaspoon salt 

Yz teaspoon soda dissolved in IY2 cups corn-meal 

1 teaspoon water White of one egg beaten stiff 

1 egg-yolk and added last 

Mix in the order given and bake in muflfin-tins or in a shallow 
pan in a moderate to hot oven (400° -42 5° F.) for twenty 

To be real Southern corn-bread, this should be made of white 
corn-meal made from the whole grain. 



Yz cup bran Yz teaspoon salt 

1 cup graham flour 1 cup milk 

1 cup white flour ^ cup honey 

4 teaspoons baking-powder Yz cup chopped walnuts 

1 ^%?> 
Mix and sift the dry ingredients together. Add the nuts, 

mix, and add milk, honey and beaten q%^. Beat thoroughly. 

Pour into a greased oblong bread -pan and bake one hour at 

400° R 


1 cup corn-meal 1 teaspoon salt 

1 cup rye flour ^ cup molasses 

1 cup graham flour 2 cups sour milk or 
Y^ tablespoon soda 1^ cups sweet milk 

Mix and sift the dry ingredients. Mix the molasses and milk 
and add to the dry ingredients. Beat thoroughly and turn into 
well-greased molds, filling each mold about two-thirds full. 
Cover and steam three hours. Remove the covers and bake the 
bread (375° F.) long enough to dry it off. 


2 cups corn-meal 1 Y2 cups sour milk 
1 cup Graham flour 1 t%^ 

1 teaspoon salt Y^ cup molasses 

Y2 teaspoon soda 3 tablespoons baking-powder 

1 cup raisins 

Mix and sift the dry ingredients, add the raisins and toss 
lightly together. Add the other ingredients. Mix thoroughly 
and steam for two and three-quarters hours. 


4 cups whole-wheat flour 8 teaspoons baking-powder 

Yi cup sugar % cup seedless raisins 

1 t%% Y2 cup chopped nuts 

2 cups milk 2 teaspoons salt 

Mix the dry ingredients, add the nuts and raisins, add the 
milk and q^^ and beat thoroughly. Turn into a greased pan. 
Let the dough rise for fifteen minutes. Bake one hour in a 
moderate oven (350°-400° F.). 



2 cups bran -/■>, cup dates cut in small 

2 cups white flour pieces 

1 teaspoon salt XYz cups milk 

3 tablespoons sugar 1 egg 

4 teaspoons baking-powder 2 tablespoons melted short- 


Sift the dry ingredients together, add the dates, toss lightly- 
together and add the milk. Mix well and add beaten q^% and 
melted fat. Turn into a greased pan or mold and cover with 
oiled paper. Steam for three hours. 


2 cups bread flour 1 whole t%% 

Yi cup sugar Yolk 1 t^g 

4 teaspoons baking-powder 1 cup milk 

1 teaspoon salt Yz cup finely chopped walnut 

5 tablespoons shortening or other meats 

Mix and sift flour, sugar, baking-powder and salt. Work in 
shortening as for biscuit; then add q^^ and egg-yolk well- 
beaten, milk and chopped nut meats. Beat thoroughly and turn 
into a buttered bread pan. Let stand twenty minutes; then 
bake at 400° F. forty to fifty minutes. This is a delicious bread 
for sandwiches. 


2 cups sifted rye flour % cup sugar 

2 cups sifted wheat flour 1 tgg, slightly beaten 

6 teaspoons baking powder 1% cups milk 

11/^ teaspoons salt 1 cup cooked prunes, 


Sift together dry ingredients. Combine egg and milk, and 
add to flour mixture, stirring only until well mixed; stir in 
prunes. Turn into greased loaf pans and bake in moderate oven 
(350° F.) about 1 hour. Yield: 2 loaves, 6x3 inches, or 1 
sandwich loaf, 11x3x3 inches. 


AN encyclopedia published about 1900 defines a sandwich 
as "an article of food consisting of a slice of meat, fish, 
fowl or other food placed between two slices of bread, which 
may be plain or buttered." No such simple definition could 
be given today, for from these simple beginnings the sandwich 
has developed in all directions, and has adapted itself to such 
varied needs that it ranges from a fragile morsel served with 
afternoon tea to an elaborate combination of toast, meat, let- 
tuce, tomato, sauce, and any number of other things which 
combine to make it a complete and satisfying meal. 

Even the requirement of two slices of bread with something 
between them is no longer in force. "Open-faced" sandwiches 
offer almost unlimited opportunity for variety in both cold 
and hot meals. In these the slices of bread or toast are laid 
side by side. Sometimes, usually in hot meat sandwiches, both 
slices are covered with beef or chicken, or whatever gives the 
characteristic flavor, and the whole is covered with gravy. 
Often, especially in cold sandwiches, one slice holds its chicken 
or tomato or crab meat, while its companion is covered with 
cole slaw and dill pickles or a lettuce leaf holding a spoonful 
of mayonnaise. The possibilities are endless, and the sug- 
gestions given here can be combined and adapted to almost any 
requirement where a sandwich can be called into service. 

Serving Sandwiches 

Garnishes of fine parsley, cress, celery plumes, stuffed or ripe 
olives, or slices of lemon or pickle are effective on the serving- 
dish. Barberries and leaves, fresh nasturtium leaves and 
blossoms, or something to indicate the kind of sandwich may 
be used as a garnish. 

Making and Keeping Sandwiches 

The bread for flat sandwiches should be a day old because 
it can be cut more easily than fresh bread. For rolled sand- 
wiches fresh bread should be used. Bread baked in special 
tins which provide slices that are perfect squares or circles is 



economical when the crusts are to be cut off, but any loaf of 
comparatively fine grain may be used. 

The Bread 

All Sorts of Breads are made into sandwiches — white, 
brown, rye, graham, whole-wheat, raisin, date, nut, etc. Some- 
times two or more kinds are used together. Long narrow rolls 
are attractive when sliced lengthwise, buttered and filled. For 
picnics, where a substantial filling is desirable, the crumb of the 
roll may be removed and the hollow filled with sandwich ma- 
terial. Thin salt wafers and crackers are often used instead of 
bread for paste sandwiches. 

For Fancy Sandwiches, to be used for tea or receptions,- 
or as an appetizer at the beginning of the meal, or to be served 
with the salad, the bread should be cut into slices as thin as 
possible and the crusts should be removed. Use a sharp knife, 
so that there will be no ragged edges. 

Picnic and Lunch-Box Sandwiches are cut somewhat 
thicker than fancy sandwiches, and the crusts are generally 
left on. 

Butter and Filling 

The filling and butter for sandwiches should be increased m 
proportion to the thickness of the slice of bread. 

Preparing the Butter — The butter should be thoroughly 
creamed before it is used or it will not spread evenly over the 
bread. To cream butter, place it in a warm bowl and mash 
and beat it until it is soft. It will then spread well even on 
fresh bread. Sandwich butters are often made by creaming 
one cup of butter with one-half cup of cream. One-half cup 
of butter, creamed, will spread a two-pound sandwich loaf 
cutting forty to forty-five slices. 

Relishes such as mustard, salt, grated horseradish, chopped 
parsley, chives and curry may be added to creamed butter for 
use in sandwiches of meat, tomato, game, chicken^ fish, cheese 
or eggs. 

> Spreading Butter and Filling — ^A poorly buttered sand- 
wich is very unpalatable. Spread the butter to the very edges 
of the slices^ on the sides that are to be put together, being 
careful, however, not to let the butter spread over the edges 
So that it is untidy. If the slices need not be fitted together, 
it is often easier to spread the bread before cutting it from the 


loaf. A pliable knife or small spatula is a help in spreading 
butter or filling. 

Spread the filling on the buttered surface of one slice only 
of each sandwich. Have the filling come to the edge of the 
sandwich, if possible. 

When mayonnaise is used, not combined with a filling, as in 
mayonnaise and lettuce sandwiches, it is more evenly distributed 
if it is spread on one of the slices of bread and the lettuce leaf 
placed upon it. 

Shaping the Sandwiches 

Sandwiches may be cut with a knife into triangles, oblongs 
and similar outlines, or shaped with cutters into hearts, circles, 
crescents or any preferred design. When sandwiches are shaped 
with these fancy cutters, the bread should be shaped before it 
is spread, to avoid waste of butter and filling. Care must be 
taken afterward, however^ not to spoil the shape while spread- 
ing. Heart,^ club, spade and diamond shapes are popular for 
card parties. Heart shapes are attractive for valentine and an- 
nouncement parties and for showers. Strips, triangles, circles, 
crescents and rolled and folded sandwiches are used for teas. 

Rolled Sandwiches — Cut the crusts from a fresh loaf of 
bread (or if a stale loaf of bread is used, cut off the crusts and 
wrap for an hour in a cloth wrung from cold water) . Spread 
a thin layer of butter on one end of the loaf and then cut from 
it as thin a slice as possible. If a filling is used, spread it on the 
buttered slice. Roll this slice with the spread side inward and 
lay it on a napkin, with the edge of the slice downward. When 
all the sandwiches have been prepared, draw the napkin firmly 
around the rolls and put them in a cold place until needed. The 
butter will harden and hold the rolls together. 

Time Savers in Sandwich Making 

In making sandwiches in quantity, route the work so that 
there will be no waste motions. Have a large enough space 
for (1) cutting the bread; (2) spreading the slices with butter 
and filling; (3) shaping and (4) wrapping the sandwiches. 

Keeping Sandwiches 

Sandwiches are best prepared just before serving, especially 
if the filling is of a kind that will become limp or soak into the 


bread. When it is necessary to make sandwiches several hours 
before they are to be used, they may be wrapped in paraffin 
paper or a sHghtly dampened cloth or placed in a stone jar. 

Filling for Meat and Salad Sandwiches 

When sliced meat is used, a sandwich is easier to eat and 
generally more palatable if the meat is cut as thin as a knife- 
blade with several tiny slices instead of one thick one in each 
sandwich. Fancy butters are excellent with sliced meat. 

All kinds of potted and minced meats are used between slices 
of bread with or without mayonnaise. Salted meat and fish 
fillings are improved by lemon- juice, chopped pickles or capers. 
Pastes of fresh fish and meat require high seasoning. 

All forms of meat may be used with lettuce or cress, between 
two slices of buttered bread, with or without salad dressing. 
The slices should be pressed together and the crust trimmed, if 
desired. Lettuce may be used in large, crisp leaves, or in "rib- 
bons," to make the sandwich easier to eat. Where mayonnaise 
dressing is used, the sandwiches should be made at the last 
moment, and served promptly. Tomatoes and cucumbers with 
lettuce and mayonnaise make delicious salad sandwiches. 
Filling for Tea Sandwiches 

The tea sandwich is seldom made of meat, though such things 
as minced chicken, lobster, or crab meat, and sardines beaten 
to a paste, are sometimes used for it. The bread is cut very 
thin and the fillings may be a bit of lettuce spread with mayon- 
naise dressing, chopped olives, nasturtiums, watercress and 
similar morsels. An attractive sandwich is made from diminu- 
tive Vienna rolls split not quite through and spread with vege- 
table filling. Another tea sandwich is made by spreading jelly 
or preserves between two salt crackers. If the crackers are 
spread with a thin film of butter and crisped quickly in a hot 
oven, this form of sandwich is really worth eating. Almond 
sandwiches of all varieties are delicious for the tea-table. 

Filling for Sweet Sandwiches 

Preserves of all kinds, drained from their sirup, marmalade,- 
jam, jelly, crystallized and candied fruits are used for sweet 
sandwiches with graham or salt wafers, as well as with bread or 
sponge cake. The crystallized fruits may be sliced thin and 


dipped in cream, chopped fine, moistened in orange- juice, and 
spread between bread or lady-fingers. 

Scraped or grated maple sugar mixed with chopped nuts 
is used with brown bread. Ice-cream is cut in slices and put 
between wafers or layers of sponge cake. 

Tiny tea biscuits make an excellent foundation for sweet 
sandwiches. They are split and buttered while hot and filled 
with honey and almonds, cream cheese and jam, or chopped 
nuts and marmalade. They are best served warm. 

Filling for Nut Sandwiches 

Pignolias or pine nuts, butternuts, walnuts, hickory nuts, 
almonds and pecans may all be put through a meat-chopper, 
mixed, a very little salt added, and spread over thin, buttered 
slices of brown or white bread. Or, to the ground nuts may be 
added a little salt and paprika and either salad oil or creamed 
butter to make a smooth paste. 

The salty taste of peanut butter is good with raisin bread. 
Peanuts may be rubbed to a paste with creamed butter and a 
layer of chopped preserved ginger added. 

Butternuts, walnuts, hickory nuts, almonds, or pecans may 
be used in equal parts, ground fine, with cream cheese moistened 
with sweet thick cream and seasoned with salt. Grated Ameri- 
can cheese may be used instead of cream cheese and melted 
butter instead of cream. 


Yeast bouillon, on the market as cubes or paste, makes an 
excellent spread for sandwiches, hors d'oeuvres and appetizers. 
It may be used alone or mixed with butter or other pastes. Its 
strong flavor makes it especially desirable with milder flavored 


Anchovy Butter 

Yolks of 4 hard-cooked eggs 14 ^P butter 

4 boned anchovies Paprika 

Rub the yolks of the eggs to a smooth paste with the an- 
chovies and butter and add paprika to taste. 


Ham Butter 

Yz cup cooked ham Yolks of 2 hard-cooked eggs 

Yz cup butter Pepper 

Grind the ham and pound smooth with the butter and the 
yolks of the eggs and season with pepper. 

Shrimp Butter 

1 cup cooked shrimps 1 cup butter 

Salt About y^ cup tarragon vine- 

54 teaspoon cayenne gar or lemon- juice 

Pound the shrimps in a mortar with salt and cayenne. Add 
the butter and moisten the mixture with the tarragon vinegar 
or lemon-juice. 

Sandwiches with Nut Fillings 

54 cup figs Yz teaspoon salt 

54 cup raisins Yz cup peanut butter 

2 tablespoons light corn-sirup 2 tablespoons lemon-juice 

Wash figs and raisins and put through a food-chopper. Add 
salt, peanut butter, lemon- juice and corn-sirup, and mix well. 
Use between thin, buttered slices of bread. 


Yz cup peanut butter Y2 cup orange marmalade 

Ya cup cream 

Mix peanut butter with cream or milk until it is smooth 
and light in color. Spread generously on thin slices of bread, 
and add a layer of orange marmalade. The marmalade may be 
mixed with the peanut butter, if preferred. 


54 cup peanut butter 54 cup banana pulp or sliced 

Ya cup cream or hot water bananas 


Mix the peanut butter with the cream until it is smooth and 
light in color, then combine with the banana pulp and a little 


lemon-juice and use between thin, buttered slices of bread. 
Or place slices of banana over layer of peanut butter on breadt 


Yz cup peanut butter 54 cup cream or hot water 

Yz cup chopped pickle 

Cream peanut butter and water together and add chopped 
pickle. Use between thin, buttered slices of bread. 


1 cup peanut butter 1 small Bermuda or 

54 cup mayonnaise Spanish onion 

Beat peanut butter, add mayonnaise and spread sandwiches. 
Slice onion in very thin slices and put a layer of these over 
mixture on bread. 


No. 1 

1 54 cups almonds 3 tablespoons lemon-juice 

Yz teaspoon salt 

Chop the almonds fine, mix with the salt and lemon- juice 
and use with thin slices of bread, buttered. Cut into small 
ovals, pressing a blanched almond in the center of each sand- 

No. 2 

Use the same quantities as for No. 1. Toast the almonds a 
light brown and grate them. Form into a paste with the lemon- 
juiccj add the salt and spread over the bread. 

No. 3 

54 cup almonds % cup shredded celery 

54 cup mayonnaise 

Chop the almonds fine and mix them with the celery. Spread 
between thin, buttered slices of bread. Sandwiches filled with 
this mixture are an excellent accompaniment to salads or cold 


meats. When served with meats the celery and almonds may- 
be moistened with a few spoonfuls of mayonnaise. 


Grind marrons glaces (candied French chestnuts) fine, 
spread on rounds of buttered bread and cover with rounds of 
bread from which the centers have been cut. Fill the centers 
with whipped cream, sweetened and flavored, and decorate with 
blanched and chopped pistachio nuts or tiny candied violets. 

Sandwiches with Cheese or Egg Fillings 


No. 1 

Place thin slices of American, Swiss or any preferred mild or 
snappy cheese between two slices of buttered bread. Add a 
dash of mustard if desired. 

No. 2 

Grate sapsago and Parmesan cheese and sprinkle thickly 
over a slice of buttered bread. Then dust with a mild red 
pepper and add another slice of buttered bread. 

No. 3 

Yolks of 3, hard-cooked eggs Paprika Salt 

2 tablespoons salad oil 1 tablespoon vinegar 

Mustard 1 cup grated cheese 

Rub smooth the yolks of the hard-cooked eggs. Add the 
oil, stirring it in very slowly with a fork, and mix thoroughly 
with a little mustard, paprika, salt and the vinegar. Add the 
grated cheese and use between thin buttered slices of white or 
brown bread. 

No. 4 

Y2 pound American full cream % cup cream 

cheese, grated Yz teaspoon dry mustard 

2 tablespoons melted butter Paprika Salt 

Mix all the ingredients thoroughly and use between thin 
buttered slices of bread. This filling will keep indefinitely in 
closed jars in the refrigerator. 



1% cups cottage cheese Yn teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons butter 2 tablespoons thick cream 

Cut slices of brown bread one-half inch thick, not removing 
the crusts. Rub the cheese to a smooth paste, and add slowly, 
beating all the while, the melted butter, the salt and the thick 
cream. Spread each slice of bread thickly with this mixture. 
Cover with a very thin slice of white bread and on top of this 
put a thin layer of the cheese mixture. Cover with a slice of 
brown bread and trim into shape. 


1 cup cream cheese or Y^ cup anchovy paste 

10 tablespoons grated Par- Pinch of mustard (may be 
mesan cheese omitted) 

Mix the anchovy paste with the cheese and add mustard if 
desired. Spread between slices of buttered bread or toast. 


No. 1 

1 cup cream cheese 2 bananas 

54 cup cream ^4 cup mayonnaise 

Place ice-cold bananas, sliced and covered with mayonnaise, 
between buttered slices of white bread spread with cream 
cheese softened with the cream. 

No. '2 

Make a pulp of the bananas and mix with the softened cheese. 



Cut half-inch slices of both brown and white bread. Spread 
each slice with butter and cream cheese and place four slices 
together, alternating the brown bread with the white. Press 
together and slice through the four layers, cutting them into as 
thin slices as possible without allowing the slices to break. 
When neatly done, the effect of the alternate layers of dark 
and light is very good. 









Yz cup cream cheese Yz cup orange marmalade 

54 cup cream 

Spread half the slices of buttered bread with the cheese, 
softened with the cream, and seasoned with salt if desired, 
and spread the other slices with orange marmalade. Press the 
slices together. 


1 cup cream cheese or cottage Y^ cup chopped olives or 

cheese Ya cup chopped nuts or 

Ya cup mayonnaise or Ya cup chopped pimientos 

Mix the cheese with the mayonnaise, chopped olives, nuts, or 
pimientos, and use between very thin slices of brown or rye 
bread, lightly buttered. 


1 cup cream cheese Lettuce leaves 

Ya cup chopped Bermuda Ya cup mayonnaise 


Mix the cheese with the onion. Use with mayonnaise and a 
crisp lettuce leaf between slices of buttered bread. 


Yz cup Roquefort cheese 2 tablespoons butter 

Salad oil Whole-wheat bread 

To the cheese, add creamed butter and enough salad oil to 
make a paste. Use a thin layer between buttered slices of 
whole-wheat bread. 


2 hard-cooked egg-yolks Y2 teaspoon pepper 

1 tablespoon melted butter Y2 teaspoon mustard 

Y3 pound cheese 1 tablespoon vinegar 

Yz teaspoon salt 

Rub the egg-yolks and butter together until they make a 
smooth paste, then add the grated cheese, salt, pepper and 


mustard, mixing thoroughly. Stir in the vinegar and spread 
between buttered sHces of bread, crackers or pieces of oat-cake. 


Yz cup cream cheese % cup chopped pimiento 

y^ cup chopped olives ^ cup mayonnaise 

Lettuce leaves Boston brown bread 

Spread the cream cheese on thin slices of Boston brown bread. 
Spread an equal number of buttered slices with chopped olives 
and pimientos mixed with mayonnaise dressing. Press together 
in pairs with a crisp lettuce leaf between. 


No. 1 

Hard-cooked eggs Salt Paprika 

Pepper Capers or pickles if desired 

Slice the eggs and lay the slices between thin buttered slices 
of bread. Season to taste with salt, pepper and paprika and 
add a layer of chopped capers or pickles if desired. These are 
good for lunches for traveling or picnics. 

No. 2 

1 cup chopped, hard-cooked Chopped capers or pickles 

t^^ y^ cup mayonnaise 

Mix the chopped Qgg with the mayonnaise and add salt, 
pepper and chopped pickles or capers to taste. Use between 
thin buttered slices of bread. 

Sandwiches with Meat and Poultry Fillings 


No. 1 

1 cup cooked chicken me?t, ^ cup mayonnaise 

white or dark 

Chop the chicken meat very fine, mix with the mayonnaise, 
and spread thin slices of bread, buttered or unbuttered, with 
the paste. 


No. 2 

2 egg-yolks 1 cup minced, cooked chicken 

1 teaspoon melted butter Salt Pepper 

1 teaspoon lemon-juice 1 teaspoon stock 

Cook the eggs thirty to forty-five minutes, in water just be- 
low boiling-point, take out the yolks, and mash as fine as pos- 
sible. Add to these the melted butter and lemon- juice, the 
minced chicken, salt, pepper and stock. Mix all well together. 
A paste will be the result and with this very delicate sandwiches 
may be made. 

No. 3 

1 cup cooked white meat of 6 tablespoons thick cream 

chicken Yz teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon gelatin Dash of paprika 

1 tablespoon cold water 

Chop the chicken very fine and pound to a paste, adding salt 
and a dash of red pepper. Soak the gelatin in the cold water 
for fifteen minutes, and add the thick cream. Dissolve the 
gelatin over boiling water, beat it slowly into the chicken 
and add salt and paprika. Set aside to cool, smoothing into an 
even mass. When cool, divide into squares, cut these squares 
into very thin slices and arrange on thin buttered slices of bread. 
Cut into fancy shapes, removing the crusts. 

No. 4 

^ cup cooked chicken meat |^ cup chopped almonds 

1/4 cup chopped stuffed olives ^ cup mayonnaise 

Cut the chicken meat into small bits and add the almonds and 
olives. Moisten with mayonnaise and spread on thin, buttered 
slices of bread. 


1 cup cooked chicken meat 54 cup mayonnaise 

Yz cup celery 54 cup cooked ham 

1 tablespoon green pepper 

Mince the chicken, ham, celery and green peppers. Mix 
with the mayonnaise and spread on buttered bread. 



Between buttered slices of white bread, use thin slices of 
white meat of roasted chicken and thin sHces of dill pickle. 
Cut into triangles and serve on lettuce leaves. 


1 cup cooked chicken livers 1 tablespoon lemon-juice 

2 tablespoons chopped crisp 2 tablespoons sliced truffles 
bacon 4 drops tabasco sauce 

Salt Pepper 2 stalks celery, minced 

Mash the chicken livers, add the chopped bacon, salt, pepper, 
tabasco sauce, lemon-juice and sliced truffles. Use between 
slices of bread spread with creamed butter mixed with minced 


1 pint minced cold boiled Black pepper 

chicken and tongue, mixed 1 teaspoon Worcestershire 
54 cup melted butter sauce 

1 egg-yolk 

To cold boiled tongue and chicken add the melted butter, 
the yolk of the egg, beaten, a little black pepper, and the 
Worcestershire sauce. Spread this over buttered bread. 


No. 1 

Moisten pate de foie gras with cream to make a thin paste. 
Spread on lettuce leaves on white buttered bread and sprinkle 
with French dressing. 

No. 2 

1 tablespoon pate de foie gras 2 tablespoons butter 
54 cup boiled chestnuts 

Mash the butter and chestnuts to a paste, add the pate de foie 
gras and mix well. Spread very thin on slices of buttered bread. 



1 % cups cold roast beef Yz teaspoon Worcestershire 

1 teaspoon salt sauce 

Yz tablespoon tomato catchup 1 tablespoon melted butter 

To minced cold roast beef add the salt, tomato catchup, 
Worcestershire sauce and melted butter. Spread on buttered 
bread, cover with a second slice, and cut into fancy shapes. 


No. 1 

Slice boiled ham very thin and use several tiny slices between 
thin slices of buttered bread, adding a little mustard if desired. 

No. 2 

1 cup ham 54 teaspoon mustard mixed 

1 tablespoon salad oil with ^ teaspoon water to 

1 tablespoon lemon-juice a smooth paste 


Chop the ham fine and season with salad oil, lemon-juice, 
a dash of pepper and the mustard. Spread between thin, but- 
tered slices of bread. 

No. 3 

1 hard-cooked t%^ 1 cup boiled ham 

1 small spiced cucumber 54 cup mayonnaise 


Chop the hard-cooked 0,%%^ cucumber pickle and boiled ham 
and mix well. Moisten with the mayonnaise, season to taste, 
and spread between thin slices of buttered bread. 


1 54 cups chopped ham Few drops tabasco sauce 

1 teaspoon onion-juice Anchovy paste 

Paprika Creamed butter 

Add to the chopped meat, onion-juice, paprika, a few drops 
of tabasco sauce and a little anchovy paste mixed with creamed 
butter. Use between thin, buttered slices of bread. 



1 cup minced ham ^ cup butter 

1 teaspoon parsley Garlic or onion-juice 

Cayenne pepper 2 sliced tomatoes 

Pinch of mace Mayonnaise 

Few drops lemon- juice 

To minced ham, add parsley, cayenne, mace, lemon- juice and 
creamed butter. Rub the bowl with garlic or add a little onion- 
juice. Spread rounds of buttered bread with the mixture and 
between each two rounds place a thin slice of ripe tomato spread 
with thick mayonnaise. 


54 cup chopped bacon Vz cup mashed liver 

^ cup cream Salt and pepper 

Mix chopped bacon and mashed liver, season with peppef 
and salt and mix with cream. Spread between slices of but- 
tered bread. Decorate the plate with a border of lemon slices 
and hard-cooked eggs cut into halves lengthwise, with a sprig 
of cress or parsley on each half &%'^, 


1 54 cups cold mutton or lamb 1 teaspoon chopped mint 

1 teaspoon salt Dash of pepper 

1 tablespoon capers 1 tablespoon lemon-juice 

Chop cold mutton or lamb very fine, add salt, capers, chopped 
mint, pepper and lemon- juice. Use between thin buttered 
slices of whole-wheat bread. Serve on a bed of lettuce leaves. 


54 pound cooked tongue Salt 

54 cup mayonnaise or prepared Pepper 
mustard Cayenne 

Chop the tongue and pound to a paste, or cut into thin 
slices and use, with the mayonnaise and seasonings, between thin 
buttered slices of bread. 



lYi cups chopped veal 1 tablespoon lemon- juice 

1 teaspoon salt Mustard Pepper 

Chop the veal, and season with salt, lemon-juice and a little 
pepper and mustard. Spread mixture between thin buttered 
slices of bread. 

Sandwiches with Fish Fillings 

Anchovies, sardines, or freshly boiled fish may be used for 
sandwiches. These are better pounded to a paste, with a few 
drops of lemon- juice added during the pounding. Fresh white 
fish, like cod, may be seasoned with salt and pepper, moistened 
with a little mayonnaise or even a plain white sauce, and then 
put between two layers of buttered bread. 


1 cup flaked fish % cup thick mayonnaise 

2 tablespoons chopped celery 1 tablespoon Worcestershire 
2 tablespoons chopped cucum- sauce or catchup, if desired 

ber pickles, either sweet or Salt 
sour Pepper 

Delicious and appetizing sandwich fillings are made by mix- 
ing these ingredients. Season to taste with salt and pepper 
and spread between thin buttered slices of bread. 


Yz cup mashed anchovies or Yz cup olives 

anchovy paste Y4 cup cream or butter 

Chop the olives and* mix with the anchovy paste. Add the 
butter or cream and use between thin buttered slices of bread. 


Y2 cup caviar 2 teaspoons lemon-juice 

Flavor caviar with lemon-juice and spread thin on lightly 
buttered bread. A small quantity of chopped pickled beets may 
be added if desired. 



154 cups crab or lobster ^ cup French dressing or 

meat mayonnaise 

Butter thin slices of whole-wheat bread. Cover half of them 
thickly with flaked boiled crab meat or diced lobster meat and 
add a teaspoon of French dressing or mayonnaise. Cover with 
the other buttered slices of bread and cut into fancy shapes. 


Large oysters Pepper 

Salt Tabasco sauce 

Horseradish Lemon-juice 

Worcestershire sauce Cress 

Fry the oysters and place two or three between two buttered 
slices of brown or white bread. Sprinkle with pepper, salt, 
horseradish, lemon-juice, tabasco, Worcestershire or water cress, 
according to taste. 


1 cup cold boiled or canned % cup mayonnaise 


Mix the salmon with the mayonnaise until a fine even mix- 
ture is obtained. Remove the soft crumb from French rolls and 
fill the space thus made with the salmon mixture. 


12 large sardines % cup mayonnaise or a little 
1 hard-cooked egg Worcestershire sauce, if de- 

Pepper desired 

Lemon-juice Salt 

Shrimp butter, if desired Creamed butter, if desired 

Drain the oil from the fish, remove the skins and pound the 
fish to a paste with a little salt, pepper and lemon- juice. Use 
between thin buttered slices of bread. Shrimp butter may be 
mixed with the sardine paste and the flavor may be varied by 
the addition of Worcestershire sauce or mayonnaise or both. 


The mashed yolk of the hard-cooked egg and three parts of 
creamed butter to one of the sardine mixture makes a de- 
Hcious sandwich fiUing. 


1 shad roe 3 drops tabasco sauce 

Yolks of 3 hard-cooked eggs 1 teaspoon anchovy paste 

Butter Salt 
Yz teaspoon paprika 

Cook the roe and mash it together with the yolks of the 
hard-cooked eggs. Add an equal amount of creamed butter, 
the paprika, tabasco sauce, anchovy paste, and salt to taste. 
Spread between thin buttered slices of bread. Slices of lemon, 
peeled and salted, may be put between rounds of buttered bread 
and passed with the shad roe sandwiches. 

Sandwiches with Vegetable Fillings 


No. 1 

Soak thin slices of cucumber for one hour in good white 
vinegar seasoned with salt and pepper. Add one teaspoon of 
chopped chives, if desired. Drain the slices and use them 
between thin, buttered slices of brown or white bread. Each 
sandwich may be the size of a cucumber slice, if daintiness is 

No. 2 

Chop a peeled cucumber and mix with mayonnaise. Use 
between thin buttered slices of brown or white bread. 


Pour salted water over thin slices of onion (or chopped 
onion) and let it stand for a time to extract the very strong 
flavor. Then drain the onion and use between buttered slices 
of bread, seasoning with pepper, salt, and a little mustard if 



y^ cup pimiento 1 tablespoon lemon-juice 

Butter 14 cup anchovy paste 

Yz teaspoon tabasco sauce Salt 

Rub pimientos to a paste with creamed butter and season 
with tabasco sauce, lemon- juice, anchovy paste and salt. Spread 
between thin buttered slices of whole-wheat bread. 


Yz cup potted ham Y2 cup sliced radishes 

Y4 "^o Y2 cup mayonnaise 

Peel and slice radishes, dip them in rich, thick mayonnaise, 
and lay on thin slices of bread covered with potted ham. 


4 tomatoes Lettuce leaves ^ to ^ cup mayonnaise 

Spread thin slices of buttered bread with mayonnaise, cover 
with a crisp lettuce leaf and spread with peeled, chilled toma- 
toes sliced thin. Cover with a second slice of bread, and cut 
into desired shape. Crisp bacon is a pleasing addition. 


1 Y4 cups cress 2 tablespoons lemon-juice or 

Paprika Y4 cup mayonnaise 

Sprinkle cress with salt, paprika, and lemon-juice, or mix 
with mayonnaise. Lay between slices of brown bread. • 


An attractive canape plate may be made by cutting twice 
horizontally, through a round loaf of rye bread. The slice 
should be % inch thick and free of crust. Spread with soft- 
ened butter and mayonnaise dressing. Mark in circles as guides 
with increasingly larger articles — a small cookie cutter at 
center, a large cutter, a bowl, a small plate, and decorate in 

concentric rings. Fill the center with caviar, piling chopped 
parsley or egg yellow at very center. Surround with circle o£ 
cream cheese tinted with vegetable coloring pressed from a 
pastry bag. Continue these rings of appetizer paste and 
colored cream cheese in accordance with your taste or color 
scheme. Use red salmon paste, sardellen paste, anchovy paste, 
shrimp paste, etc. When finished, use a very sharp knife to 
cut like a pie but do not separate. Serve cold within a few 


Slice an uncut loaf of day-old white sandwich bread hori- 
zontally, getting 3 or 4 long slices % inch thick. Spread 
each slice with creamed butter and stiff mayonnaise, then each 
with a different chopped salad or sandwich mixture. Chicken, 
shrimp, salmon or tongue salad; deviled egg, sardine, anchovy, 
liver or cheese pastes may be used. Stack and cover the top 
and sides with soft cream cheese piled like frosting or whipped 
cream. Dust with paprika or chopped parsley. Chill and serve 
cold within 7 to 10 hours. Photograph on page 139A. 

Miscellaneous Sandwiches and Sandwich Fillings 

1. Raisins worked into cream cheese. 

2. Chopped raisins, figs, dates or prunes, mixed with chopped 
nut-meats and moistened with mayonnaise dressing or lemon- 

3. The well- whipped white of an egg mixed with a cup each 
of chopped raisins and nut-meats, seasoned with a little salt. 

4. Peanut butter moistened with salad dressing and mixed 
with raisins, dates, figs or bananas. 

5. Equal parts olives, peanut butter, celery, mixed with a 
little salad dressing. 

6. Peanut butter mixed with chopped dill, sweet or sour 

7. Cream cheese and chopped stuffed olives. 

8. Chopped stuffed olives and chopped nuts, moistened with 
salad dressing. 

9. Cream cheese and crushed pineapple between very thin 
slices of bread. 


10. Tunafish mixed with parsley, lemon-juice, seasoning and 
a bit of onion. 

11. Cream cheese and chopped nuts. 

12. Ground boiled ham and chopped pickles or chopped 

13. Cottage cheese and pickles, olives, nuts or pimientos. 

14. Currant jam with pounded walnut meats and creamed 
butter. Pass with cream cheese. Preserved currants may be 
substituted in this combination. 

15. Boston brown bread with cream cheese or mayonnaise 
mixed with chopped nuts and raisins. 

16. Rounds of brown bread spread with chopped olives, 
minced lettuce and water cress, tarragon, paprika, parsley and 
chives mixed with mayonnaise. 

17. Pimientos, cucumbers and onion or chives, minced, 
mixed with mayonnaise and spread on buttered entire-wheat 

18. Green pepper, pimiento and olives with mayonnaise. 

19. Boston brown bread with minced corned beef seasoned 
with mustard and rubbed to a paste. 

20. Cream cheese used with chopped parsley, pimientos and 
mayonnaise, chopped nuts, sliced sugared bananas, crushed 
pineapple, chopped or sliced olives, shredded sliced apples. The 
cheese may be rubbed with butter or the creamed butter may 
be spread on the bread. 


The hot sandwich is now frequently used as a supper or 
luncheon dish with a salad. It is sometimes served as a break- 
fast dish and even a dessert may now be served in sandwich 
form, as, for instance^ slices of ice-cream between slices of 
sponge cake. 

There are several types of hot sandwiches. Some are made 
from plain bread and served with hot sauce; in others the 
framework of the sandwich is toast, sauted slices of bread, 
French-fried toast or fresh slices of bread baked with the sand- 
wich-filling; and in still others hot baking-powder biscuit or 
crisp toasted crackers are used. 

Then besides the regulation kind of sandwich — a filling be- 
tween two slices of breadstuff — there is the open-faced kind, 
in which the top slice is left oflf and a garnish of cut parsley, 


pickle, olive or grated cheese is used instead of the covering 

And, lastly, there is a third and novel type of sandwich in 
which the outer structure is of meat. This is cut in thin slices, 
dipped in fritter batter and fried in fat, and a filling of vege- 
tables is placed between the slices. 


Between two slices of medium thick bread, lay slices of cheese 
cut about one-eighth inch thick. Place in oven until cheese 
begins to melt. Then toast on both sides and serve hot. Or 
mash a soft cheddar cheese with cream. Spread this as a filling 
and toast the sandwich. 


(For each sandwich) 

3 slices toast Crisped bacon 

Mayonnaise Tomato slices or 
Vs to y^ breast of chicken onion slices 

Lettuce Pickle or olives 

For each sandwich remove the crust from three slices of 
toasted bread, buttered while hot. Spread the under slice with 
a thin layer of mayonnaise dressing. On this lay two small 
white lettuce leaves, allowing them to project beyond the edge 
of the toast. On the lettuce lay thin slices of breast of chicken 
spread with mayonnaise. Cover with a slice of toast, spread 
with mayonnaise and cover with slices of crisp bacon. A slice 
of tomato or onion may be placed over the bacon. Place the 
third slice of toast on this and garnish with pickles or olives. 
Serve while the toast and bacon are hot. 


1 cup chopped tongue 1 cup milk 

1 tg^ 2 tablespoons mayonnaise 

1 teaspoon onion- juice dressing 

Mix the tongue with the onion- juice and the mayonnaise and 
spread it on thin slices of unbuttered bread. Press the slices 
together and cut in two diagonally. Beat the eg^, add the milk 
and dip the sandwiches in this mixture. Brown them in a small 
amount of butter, first on one side and then on the other. 
Garnish with parsley and serve at once on a hot platter. 



Butter slices of toast. On each slice lay thin cuts of cooked 
sausage. Cover with a well-seasoned tomato sauce and sprinkle 
with grated cheese. Lay a strip of bacon on each sandwich and 
bake in a hot oven until the bacon is crisp. 


1 cup cooked chicken cut in ^ cup cream 

small pieces 1 teaspoon onion-juice 

1 tablespoon butter ^ cup walnut meats 

5/2 cup stock Paprika Salt 

1 tablespoon flour Thin slices of toasted bread 

Make a sauce of the stock, cream, flour, and butter. Add the 
other ingredients, and heat thoroughly. Place on slices of toast. 
Brush with melted butter and garnish with thin rings cut from 
stuffed olives. Serve immediately on a hot platter. 


For each sandwich allow two medium-thin slices of cold 
boiled ham. Lay the ham in French dressing for a few minutes. 
Drain and dip in a plain fritter batter. Fry in deep fat and 
drain on soft paper. Place one of the slices of ham on a hot 
plate, add lettuce and cover with another slice of the fried 
ham. Pour orange-raisin sauce over the sandwich and serve 
at once. 


Make plain baking-powder biscuits. Bake until the crust Is 
crisp on both top and bottom. Break — do not cut — the biscuits 
apart and butter the halves. On one side place a thick slice 
of tomato, then a layer of mayonnaise dressing and then one of 
minced bacon. Cover with the other half of the biscuit, press 
lightly together and serve at once. 


Spread slices of whole-wheat or graham toast with butter. 
Over these place slices of crisply cooked bacon. Sprinkle 
generously with chopped pickle and horseradish. Serve with 
sliced tomatoes. 



1 cup sardines Mayonnaise 

Lettuce Lemon-juice 

Onlon-julce Graham bread 

Sardines that have been prepared in oil are to be preferred 
for these sandwiches. Drain the sardines, tear them in pieces, 
add a few drops of lemon-juice, onion-juice and enough mayon- 
naise to moisten. Toast medium-thin slices of graham bread, 
and spread with butter creamed with a few drops of lemon- 
juice. Cover with lettuce and add the sardines and another 
slice of toast. Serve with a garnish of lemon. 


6 slices bread 6 slices bacon 

6 slices tomato Grated cheese 

Butter the slices of bread. On each slice, place a slice of to- 
mato, cover with grated cheese, and add a slice of bacon. Toast 
under the flame of a broiler until the bacon is crisp. 


Butter slices of toasted bread. Cover with a thin slice of 
boiled ham or bacon, spread with mustard, and cover with a 
layer of thinly sliced or grated cheese. Place the slices in the 
oven until the cheese is melted. Garnish with minced parsley 
and serve at once. 


Mix peanut butter with chili sauce to form a paste. Spread 
slices of hot brown bread or toasted graham bread with butter, 
add the mixture and put the slices together with crisp lettuce 
leaves between. Garnish with slices of dill pickle. 


6 tomatoes Pepper 

1 cup bread crumbs 1 cup ground boiled ham 

4 slices bacon 1 tablespoon French mustard 

Salt 6 slices bread 

Cut a slice from the stem end of each tomato. Sprinkle with 
salt, pepper and bits of bacon. Bake until the tomatoes are 


tender. Serve on slices of hot buttered toast spread with the 
ground ham mixed with the mustard. 

Suggestions for Breakfast Sandwiches 

Poached egg on toast is an open-faced sandwich. Rolls split, 
toasted, and buttered, with broiled tender bacon placed between 
them, or bacon between crisply toasted slices of well buttered 
corn bread are other forms of breakfast sandwiches. 

Creamed oysters on toast, scrambled eggs on buttered toast 
spread with anchovy paste, creamed codfish between two slices 
of buttered toast are all in the breakfast category of sandwiches. 
To make a variation of French toast that takes it out of the 
sweet and puts it into the meat class, spread buttered slices of 
bread with deviled ham, put the slices together in twos, dip them 
into a mixture of egg and milk in proportion of two eggs to one 
cup of milk, and then saute the slices in butter until they are 
nicely brown on both sides. 

Old fashioned country sausage may be cut in thin rounds, 
fried a delicate brown and served between hot, savory pancakes 
of the same size as the sausage slices. 

Suggestions for Hot Sandwiches 

Hot sandwiches should be substantial and filling without 
losing the chief characteristic of all sandwiches — ease in han- 
dling. For this reason rolls and buns are often more satisfactory 
than sliced bread or toast. 

Broiled Hamburger steaks on round rolls are always popular. 
The meat mixture may be varied by rolling a stuffed olive in 
each; by adding strips of bacon crosswise after the first turning, 
or by a slice of Bermuda onion on both sides. Chopped pickles, 
carrots, celery or radishes may be added to the meat before 

1. Broiled pineapple with sliced hot chicken, hot turkey or 
hot duck, on whole wheat bread. 2. Broiled ham with a slice o£ 
pineapple, either fresh or canned, served on white toast. 3 . Sliced 
roast lamb with grilled fresh pineapple on toasted English muf- 
fins. 4. Sliced hard-cooked egg with hot anchovy sauce on Bos- 
ton brown bread. 5. Hot roast veal with anchovy sauce and 
grilled tomato on rye roll. 6. Grilled tomato with Cheddar cheese 
on rye toast. 7. Hot smoked tongue with fried apples on toasted 
English muffins. 8. Hot corned beef with grilled sweet potato 
and endive on finger rolls. 


BREAD for toast should be cut in slices from one -eighth 
to one-half inch thick and toasted over a clear fire or in 
a gas or electric toaster until both sides are an even, rich golden 
brown. Unless a toaster with an automatic timing and turning 
device is used, the slices should be turned two or three times 
to avoid warping. 


Cut the crust from stale bread. Slice the bread as thin as 
a wafer, dry it on a pan lined with paper, in the oven, leaving 
the door open. When it is entirely dry, close the oven door 
and brown slightly. 


Cut bread in one-eighth-inch slices and toast until it is crisp. 


Toast bread until crisp and a rich brown on both sides. But- 
ter while hot and serve at once. 


Toast bread until crisp and brown. Pour into a soup-plate 
one cup boiling water and one teaspoon salt. Dip the toast 
into this water and remove at once. Spread lightly with butter 
and serve immediately. 


No. 1 

Toast bread, butter it well, sprinkle with salt and pour scalded 
milk over it. 

No. 2 

6 slices buttered toast 2 tablespoons butter 

2 tablespoons flour 2 cups milk 


Make a white sauce of the flour, butter, milk and salt and 
pour it over the buttered toast. 


TOAST 157 


6 slices buttered toast 1 cup scalded cream 

1 tablespoon flour Salt 

1 cup scalded milk 1 egg 

Make a white sauce of the milk, cream, flour and salt. Pour 
this hot liquid over the beaten egg. Pour over the toast and 
serve immediately. 


6 slices buttered toast 2 tablespoons butter 

1 cup milk Salt 

2 tablespoons flour 1 cup tomato, fresh or 
Ys teaspoon soda canned 

Make a white sauce of the milk, flour, butter and salt. Cook 
and strain the tomato and add the soda. Stir the hot tomato 
into the white sauce and pour immediately over the toast. 


12 slices bread Yz inch thick Y2 teaspoon salt 

3 eggs 2 cups milk 

Beat the eggs, add the milk and salt. Dip slices of bread into 
the mixture and saute in a little hot fat until a delicate brown 
on both sides. Serve hot. Sprinkle with powdered sugar or 
serve maple sirup with the toast. 


Spread hot toast with butter and sprinkle generously with a 
mixture of sugar and cinnamon. Place on the top shelf of the 
oven or under the broiler just long enough to melt the sugar. 


Remove all but the bottom crust from loaf of bread. Cut 
through center, lengthwise, then into equal sections crosswise. 
Brush with melted butter and brown in 375° oven. 

Cornucopia — Remove crusts from sliced bread, lay thick 
cheese strip diagonally, fold bread to opposite corners, fasten 
with toothpick, brush with melted butter and brown in mod- 
erate oven (350° F.). Remove toothpicks to serve. 

—Wheat Flour Institute 


-^^M\ i' 



ocCASiQii;: ^^-i^m- 

--Whear iyur InstttuN 


STRICT convention in England and America at one time 
decreed that the formal dinner should begin with soup, 
but that custom is no longer binding even in the most formal 
household. Other dishes to introduce the meal have crept in 
and because of their savory qualities have found ready and 
general acceptance. Appetizers, they are usually called. Some- 
times they are referred to as relishes or as hors d'oeuvres, because 
they are often a glorified edition of the old side dish now given 
a conspicuous place as a separate course by itself. 

Characteristics of the Appetizer 

The appetizer must have distinct, piquant flavor and appetite- 
whetting qualities. Pickled and salted foods, acids, pepper and 
paprika play a conspicuous part in their manufacture. Raw 
oysters and clams, grapefruit, melons and fruit cocktails, 
canapes and small sandwiches spread with pastes of sardines, 
anchovies and caviar, lobster and crabmeat, pate de foie gras, 
cheese, olives and other mixtures of high flavor, deviled eggs, 
small succulent salads, may all be included without prejudice 
in the list of appetizers. In parts of the United States, the 
dinner is always begun with the salad as the appetizer. 

Serving the Appetizer 

The appetizer should always be served in small portions be- 
cause the purpose of this course is to whet but not to satisfy 
the appetite. 

At formal dinners and luncheons, the same kind of appetizer 
is generally served to all the guests, but at more informal meals 
the hostess may give her guests an opportunity to choose their 
own appetizers. In that case a number of portions of various 
kinds are arranged on a regulation hors d'oeuvre tray or on a 
chop plate or small platter which is passed to each guest. 

Each portion must be arranged so that it may be lifted from 
the tray by the guest and transferred to his plate without 
trouble. Suitable service silver — usually a tablespoon and large 
folk— must be laid on each tray. 



The following combination will serve as a suggestion for the 
arrangement of a tray: 

1. A crab salad. 2. An onion and green pepper salad. 3. Three or 
four olives on a small lettuce leaf. 4. A sandwich made of cress and 
brown bread and butter. 5. An oblong or square of aspic jelly on a 
lettuce leaf with an anchovy or sardine on the jelly. 6. Half of a. 
deviled egg on a lettuce leaf or in a bed of cress. 7. Cream cheese balls 
rolled in chopped chipped beef. 8. Cream cheese balls rolled in caviar. 
9. Large stuffed olives filled with sharp cheese, wrapped in bacon and 
broiled until bacon is crisp. 10. Center celery stalks stuffed with Roque- 
fort cheese paste or anchovy paste. 11. Small sweet pickles rolled in 
cream cheese then in a strip of smoked salmon, fastened with toothpick. 
12. Rolled anchovies in broiled mushrooms. 13- Caviar in broiled 
mushrooms. 14. Tiny meat balls in broiled mushrooms. 15. Chicken 
liver balls rolled in chopped chipped beef. 

Shell Fish 

Oysters or clams on the half-shell, oyster, clam, lobster or 
crab cocktails may be used as the appetizer. The recipes are 
given in the chapter on "Fish." 



Canapes are made from stale white bread, cut in quarter- 
inch slices and then shaped with a cutter into circles two and 
one-half or three inches in diameter or cut into squares, strips, 
triangles or other fancy shapes. These portions of bread may 
then be fried in deep fat and drained on absorbent paper, or 
sauted in just enough fat to keep them from burning, or toasted 
or set in the oven until they turn a delicate brown. When 
•finished they should be nicely browned on both sides. They are 
then ready to be covered with the mixture preferred. 


6 portions prepared bread 3 teaspoons lemon-juice 

3 tablespoons anchovy paste 2 hard-cooked eggs 

Whole anchovies for garnish (may be omitted) 

Anchovy paste, which comes in tubes, jars or bottles, may 
be utilized, or whole anchovies may be reduced to a smooth 



paste with a wooden spoon. Season with lemon- juice and 
spread the paste on the prepared pieces of bread. Split anchovy 
lengthwise and lay the halves diagonally across the canape, mark- 
ing the point where they cross by a little pyramid of riced yolk 
of hard-cooked eggs. Petal-shaped pieces of the hard-cooked 
white may radiate from this center pyramid. A large anchovy 
curved around a circle of hard-cooked egg in the center of a 
canape is also effective. The anchovies may be omitted from 
the garnish. 


6 portions prepared bread Salt 

6 large sardines or Worcestershire sauce 

6 tablespoons lobster or other Pickled beets 

sea food, chopped fine 6 large olives 

Juice of 1 lemon 24 thin slices lemon 

Remove skin and backbone and flake the sardines with a fork. 
Or chop cooked lobster meat very fine. Season with lemon- 
juice, salt and a few drops of Worcestershire sauce. Spread 
the prepared bread with the mixture and decorate by placing 
in the center of each canape a small circle of pickled beet. Cut 
a slice from the end of a large olive so that it will stand firmly 
and place this in the center of the beet. A narrow border o£ 
minced beet may be placed around the edge of the canape 
with good effect. Garnish the plate with four thin slices o£ 
lemon placed symmetrically. 

Crab meat, shrimps or any smoked or canned fish, highly 
seasoned and attractively garnished, may be utilized for canapes 
instead of the sardines or lobster meat. 


6 portions prepared bread 3 tablespoons white onion 

3 tablespoons caviar chopped fine 

Garnish of green pepper or hard-cooked egg 

Caviar, which is the salted roe of the sturgeon, is highly 
esteemed by epicures as an appetizer. It is usually served with 
minced raw onion and decorated with hard-cooked egg and 
minced pickles. A favorite arrangement is to have an oblong 
canape two by four inches, one half covered with the minced 


raw onion and the other half with the caviar. The striking 
difference in the colors is very effective. A sliver of green pep- 
per may lie just where the two mixtures meet and little points 
of the green pepper extend out on each side, or a circle of the 
white of hard-cooked egg may decorate the center of the half 
covered with caviar and a little mound of the riced yolk orna- 
ment the section covered by the chopped onion. 


6 portions prepared bread Garnish of red pepper or 

3 tablespoons cream cheese pickled beet 

Olives stuffed with pimientos 

Spread on the prepared bread a paste made by mixing equal 
proportions of cream cheese and chopped stuffed olives. Garnish 
with a quarter-inch border of the chopped olives and a star of 
red pepper or pickled beet in the center of each canape. 


6 portions prepared bread % cup cream 

3 tablespoons pate de foie Cayenne pepper 

gras paste or imitation pate Salt 

de foie gras Parsley 

Add the cream and seasoning to the paste. Rub through a 
fine sieve and spread on portions of fried bread. Garnish with 

Imitation Pate de Foie Gras 

Yz cup chicken livers ^ onion,* chopped 

2 tablespoons chicken fat or Salt and pepper 

butter Mustard or celery salt 

Carefully clean, cook and chop chicken livers and mash them 
to a paste with a wooden spoon. Chop the onion fine and fry 
in the fat till yellowed. Place the livers, the fat and the onion 
in a cup, mix well and season with pepper and salt, and either 
mustard or celery salt, according to taste. Place at once on ice. 
This preparation makes excellent sandwiches. 

1 62 

Suggestions for Mixtures to Be Used in Making 

1. Anchovy paste mixed with lemon- juice. 

2. Shredded tuna fish mixed with lemon- juice and mayon- 

3. Chopped lobster meat mixed with cream and seasoned 
with salt, pepper and lemon-juice. 

4. Cream cheese and chopped stufifed olives. 

5. Minced red and green peppers mixed with mayonnaise 
and seasoned with salt, pepper and lemon-juice. 

6. Sardine paste mixed with lemon- juice, salt and Worcester- 
shire sauce. 

7. A layer of anchovy paste covered with a paste of shredded 
crab meat, cream cheese and butter, seasoned with salt and 

8. Devilled ham mixed with chopped hard-cooked egg and 

Fruit Appetizers 

Fruit cocktails may be made from mixtures of almost any 
fruits, canned or fresh. As a rule, combinations of a sweet 
and a sour fruit are most piquant in flavor. All fruit appetizers 
should be thoroughly chilled. The trays of the mechanical 
refrigerator are excellent for this purpose. 


No. 1 — Grapefruit on the Half Shell. 

Cut grapefruit in half, crosswise. With a pair of sharp 
shears or with a grapefruit corer, cut a circular piece from the 
center of each half, being careful not to cut through the skin. 
Then with a sharp knife loosen each section from the mem- 
brane and skin. Sprinkle with sugar and set in the refrigerator 
to chill. Pink the edges of the skin if you prefer, and remove 
the pieces of membrane between the sections of fruit if you 
have time. In this way the shell is left with only edible portions 
of the fruit. In any case each mouthful of fruit should be en- 
tirely detached from the shell. Serve a half grapefruit on a 
plate or in a special grapefruit glass, embedded in ice. 


No. 2 — Grapefruit and Orange Cocktail. 
1 cup diced grapefruit pulp Sugar 

1 cup diced orange pulp Lemon-juice or grape-juice 

Maraschino cherries or preserved pineapple 

Mix the orange and grapefruit pulp. Sprinkle with sugar 
and a little lemon-juice or grape-juice. Chill, and have glasses 
chilled so that the whole, when served, may be very cold. At 
the last moment fill the glasses with the fruit mixture, garnish- 
ing with cherries or preserved pineapple. 

No. 3 — Grapefruit and Strawberry Cocktail. 

3 grapefruit 1 pint strawberries 


Cut the grapefruit in half and carefully remove the pulp, 
leaving the inner white skin as lining. Place the shells in cold 
water to keep them firm. Mix the grapefruit pulp with the 
strawberries and sprinkle with sugar. Chill. At serving time, 
fill the shells with the mixture placing large handsome berries 
on top as garnish. The mixed fruit left over may be served 
at breakfast or used as a sauce for pudding or ice-cream. 


1 cup orange-juice Sugar 

y2, cup lemon-juice 1 cup strawberries 

1 cup diced pineapple 

Combine the orange- and lemon- juice sweetened to taste, 
keeping the mixture rather tart. Chill. Wash and drain the 
strawberries and hull them. At serving time cut the berries 
in half (except six large ones), mix with the pineapple, place 
in glasses and cover with the fruit- juice. One large, perfect 
berry set on a tiny circle of pineapple may decorate the top 
of each cocktail. 


6 small, rather sour oranges 3 tablespoons lemon-juice or 

Powdered sugar 3 tablespoons pineapple-juice 

Fresh mint 2 tablespoons sugar 

Separate the orange into sections and remove the thin skin 
with a pair of scissors. Chill thoroughly, place in glasses, 
sprinkle with powdered sugar and add the lemon -juice mixed 

1 64 

with pineapple-juice or sugar. Sprinkle with chopped mint 
and garnish with an upright sprig of mint in the center of the 


2 cups watermelon balls Powdered sugar 

Fresh mint 2 tablespoons lemon-juice 

(Lemon- juice and sugar may be omitted) 

"With a vegetable-cutter prepare small balls of bright pink 
watermelon. Sprinkle lightly with sugar and add lemon- juice. 
Chill thoroughly. Fill glasses. Garnish with sprigs of fresh 
mint. A pretty fancy is to moisten the edge of each cocktail 
glass and invert in chopped mint before filling. This will leave 
a line of green adhering to the edge of the glass. The glass may 
be lined with sprigs of mint before the watermelon is put in. 


1 pound cherries 6 tablespoons strawberry-juice 

Yz cup chopped almonds 6 tablespoons powdered sugar 

3 teaspoons lemon- juice 

Pit the cherries, sprinkle with chopped almonds and pour 
over them a sirup made by mixing strawberry- juice with 
powdered sugar and lemon- juice. Chill and serve ice-cold in 
cocktail glasses. Decorate the plate with two or three whole 
cherries and a leaf or two. 


6 large oranges Juice of 1 lemon 

1 banana Sugar 

2 slices pineapple 

Slice oflF the tops of the oranges and scoop out the inside, 
being careful not to break the inside white skin of the orange- 
peel. Put the orange cups into a bowl of ice-water. Cut in 
small pieces the banana and pineapple, mix these with the 
orange pulp cut in small pieces, add the lemon- juice, sweeten 
to taste, and fill the orange shells. Set each one in a small bowl, 
filled with crushed ice. 

The mixed fruit pulp that remains after the orange skins 
have been filled may be kept in the refrigerator and served as 
sauce with ice-cream or used in any other way that circum- 
stances suggest. 






SOUPS may be roughly divided into two groups. In the 
first group belong the soups that are always made from 
meat stock. These are the various modifications of brown 
and white stocks, bouillons, consommes and broths. In the 
second group belong the soups that may be made either with 
or without meat stock. These are the various modifications of 
cream soups, purees and bisques, of chowders and stews and of 
vegetable soups. 

The Value of Soup in the Dietary 

The purpose of soup in the meal is two-fold ; first, to improve 
digestion and stimulate appetite by introducing at the beginning 
of the meal a highly flavored liquid food which increases the 
flow of digestive juices; second, to increase the variety of nu- 
trients in the meal, or even to furnish the main dish of the meal. 
Stock soups are chiefly valuable for the first purpose. Cream 
soups, purees, bisques, chowders and stews are more valuable 
for the second purpose. 

A heavy meal should begin with an un thickened stock soup; 
a light meal may well begin with one of the cream variety. 

Home Made and Ready to Use Soups 

Not so long ago, all soups were made at home, and the stock 
pot was kept on the stove day in and day out; but with the 
gradual change from coal to gas and electricity as fuels, and 
with the perfecting of modern commercial canning and con- 
densing methods, the long slow process of stock making has 
become less common in home kitchens. 

However, in soup many valuable food materials that would 
otherwise be thrown out may be saved for the nourishment 
of the family, and some knowledge of the principles of soup 
making is worth while for every housekeeper. A home made 
soup which is lacking in strength or flavor may be easily im- 
proved by the addition of a can of soup or some of the various 
meat extracts obtainable. 



For the small family, the canned soups are almost indispen- 
sable, and in the making of sauces and gravies, where only a 
small amount of stock is required, a can of soup supplies the 
required foundation at a minimum of trouble and expense. 

Making Soup Stock 

Cut Meat in Small Pieces and saw or crack bone. This 
is done to increase the surface exposed to the action of hot 

Brown From One-fourth to One-half the Meat for 
brown stocks and consommes. This gives added color and im- 
proves flavor. 

Soak the Meat and Bone in Cold Water for thirty 
minutes or more before cooking. This helps to extract the 
juices of the meat. 

Heat Gradually to the Simmering-point (190° -2 10° 
F.). If stock is to be used for bouillon or consomme or any 
clear soup, skim at this time. Continue to simmer for three 
or four hours to insure as complete extraction as possible of 
the juices and flavor of meat. If the mixture boils, it is not 
so fine in flavor. 

Add the Spices, Herbs, and Vegetables, and continue 
simmering from one-half hour to one hour. The seasonings 
are added at this time rather than earlier to prevent the dis- 
agreeable flavor of over-cooked vegetables. 

Strain the Soup Into a Large Bowl or other container. 
If the stock is to be used for clear soups, place several thicknesses 
of cheese-cloth over the strainer before pouring the mixture 
through it. 

Cool the Stock Quickly, because quick cooling improves 
the keeping quality of the soup. Soup should, if possible, al- 
ways be allowed to become thoroughly cold before being 
used, since the fat hardens and collects in a cake on top and can 
be removed easily. Do not remove fat from the top of soup 
stock until the stock is to be used. It protects the stock against 

Keep Stock in a Cold Place, as it spoils quickly if it is not 
kept chilled. Spoiled stock, like spoiled meat, is dangerous food. 

SOUPS 167 

Using Soup Stock 

Wlien ready to use stock, loosen fat around the edges with 
the thin blade of a knife. Remove the cake of fat. If the 
stock is jellied, wipe off the remaining small pieces of fat and 
the edge of the bowl with a cloth wrung out in hot water. If 
the stock is very soft or liquid, pass small sheets of absorbent 
paper over the top of the stock. 

When Stock Must Be Used Before Cooling, skim off all 
the fat possible. Most of the remainder of the fat may be 
removed in one of two ways. The first way is to pass over the 
top small sheets of absorbent paper or blotting-paper. The 
second way is to cool the soup as much as possible beforehand, 
then to wrap a piece of ice in a cloth and let it down into the 
stock. Move the ice around just below the surface so that the 
fat on the surface is suddenly chilled, and it will gather on the 
cloth around the ice. This must be done quickly to prevent 
unnecessary dilution of the stock. 

For Clear Soups, take the stock from the top of the bowl, 
being careful to avoid any sediment which may have escaped 
through the sieve and settled to the bottom of the bowl. This 
sediment is valuable as a food and should be reserved for gravies 
or soups which are not necessarily clear. Clarify this stock if 
a translucent, sparkling soup is desired. 

To Clarify Soup — Allow one egg-white and shell to one 
quart of stock. Crush the shell into small pieces and mix with 
the slightly beaten egg-white. Heat the stock just enough to 
liquefy it, if it is jellied. Thoroughly stir the egg-white and 
shell into the stock. Heat to the boiling-point, stirring con- 
stantly, then boil without stirring two to five minutes. Add a 
cup of cold water and set on back of stove to settle. Strain 
through two thicknesses of cheese-cloth. The purpose of egg 
in clarifying soup is the same as in coffee. The coagulated egg 
gathers around itself the particles of solid substance in the soup, 
which otherwise would be fine enough to pass through a strainer. 



Brown Stock or Bouillon. 

2 pounds beef (% to 

154 quarts cold water 
4 to 6 peppercorns 
2 cloves 
1 bay-leaf 

1 blade mace 

1 teaspoon sweet herbs 

Sprig parsley 

1 tablespoon, each, of carrot, 

onion, celery, turnip 
1 teaspoon salt 

A good stock can be made by using left-over meat scraps 
and bones instead of the beef specified, and by substituting any 
available vegetables, such as the outer leaves of lettuce, celery 
tops, etc., for those given above. After the stock is made, left- 
over vegetables, cereals, hard-cooked eggs, small pieces of meat, 
etc., may be diced or chopped and served in the soup. 


1 pound lean beef 

1 pound veal 

1 54 quarts cold water or 
1 pint cold water and 
1 pint chicken stock 

2 peppercorns 

1 clove 

Yz teaspoon sweet herbs 
Sprig parsley 

1 tablespoon each, celery, car- 
rot, onion 
1 teaspoon salt 

Mutton or Lamb Stock or Broth — Use the same ingre- 
dients as for brown stock or bouillon, using mutton or lamb 
instead of beef, and removing most of the fat from the meat. 

White Stock. 

2 pounds chicken or knuckle 

of veal 
\y^ quarts cold water 
2 peppercorns 
1 clove 

Yz teaspoon sweet herbs 

1 tablespoon, each, of onion 

and celery 
1 teaspoon salt 

The liquid in which a fowl or chicken is cooked is also a 
white stock or chicken broth. 

SOUPS 169 

Fish Stock or Court Bouillon. 

2 pounds white fish or 1 clove 

2 pounds head and trim- Sprig parsley 

mings 1 bay-leaf 

154 quarts cold water 1 tablespoon, each, carrot, 

2 peppercorns celery, onion 

Fish stock needs to be cooked for only half the time required 
for other stock. 


Vegetable Soup — If a clear soup is desired, follow the direc- 
tions for clarifying soup stock, and then add, to each quart of 
brown stock, one cup of diced vegetables, raw or cooked. If 
the vegetables are cooked, the soup needs to be boiled for only 
a few minutes. When raw vegetables are added, simmer until 
the vegetables are all tender, adding boiling water, if necessary, 
to replace any that may have evaporated. Season to taste and 

Sago, Rice or Barley Soup — ^For each quart of brown or 
white stock, use two tablespoons sago, rice or barley. Soak sago 
or rice one-half hour in enough stock or water to cover it. 
Barley should be soaked over night. Bring remainder of stock 
to simmering-point. Add soaked sago, barley, or rice and sim- 
mer in closed saucepan one-half hour. 

Macaroni, Vermicelli, Spaghetti, or Noodle Soup — ^For 
each quart brown stock, use 54 cup macaroni, spaghetti, vermi- 
celli or noodles broken into small pieces. Simmer the pastes in 
the stock until tender, adding water if necessary. 


Consomme Princesse — Consomme served with shreds or 
small dice of cooked chicken and green peas. 

Consomme a la Royale — Consomme served with tiny 
blocks of royal custard. 

Consomme Julienne or Julienne Soup — Consomme 
served with carrot, onions, turnips and celery cut into shreds 
about as thick as a match. 

The vegetables should be boiled in clear water before being 
added to the consomme. 


Unthlckened Soups 

Soups suitable for serving as the first course of a meal with 
a substantial main course are found in this group. Any of the 
variations of soup stock or consomme may be used for this 
purpose. The following recipes give directions for other soups 
of this variety. 


Never discard the bones of turkey or chicken as they always 
will make a delicious soup. Scrape the meat from the bones, 
break the bones, pack in a kettle, and cover with cold water, 
adding a small onion. Cover closely and simmer very gently 
for three hours. Strain and cool. One-half hour before it is 
to be served, return to the fire and for every quart of stock 
add one cup of the cold meat, season and keep hot till needed. 
This soup may be greatly improved by adding to it, three 
minutes before serving, ten oysters to each quart of soup. 


12 clams in the shell 2 cups water Paprika 

Purchase large clams in the shells. Scrub them thoroughly 
with a brush, place them in a kettle with cold water, closely 
covered, and bring water to the boiling-point. As soon as the 
shells have opened, remove them from the broth. The clams 
may be served at once, in the half-shell, or taken from the 
shells and kept to be served in any form desired. Let the broth 
settle, strain, being careful not to pour out the sandy sediment, 
reheat, add a little red pepper or paprika, and serve hot. Twelve 
good-sized clams should make enough broth for six persons, 
but if there does not seem to be sufficient, add a little boiling 
water or milk. Clam broth seldom needs added salt. Water 
wafers heated in the oven, or divided crackers toasted on their 
broken surfaces, buttered and heated for a few minutes in the 
oven, are generally served with this broth. 

Clam broth may be served, hot or cold, in cups with a heap- 
ing teaspoon of whipped cream, into which has been beaten a 
little salt and pepper, placed upon the top of each cup. The 
cream adds richness to the flavor of the soup and increases its 
nourishing properties. 

— Irradiated Evaporated Milk 

SOUPS 171 


1 quart brown soup stock 4 tablespoons butter 

1 can tomatoes 2 sprigs parsley 

1^ teaspoon peppercorns y^ cup each, onion, carrot, 

1 small bay-leaf celery, raw ham, cut in 

3 cloves dice 

3 sprigs thyme Salt Pepper 

Cook onion, carrot, celery, and ham in butter five minutes. 
Add tomatoes, peppercorns, bay-leaf, cloves, thyme and parsley, 
cover and cook slowly one hour. Strain carefully, add hot 
stock, and season with salt and pepper. 

This recipe may be used for jellied soup or for salad. 


1 quart clear brown, or white 2 tablespoons gelatin 

stock, or tomato or chicken J4 cup cold water 


Soften the gelatin in the cold water, add to the boiling hot 
soup, chill and serve in cups. The trays of the mechanical 
refrigerator are excellent for chilling soups. 

Substantial Vegetable and Stock Soups 

Soups in this group are suitable for serving as the first course 
of an otherwise light dinner or as the main course of an in- 
formal luncheon. 


3 slices bacon 1 tablespoon flour 

2 cups baked or boiled beans 1 tablespoon butter 

4 cups cold water Salt, pepper, paprika 

Cook bacon. Add to beans. Add cold water and cook until 
beans are soft, then rub through a strainer. Place on the fire 
and add a little more water, if needed, as the soup must not be 
too thick. Bind with the flour and butter. Cook two or three 
minutes. Season with salt, a dash of pepper, and paprika. 



1 cup black beans 2 tablespoons butter 

lYz quarts water 2 tablespoons flour 

1 onion 2 hard-cooked eggs 

1 tablespoon fat for sauteing Yz teaspoon mustard 

2 stalks celery Pepper, salt, paprika 
1 lemon 

Soak the beans over night. Next morning, drain them and 
cover with the cold water. Add sliced onion, which has been 
browned in the fat, also stalks of celery broken into inch pieces. 
Simmer until beans are soft, adding more water from time to 
time. Press through a sieve, again bring to the boiling-point, 
and then add seasoning of mustard, pepper, salt, and paprika to 
taste. Bind with roux of butter and flour to prevent the soup 
from separating. Cut the eggs and lemon in thin slices, and add 
these to the strained soup just before serving. 


(A Famous Russian Soup) 

1 bunch beets Yz pound breast of beef 

1 cup tomatoes, fresh or 1 tablespoon lemon-juice 

canned Y4 cup sugar 

4 cups water Ya teaspoon salt 

1 small onion 4 eggs 

Pare the beets and cut them into long strips. Strain the toma- 
toes, over the beets, not letting any seeds through. Add water. 
Put in the onion and meat, cut into small pieces, and simmer 
for thirty minutes. Add lemon- juice, sugar, and salt. Boil one- 
half hour more. Beat the eggs with a pinch of salt. Add the 
hot borscht to this, a little at a time, stirring well to prevent 
the separating of the eggs. This will behave more or less as in 
any soft custard mixture. Serve at once, while very hot. 


This is a famous fish mixture and greatly esteemed by epi- 
cures, but it can not be recommended as economical. It has one 
advantage, however, and that is that if served with celery, 
bread and butter, and a dessert, it would provide the main dish 
for an excellent meal. 

SOUPS 173 

5/2 cup oil 1 quart boiling water 

2 onions, chopped 12 oysters or clams 

iy2 pounds haddock 1 tablespoon parsley, chopped 

1 Yz pounds cod or halibut 1 boiled lobster 

2 slices lemon 1 teaspoon caramel coloring 
1 bay-leaf 1 teaspoon salt Pepper 

1 tomato Croutons 

Put the oil and chopped onions into a large fish-kettle and 
cook until the onions are brown. Add the fish, cut in slices, 
two slices of lemon, a bay-leaf and the tomato, peeled and cut 
into quarters. Pour the boiling water over this mixture after 
it has simmered for ten minutes, and let all boil for another ten 
minutes. Skim, add oysters or clams and chopped parsley, 
also the meat of the boiled lobster, cut in large pieces, and cara- 
mel, salt, and pepper. Each portion served should include a 
large crouton, about two inches square, a piece of each kind 
of fish, a piece of lobster, and a couple of oysters. 


This recipe, if followed as given, will provide the main dish 
for dinner. Chicken gumbo may be made by using leftovers, 
or the remainder after making chicken salad or boned chicken. 

1 fowl (3 to 4 pounds) 2 sprigs parsley 

Yz cup salt pork fat 3 cups boiling water 

1 onion Yz teaspoon pepper 

1 quart okra, fresh or canned 2 tablespoons salt 

5 tomatoes 1 cup boiled rice 
1 cup cream 

This is a noted Southern soup. Cut the chicken into con- 
venient pieces and saute until brown in salt pork fat, then place 
all the pieces in a saucepan. Cut a large onion into thin slices 
and saute slowly for ten minutes in the fat. Add okra, cut 
fine, sliced tomatoes, and parsley sprigs. Saute all of these in- 
gredients one-half hour, quite slowly, and place them in the 
saucepan with the chicken. Add boiling water, pepper and 
salt. Simmer slowly two to four hours, or until the chicken is 
very tender, and then add boiled rice and cream. If more 
seasoning is needed, add it, and if necessary, thin with boiling 
water. Boil up once and serve. Cayenne pepper (one-fourth 
teaspoon) may be used instead of white or black pepper, if de- 
sired. Separate the bones from the chicken. Serve with pieces 
of chicken in the plate with the soup. 



This recipe provides a large bowl of substantial soup, as well 
as a cooked fowl, and when the soup is served the rest of the 
dinner should consist of light dishes. For more economical 
recipes see Index for chicken or turkey bone soup, and chicken 
broth for invalids. 

1 fowl (3 to 4 pounds) 1 cup milk 

Yz pound ham 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 

1 onion Salt and pepper 

2 to 3 quarts water 1 tablespoon flour 

54 cup rice . 1 tablespoon chicken fat 

Cut up fowl into quarters, with the ham and onion, and add 
the water. Let this simmer until the meat is very tender, then 
strain, reserving the meat to be used in any way desired. Re- 
move all possible fat, and to one and one-fourth quarts of this 
soup (the remainder can be used for sauce with the meat) add 
well washed rice, chopped parsley, salt and pepper. Simmer 
until the rice is tender, add milk, then add roux made of flour 
and chicken fat. Cook until the mixture is thickened (about 
iiye. minutes), season and serve. 


2 cups stock 2 sprigs mint 

1 quart water 1 tablespoon flour 

1 quart green peas 1 tablespoon butter 

1 celery stalk Salt and pepper 

1 onion Sugar 

1 turnip 

Reserve one-half cup of peas, and to the stock and water 
add the rest of the peas, the celery stalk, onion and turnip cut 
into pieces, and the mint. Stew until the mass is tender. Strain 
through a sieve or coarse cheese-cloth. Thin with stock or 
water, if necessary; bind with a roux of flour and fat and season 
with salt, pepper, and a little sugar. Add the half cup of whole 
peas, stew for a few minutes, and serve, 


This recipe provides the main part of a dinner, since the 
ham end will serve as the meat dish. A ham bone, left over 

SOUPS 175 

from a boiled or baked ham, will flavor pea soup quite as well 
as a piece bought especially for the purpose. 

2 or 3 pounds ham end 3 quarts boiling water 

1 carrot 1 cup split peas 

1 onion Salt and pepper 

2 potatoes 2 tablespoons catchup 

Put the end of a moderately lean smoked ham into a kettle 
with carrot and peeled onion, whole potatoes, and boiling water. 
Boil one hour and strain. Now rinse the ham thoroughly in 
hot water and return to the strained stock, together with split 
peas which have been soaking all night, and boil for one hour. 
Season with salt and white pepper and add catchup. Serve at 
once. Thin with boiling water if too thick. 


3 onions Pepper and salt 

3 tablespoons butter J4 clove garlic (if desired) 

3 pints beef stock 2 tablespoons chopped parsley 

3 tablespoons grated cheese Y^ loaf French bread 

Slice onions and put them into a stew-pan with butter. Stir 
and fry slowly until softened and slightly browned. Add beef 
stock, boil ten minutes, skim, season, and add parsky and 
garlic. Cut the bread into thin slices, dry in the oven a few 
minutes, pour soup into a low earthen casserole, put bread on 
top, sprinkle with grated cheese, and set in a very hot oven 
(450° -5 00° F.) just long enough to brown the cheese. 


6 onions 3 tablespoons flour 

5 tablespoons butter 2 cups scalded milk 

3 cups cold water Salt and cayenne 
1 egg-yolk 

Chop the onions and cook them in two tablespoons of the 
butter for five minutes, then add water and cook thirty minutes. 
Press through a sieve. Make a roux of the remaining butter 
and the flour, combine it with the scalded milk and add season- 
ing. Cook ^YQ minutes, stirring constantly. Add this milk 
mixture to the onion mixture. Mix thoroughly and add the 
^gg-yoll^> slightly beaten. Serve individually in Dutch bowls 
and place one teaspoon of grated Edam cheese on the top. Set 
for a few minutes in a hot oven to melt the cheese. 


Thick Soups, Chowders and Stews 

Cream Soups 

Cream soups are made by combining a very thin white sauce, 
see page 308, with a suitable quantity of cooked, mashed, 
strained vegetable, fish or meat pulp. Irradiated evaporated milk 
used instead of white sauce will greatly increase the food value 
and when used for making white sauce will increase the flavor. 
Flavor is improved, too, by the use of some highly flavored 
vegetables or the addition of a proportion of soup stock. 


Purees are made in the same way as cream soups, but are 
somewhat thicker. They are often served under the name of 
"Cream Soup." 


The name bisque is usually given to a cream soup made from 
fish, and the fish is often diced or mashed through a coarse 
strainer. A familiar example of an exception in the use of 
the word is mock bisque soup, or tomato bisque, as it is often 


Chowders were probably the common ancestors of the more 
refined cream soups, purees, and bisques. The word chowder 
comes from the French chaudiere, meaning caldron. The 
chowder originated as a community fish stew to which each 
neighbor contributed something; milk, fish, potatoes, crackers, 
pork or some seasoning. These contributions were all cooked 
together in the common caldron, from which chowder derives 
its name, and each contributor withdrew his share of soup when 
it was ready. 

The chowder of today is much the same as the old chowder, 
and consists of pieces of different vegetables or of fish and po- 
tatoes and various seasonings cooked in milk with crackers added 
just before serving. 

Fish Stews 

Fish stews are made of milk and the juice of the fish which 
gives flavor to the soup. They differ from the cream soups in 

SOUPS 177 

that they need not be thickened, though they often are, and 
from the chowders in being less complex in composition. 

Binding Thick Soups 

When a vegetable, meat or fish pulp is combined with milk 
or stock in making soups, they separate and the solid substance 
sinks to the bottom of the liquid. Some flour or corn-starch 
cooked into the mixture will overcome this. With many of 
these soups the reason for using the flour or corn-starch may 
not necessarily be to thicken a soup which the vegetable, meat 
or fish pulp has already made thick enough, but to blend the 
liquid with the solid so that all parts of the soup will have the 
same consistency. 

Flour or corn-starch may be mixed with enough cold liquid 
— ^milk, water, or stock — to make a creamy thickness and added 
carefully to the soup; or it may be combined with the soup 
by means of a roux (see Index) . When a colored roux is de- 
sired the fat is browned before the flour is added and the mix- 
ture is cooked to a reddish brown color. When a roux is made 
in this way, the liquid is usually added to it gradually. 

Preventing Skin on Cream Soups 

A cream or milk soup has a tendency to form a skin on the 
top as it cools. If it is beaten just before it is served, the froth 
protects it against skin formation. 

A spoonful of whipped cream or beaten egg-white served 
on top of each portion of cream soup aids in preventing the skin 
formation and adds to the delicacy and attractiveness of the 


4 cups milk or part milk and 2 cups vegetable pulp or meat 

part stock or fish pulp 

2 tablespoons flour Salt, pepper, other 

2 tablespoons fat seasonings 

1. Make a white sauce of the liquid, flour, and fat. 

2. Cook the vegetables or meat or fish until tender, drainj 
and mash through a sieve. 


3. Combine the vegetable, meat, or fish pulp with the white 

4. Season, beat with an egg-beater, and serve. A tiny portion 
of whipped cream or beaten egg-white may be served on top 
of each portion. 

The amount of flour may be increased for purees and bisques. 


Cream of Asparagus or Cream of Celery Soup — ^Follow 
directions for making a standard cream soup. 

Cream of Corn Soup 

5 cups corn, canned or fresh 2 tablespoons butter 

5 cups milk or part milk and Salt and pepper 

part white stock 2 egg-yolks 

2 tablespoons flour 

Put the corn into a double boiler with one quart of the milk 
and cook for twenty minutes. Make a white sauce of the milk 
and corn, flour, and fat, add salt and pepper and cook five 
minutes. Rub the soup through a strainer, beat the yolks of the 
eggs well, and add to them the remaining cup of cold milk; 
stir this mixture into the soup, cook for a minute or two, stirring 
constantly. Beat and serve at once. 

Cream of Mushroom Soup 

Yx pound mushrooms (or skin 2 tablespoons flour 

and stems of Yz pound) 1 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons butter 1 pint milk 

Brush, wash and skin the mushrooms. Put the skins to sim- 
mer in a little water. Cut the mushroom caps and stems into 
very small pieces; add one pint of water and simmer until 
tender. Make a sauce of the fat, flour, salt and milk and add 
the water in which the mushroom caps, stems and skin were 

Cream of Onion and Potato Soup 

3 cups scalded milk 4 medium potatoes 

1 cup potato water 4 onions 

2 tablespoons flour 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 
2 tablespoons butter Salt and pepper 

Boil the potatoes and onions together, until tender. Drain. 
Save the water and rub the vegetables through a coarse strainer. 

SOUPS 179 

Make a white sauce of the liquid, flour, and fat and combine 
with the potato and onion pulp. Season with chopped parsley, 
salt and pepper. Beat with an egg-beater and serve with crou- 

Cream of Pea Soup — ^Follow directions for making a stand- 
ard cream soup, but keep one cup of the cooked peas whole 
and add them to the soup just before serving. 

Cream of Spinach Soup — Follow directions for making a 
standard cream soup. 

Cream of Tomato Soup 

1 quart milk or half milk and 1 pint tomatoes 
half white stock Salt and pepper 

2 tablespoons flour J4 teaspoon soda 

2 tablespoons butter 

Make a white sauce of the liquid, flour, and butter. Cook 
the tomatoes until tender, and mash through a coarse sieve. 
Just before serving, add the soda to the tomatoes and gradually 
add the tomatoes to the white sauce, stirring constantly. Season 
and serve at once. If soup begins to curdle, beat thoroughly 
with egg-beater. 


3 large or 6 small onions 2 or 3 tablespoons butter or 
2 cups white stock other fat 

2 cups milk Salt and pepper 

2 or 3 tablespoons flour 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 

Make a white sauce with stock, milk, flour, and butter. Cook 
onions in water until very tender. Drain, and rub through a 
sieve. Combine onion and sauce. Season with salt, pepper, 
and chopped parsley. Beat with egg-beater and serve. 

Use three tablespoons flour when increased thickness is de- 


1 quart milk 4 tablespoons butter or 

1 small onion, minced other fat 

4 tablespoons flour 2 cups cooked fish 

Salt and pepper 

Scald the minced onion in milk. Make a white sauce of the 


milk, flour, and butter. Rub the cooked fish through a sieve. 
Combine the fish and sauce. Season and serve. 


Yz pound dried yellow split 1 or 2 celery tops 

peas Salt and pepper 

1 pint tomatoes 1 tablespoon flour 

1 quart water 1 tablespoon butter 

1 onion 

Soak peas over night in water enough to cover them three or 
four inches. Drain, and put into a saucepan with the tomatoes, 
water, sliced onion, and celery tops. Cook until the peas are 
tender. Mash through a sieve. Season with salt and pepper. 
Bind with a roux made of the flour and butter, and serve, 
garnished with a thin slice of tomato or lemon and a few 
canned peas if available. Serve with bread croutons. 


1 cup split peas or dried lima 2 tablespoons butter or 
beans other fat 

2 quarts water Salt and pepper 
1 tablespoon flour Celery salt 

1 teaspoon onion-juice 

Soak peas or beans all night, then put them over the fire with 
water and bring to a boil. Cook slowly, until soft. Rub 
through a sieve, heat, and thicken with roux of flour and 
fat. Season with salt, pepper, celery salt, and onion-juice. 
Stir or beat until smooth and serve with croutons. 

Cold Fruit Purees 

In hot weather, cold fruit purees are sometimes preferred to 
hot soups. They are always served in cups, usually of glass, 
and with a few pieces of the fruit floating on the surface. They 
should be thoroughly chilled. The trays of the mechanical 
refrigerator are excellent for this purpose. These fruit purees 
are really as closely related to the appetizers as to the soups. 

SOUPS i8i 


Juice from 1 quart of tart 2 teaspoons arrowroot 

cherries, freshly stewed or Grated rind of 1 lemon 


Heat the juice from the cherries. Add arrowroot moistened 
with cold water, stirring the mixture rapidly to prevent the 
forming of lumps. Flavor with the grated lemon-rind. Serve 
very cold, with a whole cherry floating on each portion. 


2 cups orange-juice Yz cup sugar 

1 teaspoon corn-starch 1 teaspoon grated orange- 

2 tablespoons cold water rind 

Place orange- juice in saucepan and when it is thoroughly 
heated add the corn-starch mixed with the cold water. Cook 
slowly until clear. Add sugar and grated orange-rind. Serve 
ice-cold in glass sherbet cups. 


Yz cup granulated tapioca 2 cups raspberries 

6 cups water Sugar 

Yz cup currant-juice 

Boil tapioca in water and currant- juice. When tapioca is 
transparent, add raspberries and sugar to taste. Set aside to 
cool. Serve ice-cold in sherbet-glasses. 


24 clams in the shell 2 cups water 

2 cups rich milk or white 1 tablespoon chopped celery 

.> stock or part of each 1 teaspoon chopped parsley 

i 1 tablespoon butter Salt and pepper 

\ 1 tablespoon flour 

Make a white sauce of the milk, flour, and butter. Scrub the 
clams thoroughly, then pack into pot with a tight-fitting lid, 
using Y2 cup water to steam. When all have popped open, 


remove, cool in their own liquor. Detach clams from shells, put 
through food chopper and add strained liquor. Add water, 
chopped celery and parsley and cook ten minutes. Press through 
a sieve and add to the white sauce. Season, beat with an egg- 
beater, and serve. 


1 medium-sized lobster 1 cup cold water 

1 quart milk Red pepper 

4 tablespoons butter Salt and pepper 
4 tablespoons flour 

Make a white sauce of the milk, flour, and butter. Re- 
move meat from freshly boiled lobster. Reserve the coral and 
the green fat. Put the cold water into a kettle and add the 
broken claws and shell and the finely chopped tail meat. Bring 
to the simmering-point and simmer for twenty minutes. Drain, 
and stir into the white sauce. Add the remainder of the lobster 
meat, cut in dice. Season with salt, pepper, and cayenne. Just 
before serving, add the coral mashed to a paste with the green 
fat. Mix thoroughly, reheat, and serve with croutons. 


1 pint oysters 1 slice onion, chopped fine 

2 cups milk 1 stalk celery, diced 

1 cup stale bread-crumbs 1 stalk parsley, chopped fine 

1 tablespoon flour 1 bay-leaf 

1 tablespoon butter Salt and pepper 

2 cups water 

Scald the milk, add the bread-crumbs and cook in a double 
boiler for twenty minutes. Rub through a sieve. Make a 
white sauce of the milk and crumb mixture and the flour and 
butter. Chop the oysters, put them in a saucepan with their 
own liquor, the water and the chopped vegetables and herbs. 
Simmer for twenty or thirty minutes. Rub through a fine 
sieve and combine with the white sauce mixture. More milk 
or cream may be added if the bisque is very thick. Season and 

SOUPS 183 


2 cups raw or canned toma- Bit of bay-leaf 

toes y^ cup stale bread crumbs 

2 teaspoons sugar 4 cups milk 

J/3 teaspoon soda ^2 tablespoon salt 

Yz onion stuck with 6 cloves Y^ teaspoon pepper 

Sprig of parsley Y2, cup butter 

Scald milk with bread crumbs, onion, parsley, and bay leaf. 
Remove seasonings and rub through a sieve. Cook tomatoes 
with sugar fifteen minutes, add soda and rub through a sieve. 
Reheat bread and milk to boiling-point, add tomatoes, and pour 
at once into tureen over butter, salt, and pepper. Serve with 
croutons or crisp crackers. 


50 clams Y2 teaspoon thyme ■ 

4 ounces salt pork 3 potatoes 

1 medium-sized onion 1 pint milk 

2 tablespoons flour Y2 teaspoon pepper 
Yz teaspoon salt 3 pilot biscuit 

Put clams, with their own liquor, into a granite-ware sauce- 
pan, and when they have come to a boil skim out the clams and 
return liquid to the fire. Cut the salt pork into thin slices, 
chop the onion, and saute the two together until brown. Stir 
in flour, and when mixture is bubbling slowly, add the clam 
liquor. Season with salt, white pepper, and thyme. Add po- 
tatoes which have been cut into small cubes, and cook this 
mixture until the potatoes are tender. Just before serving, add 
milk, clams cut into pieces, and three large pilot biscuit or a 
larger number of hard water-crackers, as preferred. If liked 
thicker, blend one tablespoon of butter or other fat with the 
same of flour, and add gradually. 

To make Rhode Island clam chowder, add tomatoes, either 
canned or fresh. 



2 slices fat salt pork 2 cups boiling water 

1 onion 1 cup cooked corn, fresh 

3 cups diced boiled potatoes or canned 
Salt and pepper 4 cups hot milk 

Cut the pork into small pieces and try it out. In this cook 
the sliced onion. Strain the fat into another receptacle, and put 
the potatoes into the strained fat. Add boiling water, corn 
which has been cooked till tender, and hot milk. Season with 
salt and white pepper, bring to the boiling-point, and serve with 
a cracker on each soup-plate. 


54 pound fat salt pork, sliced 3 cups boiling water 

2 cups raw fish, cut in dice 1 pint milk 

6 small potatoes, sliced 3 pilot biscuit 

2 onions, chopped fine 

Fry salt pork in a deep kettle. When crisp remove pieces of 
pork and put fish, potatoes and onions in kettle. Cover with 
the boiling water. Simmer one-half hour, or until the potato 
is tender. Add the milk and cook five minutes longer. Season 
with salt and pepper. Just before serving, add the pilot biscuit. 


1 quart oysters . 2 tablespoons butter or 

6 potatoes other fat 

1 onion 1 tablespoon flour 

1 cup water Salt and pepper 

3 cups milk 3 pilot biscuit 

Drain the oysters, and remove any particles of shell. Strain 
the liquor through a fine wire sieve. Slice the potatoes and 
onion thin and boil them in the oyster liquor and water until 
tender but not mushy. Make a white sauce with the fat, flour, 
and milk, put the oysters into it, and cook two minutes. Com- 
bine white sauce with potatoes and onion and the liquor in 
which they have been cooked. Season to taste with salt and 
pepper. Place the pilot biscuit in the hot tureen. Pour the 
chowder over them, and serve. 

SOUPS 185 


Make in same way as oyster stew, using clams. 


6 hard-shell crabs 1 pint rich milk 

1 tablespoon butter 1 quart water 

1 tablespoon flour Sak and pepper 

1 onion Parsley 

Boil the crabs. Remove the meat and saute it in butter 
with one small onion. Cook until the onion is quite brown. 
Add flour, salt, and pepper, cook a little longer, then add water 
and minced parsley. Simmer ten minutes, add milk and reheat. 



1 pint oysters Sak, pepper, paprika 

4 tablespoons butter 1 quart rich milk 

Put cleaned oysters, strained oyster liquor, butter and season- 
ing into a saucepan and simmer gently until oysters begin to 
curl at the edges. At the same time, heat the milk, being care- 
ful not to scorch it. Add the hot milk to the oysters and oyster 
liquor and serve at once. 

Thickened — To the ingredients given above, add from four 
to eight tablespoons of flour, and, if desired, a little onion-juice 
and mace. Scald the oysters in their own liquor. Make a white 
sauce of the milk, flour and butter and season as desired. Com- 
bine the scalded oysters and oyster liquor with the white sauce 
and serve at once. 


In recent years several varieties of autolyzed yeast have ap- 
peared on the market to be used as bouillon or in sandwich 
pastes. They have the flavor of strong meat extract but have 
the advantage of being of pure vegetable origin. If purchased 
in jars use according to direction. When in cubes use like any 
other bouillon cube. Of peculiar value for the high content of 
vitamins B and G, it is also called petite marmite. 


SOUP may be served with many accompaniments, such as 
crisped crackers, cheese-sticks and pulled bread; and va- 
rieties of croutons, forcemeat balls, noodles, and vegetable 
pastes may be placed in the soup itself. Grated Parmesan 
cheese is passed with many kinds of soup to be sprinkled on 
each portion. 

Recipes for some of the best-liked accompaniments for soup 
are given below. 


Cut stale bread into slices about one-third of an inch thick, 
and remove all crust. Spread with butter, cut in cubes and 
bake in the oven until delicately browned. If preferred, these 
cubes of bread may be fried in deep fat or sauted in just enough 
fat to keep them from burning. Put into soup at time of serv- 
ing, or pass in a separate dish, permitting each person to put as 
many croutons as he may wish in his portion of soup. 


These are merely croutons shaped to represent almonds. 


Cut bread in long, narrow strips, spread with butter, then 
with a thick coating of grated cheese. Brown in moderate oven 
(350° F.). Or cut crust from sliced bread, spread thickly with 
paste of grated cheese and butter, roll, fasten with toothpick 
and brown as above. 


Toast thin wafers or crackers for three minutes in a hot oven 
(400° -42 5° F.). They are better if spread with a thin film 
of butter before being put into the oven. If Boston crackers 
are preferred, split them, arrange the halves, rough side up, on 
a plate, lay a bit of butter on each, and brown them in the 




Use the cookie cutters in any small design to cut sliced bread 
for toasting on a cookie sheet or large pan. Or use the cutters 
on biscuit dough and bake or fry in deep fat, 


1 egg Yz teaspoon salt Flour 

Stir sufficient flour into a slightly beaten egg to make a very 
stiff dough. Add salt, knead, and roll as thin as possible. It 
should be of almost paperlike thinness. Cover with a towel 
and let remain untouched for half an hour. Then cut in small 
fancy shapes, and dry them. When needed, place in boiling 
water and cook rapidly for fifteen minutes. This dough may 
also be rolled into threads and used like macaroni in soup. 

Noodle Balls — Roll the noodle paste as directed above, 
fold it double and with a tin cutter make circles about one- 
fourth inch in diameter. Toss these balls into hot fat, (360°- 
370° F.) using a wire frying-basket. In about a minute they 
will turn a delicate brown and puff into balls. Drain on soft 
paper and serve with soup. As these soften quickly, it is better 
not to put them in the tureen, but to pass them after the soup 
has been served. 


No. 1. 

5 eggs 1 teaspoon salt 

Yz teaspoon pepper Flour 

Simmer four of the eggs in the shell twenty minutes and 
mash the yolks to a smooth paste in a bowl; then add the salt 
and pepper and the other egg, well beaten. Shape the mass into 
tiny balls, roll them in flour and saute, tossing them about while 
frying to prevent their sticking to the pan. They may be made 
some time before needed. Use the hard-cooked egg-whites for 
a sandwich or a salad. 

No. 2. 

Mash the four cooked yolks to a paste, season, and mix with 
the uncooked egg-yolk. Form into small balls. Roll them in 
the uncooked egg-white, then in flour, and poach in hot water. 
These are attractive in consomme. 






2 tablespoons melted marrow Salt and pepper 

1 egg Paprika 

y2 cup soft bread-crumbs l/g teaspoon onion juice 

Strain melted marrow through cheese-cloth, beat until creamy 
and then add beaten egg. Season with salt, pepper and paprika, 
add a little moist bread, and form into balls. Poach in boiling 
water. Use 1 cup chopped liver instead of marrow for liver balls. 


1 teaspoon butter 1 egg 
lYz teaspoons milk Salt 
^ cup flour 

Heat butter and milk together. When at the boiUng-point, 
add the flour and a pinch of salt, stirring constantly. Remove 
from the fire, beat in the unbeaten egg, and continue beating 
until the egg is well mixed with the other ingredients. When 
cool, drop small pieces from the tip of a teaspoon into deep, 
boiling fat. When brown and crisp, drain on absorbent paper. 
If desired, two tablespoons of grated Parmesan cheese may be 
added to this recipe. 


Allow two tablespoons of milk, cream, or consomme to each 
egg. Mix well, season with salt and pepper, and pour into a 
buttered mold, making the custard one-half inch thick. Set 
the mold in a pan containing hot water and place in a slow oven 
(300°-350° F.). When the custard is set, remove from the 
oven and cool. Cut it into small pieces or fancy shapes. The 
egg-white, the egg-yolk or the whole egg may be used in mak- 
ing this custard. 

Custard Roy ale. 

2 egg-yolks Salt and pepper 
1 egg Cayenne 

Yz cup beef stock 

Beat the yolks of the eggs slightly and then beat into them 
the one whole egg. Add beef stock, a little salt, pepper and a 


few grains of cayenne. Pour the mixture into a shallow pan 
or dish, so that the custard will be about one-half inch deep. 
Set this pan into another holding water that is just below the 
boiling-point and place both in a slow oven (300° -3 50° F.). 
The custard should set without bubbling and without forming 
a brown crust on top. When cold, cut in fancy shapes with 
vegetable-cutter. Use care in placing these in the soup, so that 
they may not break. When used in consomme, they give the 
name *'Consomme Royale" to the soup. 


White — 

2 breasts chicken (uncooked) 1 cup milk 

Yz teaspoon salt Yz blade mace 

1 cup dry bread-crumbs ^ teaspoon pepper 

3 tablespoons butter 2 egg-whites 

Chop, pound and rub through a puree-sieve, the uncooked 
breasts of chicken. There should be a full half-pint of meat. 
Add salt and pepper. Boil together the bread-crumbs (no 
crusts), milk and mace for ten minutes, or until cooked to a 
smooth paste. Remove from the fire, put in butter and then 
add the seasoned meat and the well-beaten whites of eggs. Stir 
until all ingredients are thoroughly blended. 

Dark — Use dark meat instead of light and the yolks of the 
eggs instead of whites. Chicken livers, also, may be used for 


Free any kind of delicate fish from skin, fat and bone. 
Pound, strain, use one-half pint fish and proceed as for chicken 


12 oysters Cayenne 

2 cups dry bread-crumbs 1 teaspoon parsley 

3 tablespoons butter 1 teaspoon lemon-juice 

2 egg-yolks 3 tablespoons oyster-juice 

1 teaspoon salt Nutmeg 

Chop the oysters fine and add the bread-crumbs, butter, salt, 
cayenne, minced parsley, lemon- juice, oyster- juice,^ the yolks 
of raw eggs and a grating of nutmeg. Pound to a smooth 


paste and rub through a puree-sieve. Add more salt if neces- 
sary. This is a fine forcemeat for timbales, or for stuffing 
poiiltry or fish. For use in soups, it may be made into balls, 
dipped in beaten egg-yolks, then in bread-crumbs and fried, or 
rolled into very small balls, dipped in egg-yolks and browned 
in the oven. 

Quenelles — ^These are shapes made by forcing forcemeat 
through a pastry bag and tube into boiling water or stock. 
They are used to garnish entrees as well as soups. 


To color brown, use browned flour or a little burnt sugar. 
(See Index for caramel recipe) or a few drops of commercial 
vegetable flavoring. 

Spinach leaves give a fine green color. Pound the uncooked 
leaves, and add to soup five minutes before serving. 

^ i^ Wi^ 

Aiffiti rt, 

V w : IP 1^ ^ 91 


THE main difference between fish from fresh water and 
those from salt water, as food, is that the salt-water fish 
are an important source of bromin and iodin in the diet, 
and are considered desirable because of the value of iodin in 
preventing goiter. Some of the most common salt-water fish 
are cod, haddock, halibut, smelt, mackerel, salmon, shad, 
herring, oysters, clams, scallops, lobsters, crabs, shrimps and 
prawns, and some terrapins. Fish as food may be divided into: 

White Fish — Fish that have less than two per cent fat, 
examples of which are smelt, flounder, yellow perch, pike, 
pickerel, sea bass, cod and haddock. 

Medium Fat Fish — ^Fish that have two to £yq per cent fat, 
examples of which are weakfish, brook trout, mullet, and white 

Fat or Oily Fish — ^Fish that contain five per cent or more 
of fat, examples of which are salmon, shad, herring, lake trout, 
bluefish, Spanish mackerel, butterfish, and eels. 

Shellfish — ^Mollusks (oysters, clams, scallops and mussels) ; 
crustaceans (lobsters, crabs, shrimps, prawns, crawfish or cray- 
fish) ; reptiles (frogs, terrapins and turtles. The reptiles really 
belong to a lower order of animal than fish, but as they spend 
some time in the water they are discussed in this chapter.). 

Amount of Fish to Buy 

If the fish bought is solid flesh, one-third of a pound should 
be allowed for each person. If fish is bought in the round 
(with bones, head, tail, etc.) at least one-half pound must be 
bought for each person. 

Selecting and Caring for Fish 

Fresh and Frozen Fish — Fresh fish, or fish that was frozen 
while fresh, has full or bulging bright eyes, bright red gills, 
firm and elastic flesh and fresh odor. Be sure that the flesh 
along the back-bone smells fresh; it spoils there first. Fresh 
fish sinks in fresh water. If it floats, it should not be used. 



As soon as fish comes from the market, clean it and put it 
into the refrigerator or other cool place until it is needed. 

Fish that is frozen immediately after it is caught, and is 
kept frozen until the time for cooking does not lose its flavor. 
It is preferable to clean and draw it without thawing, but if 
it is too hard to handle soak in cold water or allow to thaw in the 
refrigerator overnight until just flexible. Skinning is some- 
times easier than scaling. Then it should be cooked at once with- 
out further thawing. Quick frozen fish on the market today 
is cleaned and ready for use. Cook at once without thawing, 
allowing only slightly more than the usual time allotted to 
broiling or baking as the case may be. 

Cleaning and Dressing Fish 

Although fish may have been cleaned and dressed at the 
market, they are likely to need additional cleaning before they 
are cooked. If any scales have been left on a fish that is to be 
cooked with the skin on, remove them with a dull knife (a 
sharp one might cut the skin) . Draw the knife over the fish, 
from tail to head, slanting it toward the body of the fish at an 
angle of about 45°. If the fish is to be split, remove the head 
and tail. "Wash quickly under cold running water and wipe 
the fish thoroughly, inside as well as outside, with a wet cloth. 
Then wipe with a clean dry cloth and keep on a plate in a cold 
place until ready to use. 

To Skin a Fish 

Remove the fins, cut off a strip of skin along the backbone, 
and cut the skin around the gills. Pull the skin off with the 
hand. If the flesh is soft, work slowly and closely follow the 
skin with the knife, to avoid tearing the flesh. 

To Bone and Fillet a Fish 

Clean and skin the fish. Insert a sharp knife close to the 
backbone at the tail end, and cut the flesh from the bone, work- 
ing toward the head and keeping the knife as close as possible 
to the bone. Small bones that adhere to the flesh or are em- 
bedded in it must be removed with the fingers. 

Large fish, such as cod and halibut, are easily boned; in fact. 

PISH 193 

they are usually purchased in slices. Fish with many bones, 
like shad, can not be boned satisfactorily. 

Flounders are often boned, to form fillets, and are served as 
"fillets of sole." The English sole is seldom imported, and most 
of the **fillet of sole*' that is served in America is made from 
the flounder, which has a white, delicate flesh similar to the 

A fillet is merely a piece of fish without skin and bones. 
Fillets look better on the serving platter if they are approxi- 
mately the same size. Rolled fillets are called turbans. They 
are fastened with wooden toothpicks to keep them in shape 
during cooking, but the picks are removed before the fish is 

Salted, Smoked and Canned Fish 

These may be had the year around. The following varieties 
are likely to be in any market: 

Dried Salt FiSH---Cod, haddock, hake, pollack, and whit- 

Brine-salted Fish — Herring, mackerel, mullet, salmon, 

Smoked Fish — Carp, catfish, eel, finnan haddie, hake, hali- 
but, lake trout, pollack, salmon, sturgeon, whitefish. 

Canned Fish — Cod, haddock, herring, mackerel, salmon, 
sardines, tunafish, oysters, shrimps, lobsters, clams. 

Pickled Fish — Sardines, eels, sturgeon, oysters, clams, scal- 
lops, lobsters and mussels. 

To Freshen Salt Fish 

Place the fish flesh side down in a large pan of fresh water, set 
the pan in a cool place and let it soak from one to forty-eight 
hours, changing the water several times. If the fish is to be 
cooked in liquid, it will need a shorter time in water than if it is 
to be cooked with very little moisture. 

Boiled Fish 

For boiling a large fish whole, a fish-kettle with strainer, a 
large kettle with a wire frying-basket or a steamer is needed. 
A plate in a piece of coarse muslin or cheese-cloth, kept for 


this purpose, may be used for fish in small pieces. Clean the 
fish, rub a little salt over it, wrap it in a cloth and place it in 
the container in which it is to be boiled or steamed. 

The fish must not be put into cold water, as that extracts 
the flavor, nor into boiling water, as that breaks the skin, but 
should be put into hot water, which may then be quickly 
brought to the boiling-point. After the water boils, decrease 
the heat so that it will simmer. 

Use enough water to cover the fish, add one teaspoon of salt 
and one tablespoon of vinegar or lemon- juice to every two 
quarts of water. These whiten the flesh and make it firm as 
well as season it. After the water begins to simmer, allow five 
to ten minutes to the pound for small thin pieces and ten to 
fifteen minutes to the pound for large thick pieces. 

Fish That Are Good Boiled 

With Suggestions for Sauces and Garnishes 





Butter sauce, caper 
sauce, oyster sauce, 
shrimp sauce 

Parsley or cress 


Bechamel sauce 

Chopped parsley 


Egg sauce 

Parsley or cress 


Bechamel sauce, creamy 
sauce, egg sauce, Hol- 
landaise sauce 

Parsley or cress 


Caper sauce, parsley 


Egg sauce, Hollandaise 
sauce, Tartar sauce 

Cress, lemon, pars 


Drawn-butter sauce 

Parsley and lemon 

Snapper (red) 

Mushroom sauce, tomato 


Sole (flounder) 

Bechamel sauce 



Horseradish sauce 

If you wish to serve a whole boiled fish upright, as if swim- 
ming, place a carrot inside the fish to make it retain its form, 
and arrange the garnishings so that it will keep its position on 
the platter. Bind the fish to the strainer with twine when 
cooking. A fish retains shape and flavor better in a steamer 
than when immersed in water. 

FISH 195 

To steam, place the fish on a plate in the upper part of a 
steamer, allowing the same time as for boiling. 

Boiled fish needs a rich sauce, such as egg sauce, Hollandaise, 
Bechamel or drawn butter. 

Fresh-water fish or other fish without much flavor may be 
boiled in court bouillon (See Index). Stock in which fish has 
been cooked may be made into fish chowder (See Index). 


4 to 5 pounds salmon 1 grated nutmeg 

2 quarts vinegar 6 blades mace 

1 ounce peppercorns 1 tablespoon salad oil 

Wrap the salmon in a fish-cloth and simmer in salted water 
about three-fourths of an hour. Drain, wrap in a dry cloth 
and set in a cold place till ready to use. For the pickle, use one 
quart of the water in which the salmon was cooked, the vine- 
gar, peppercorns, grated nutmeg and mace. Boil for a few 
minutes, in a kettle closely covered to prevent evaporation of 
the flavor. Cool. When quite cold, pour over the salmon; 
then pour in the oil. Cover closely and place in a dry cool 
place. This pickle will keep many months. 


6 large herrings Parsley 

Pepper Vinegar 

Salt 6 slices buttered toast 

Select fish with roes. Split, wash, scrape and remove heads, 
roe, and backbone. Sprinkle generously with pepper, salt, and 
minced parsley, then roll each piece tightly, beginning with the 
neck, and tie with a string. Put into boiling water that is 
seasoned with pepper, salt and vinegar and simmer ten or fifteen 
minutes. Cut the roe in pieces and fry. Place the fish and roe 
on buttered toast, garnish and serve. 

Broiled Fish 

To broil a whole fish, split the fish down the back, dry 
thoroughly, sprinkle with salt, pepper and lemon-juice. Place 
fish, flesh side down, on a well-greased wire broiler. Turn and 
broil on skin side just enough to crisp the skin. Large fish are 
cut into slices one inch thick, and broiled on both sides evenly. 


Fish That Are Good Broiled 

With Suggestions for Sauces and Garnishes 

Fish Sauce 

Black Bass (split) Melted butter 
Melted butter 
Tomato sauce, 

Cod (sliced) 
Flounder (split 
or filleted) 

Halibut (sliced) 


Mackerel (split) 
Pompano (split) 
Salmon (sliced) 
Shad (split) 
Smelts (whole) 

Butter sauce, HoUan- 
daise sauce, oyster 

Maitre d'hotel sauce, 
lemon sauce 

Maitre d'hotel sauce 


Lemon and parsley 



Parsley, lemon 

Lemon, cucumber, 

Cucumber, cress or 

lettuce salad 
Chopped parsley 

Parsley and radishes 



Anchovy sauce, caper 

Maitre d'hotel sauce, 

butter sauce 
Remoulade sauce, 

Bechamel sauce 
Swordfish (sliced) Horseradish sauce 


12 smelts 1 tablespoon salt 

3 tablespoons butter Yz tablespoon pepper 

1 tablespoon lemon-juice 3 tablespoons flour 

Small smelts are not always split open and cleaned, but the 
entrails are squeezed out carefully so as not to bruise the fish,, 
and the heads are sometimes left on. When the smelts are 
large, however, cutting down the belly to remove entrails is 
more satisfactory. Put butter, lemon-juice, salt and pepper in 
a deep plate on the back of the stove where the fat will slowly 
melt. On another plate, place the flour. Wash and wipe the 
fish and roll it in the melted, seasoned fat, and then lightly in 
the flour. Arrange on a double broiler and cook four or five 
minutes over clear coals. Serve on a warm dish with remoulade 

Baked Fish 

Whole Large Fish — ^Dress and stuff the fish (See chapter 
"Stuffings for Fish, Meat, Poultry and Game.") and sew up 
the opening with a trussing-needle. If a white or medium fat 













fish is used, cut three or more slits in its sides and insert a strip 
of salt pork in each. Fat fish needs no larding, it has fat enough 
in itself. 

Place a cloth or a rack in the bottom of a baking-pan. Upon 
the cloth place a thin layer of minced salt pork and a few slices 
of onion and tomato. Upon these place the fish itself. Dredge 
with salt, pepper and flour and lay on more salt pork; place in 
a hot oven (425° F.) add a cup of boiling water and cover. 
Cook fifteen to twenty minutes to each pound, basting fre- 
quently, adding water after each basting if necessary. After 
the first fifteen or twenty minutes reduce the heat to 3 50° F. 
Milk may be used instead of water in baking dry fish steaks. If 
a dripping-pan is used, it is not necessary to add water, and fish 
has more flavor if cooked without water. 

Small Fish or Fillets — Follow directions for whole large 
fish, allowing a total baking period of twenty to thirty minutes. 

Fish That Are Good Baked Whole 

With Suggestions for Stuffings, Sauces and Garnishes. 





Bass (sea) 

Bread stuffing 

Tomato sauce 

Tomato and 

No. 1 or 2 



Bread stuffing 

Sauce made by 

Parsley and lem- 

No. 1 or 2 

boiling the stock 
in pan plus one 
large tablespoon 
catchup and one 
browned flour 
mixed with cold 

on slices 


Oyster stuffing 

Oyster sauce 




Drawn butter, egg, 

Lemon and pars- 

sauce, Hollan- 


daise sauce 





Bread stuffing 
No. 1 or 2 

Lemon, tomatoes 


Bread stuffing 

Maitre d ' h 6 1 e 1 


No. 1 or 2 



Bread stuffing 
No. 1 or 2 



Bread stuffing 
No. 1 or 2 

Egg sauce 



Fish That Are Good Baked in Steaks, Cutlets or Fillets 
With Suggestions for Sauces and Garnishes. 








Egg sauce 



Oyster sauce 



Brown, Hollandalse, 
tomato or mush- 

Tomatoes, peas, p 

room sauce 






Lemon sauce 

Parsley and lemon 


Drawn butter 

Parsley and lemon 


Tomato sauce 


5 pounds flounder 2 cups chicken stock 

2 tablespoons flour 1 tablespoon lemon-juice 

3 tablespoons butter 1 slice onion 

1 cup fine bread-crumbs Salt and pepper 

1 bay-leaf 

Fillet and cut the fish into pieces about four inches long by 
three wide. Oil a baking or gratin dish and lay the fillets in it. 
Sprinkle salt and pepper over them and set in a cool place till 

Rub together flour and butter; add onion, bay-leaf, chicken 
stock, and salt and pepper as needed. Simmer gently twenty 
minutes and then add lemon-juice, strain the sauce and pour 
it over the fish. Season lightly with salt and pepper, sprinkle 
bread-crumbs over the sauce and fish. Bake twenty minutes in 
a hot oven (425 ° F.) and serve at once in the same dish. 


2 pounds halibut 1 slice onion 

2 cups stewed tomatoes 2 tablespoons butter 
1 cup water 1 tablespoon flour 

3 cloves Salt and pepper 

Put the tomatoes, water, cloves and onion on the stove in a 
Stewpan to boil. Mix the butter and flour together, stir them 
into the sauce when it boils and add the salt and pepper. Cook 
ten minutes and strain into a bowl. 

FISH 199 

Pour boiling water into a deep plate to the depth of one- 
half inch, and lay the fish in it for one minute, skin side down; 
when the fish is removed from the water, the black skin can 
be taken off easily. Wash the fish in cold water, season with 
salt and pepper and lay it on the baking sheet in a dripping- 
pan, put sliced lemon on top, then pour half the tomato sauce 
around the fish and bake in a hot to moderate oven (425° to 
350° F.) for thirty to forty minutes, basting three times with 
the remainder of the tomato sauce. Pour the sauce remaining 
in the bottom of the pan around the fish on the serving platter. 

Fried or Panned Fish 

After cleaning, dry the fish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, 
dip in fine bread-crumbs, flour or corn-meal, then in egg, and 
again in crumbs, flour or corn-meal, and fry in deep fat. (See 
Index for directions for deep-fat frying. ) Small fish are cooked 
in this way, with or without head and tail; also fish steaks, 
fillets or turbans. The skin is usually removed. In some cases 
(for example, the perch) if the skin has not been removed by 
the fish dealer, it is very difficult to get it off. In this case, dip 
for a moment into boiling water and remove at once. 

Fried Fish — Small fish are fried whole; for example, smelts, 
small flounders, whitebait, small whitings, small herrings, small 
perch. Larger fish such as eels, halibut, cod, large flounder and 
sole are cut in four-inch lengths or made into fillets or turbans 
before frying. 

Fried fish are usually served with Tartar sauce, anchovy sauce 
or with lemon. 

Panned Fish — Clean, wash and dry fish, rub in flour which 
has been seasoned with salt and pepper or dip in egg and crumbs 
and saute in a saucepan in a small amount of fat. Any fish 
that can be fried can be panned. 


2 pounds fillet of sole or Salt and pepper 
flounder Crumbs, egg 

A large sole or flounder will make four fillets. Roll up each 
fillet, 'or cut into smaller fillets, season with salt and pepper, dip 
in eggy then in crumbs and fry in deep fat (390° F.) four to 


six minutes. For variety, cut the fillets up, simmer half of the 
small fillets in salted water from six to ten minutes and then 
serve with the fried ones, having the boiled ones in the center 
of the dish. Serve with a white sauce, or with Tartar sauce. 

Planked Fish 

Scale the fish. Split it down the back, clean, wash and wipe 
dry as usual. Prepare a plank of oak or hickory, about one and 
one-half inch thick, and put in the oven to heat. If using a 
gas stove, place it directly under the gas in the broiler, having 
the side which is to hold the fish nearest the flame. 

Rub the fish all over with oil, salt and pepper. Lay it skin 
side down on the plank, and put the plank on the upper grate 
of the oven, or under the broiler of a gas stove. Cook about 
one-half hour, spreading melted fat over the fish while it is 
in the oven if there is a tendency to dryness. If the fish has 
roe, the roe may be broiled on the plank beside the fish, or the 
roe may be boiled, mixed with a little white sauce, well seasoned, 
and spread over the thinnest part of the fish, £.ye minutes before 
it is finished, and covered with crumbs. 

Have ready freshly mashed potato and form a border of this 
around the fish by pressing it through a pastry-bag. Set the 
plank in the oven until the potato has browned, then send to 
table garnished with lemon and parsley. 

The size of the plank will depend on the size of the oven, 
but it must be at least three inches wider than the fish. White- 
fish and shad are best for planked fish. 

Fish Roe and Milt 

The roe (eggs) of many fish, which are available during the 
Spring, make excellent and often delicate food. Shad roe are 
most frequently used, but the roe of mackerel and of flounder 
are just as palatable and are usually much cheaper. When small 
fish contain roe, do not cook the roe in the fish; remove it and 
cook it as a separate dish. 

To Prepare Roe for Use 

Parboil it in salted, acidulated water (one tablespoon vinegar 
or legion- juice to one quart water) and simmer eight to ten 
minutes. Drain, cool, and pick out the pieces of membrane; 
the roe is then ready for any recipe. 

FISH 201 


The part of the male fish that takes the place of the roe 
of female fish is called the milt, and may be prepared and 
cooked in just the same way. The blue vein that runs through 
the center of salmon milt should be removed before the milt is 


"Wipe, sprinkle with salt and pepper, put on greased wire 
broiler, and broil £.Ye minutes on each side. Serve with maitre 
d*h6tel sauce. 


1 cup shad roe Ys cup salt or ^ cup 

prepared caviar 

Mash the cooked roe very carefully, then mix with the salt. 
Beat thoroughly and let it stand for an hour before serving. If 
preferred, the shad roe may be mixed with prepared caviar 
instead of salt. 


1 to 2 pounds shad roe Bread-crumbs 

1 cup medium white sauce Chopped parsley 

Egg-yolk Salt and pepper 


Parboil roe as directed, drain and break up lightly with a fork. 
Sprinkle a layer of roe in a baking-dish; add one-half the yolk 
of an egg, well beaten, dropping it over the top of the roe, next 
sprinkle lightly with minced parsley, salt and pepper to taste 
and a few drops of lemon -juice; then add a layer of the white 
sauce. Repeat the layers of roe, egg, seasoning and sauce, cover 
with bread-crumbs and bits of butter and bake until brown. If 
a large dish is required, use with the roe any cold flaked fish left 
from a former meal. Any kind of roe may be prepared in this 


Canned or Warmed-over Fish 

1 cup cooked fish, fresh or 2 eggs 

canned ^ cup milk 

1 cup mashed potatoes Salt and pepper 

Mix cold cooked fish with mashed potatoes, milk, salt and 
pepper. Stir in one egg, well beaten. Put into an oiled mold 
or dish and set in the oven until hot. Beat the white of the 
other egg stiff and stir into it the beaten yolk seasoned with salt 
and pepper; heap this over the fish and brown. 


1 cup cooked fish, fresh or 2 cups milk or cream 

canned Yz cup butter or other fat 

Yz cup cooked mushrooms Salt, pepper and nutmeg 

1 cup bread-crumbs 4 eggs 

Use any delicate fish, such as halibut, whitefish, cusk or sal- 
mon. Remove the bones and skin, and pound the meat very 
fine, so it may be rubbed through a soup-strainer. Mushrooms 
mixed with the fish before it is strained will greatly improve 
its flavor. 

Cook bread-crumbs ten minutes in milk or cream. Remove 
from fire and add melted butter or other fat, salt, pepper or 
paprika and a few gratings of nutmeg. When this is cold, add 
the fish, beat the whole thoroughly, add the eggs, also well 
beaten, and place the mixture in a greased or oiled mold. Cover 
the mold with oiled paper, set it in a deep baking-pan, place it 
in the oven, and pour water into the pan until it is within one 
inch of the top of the mold. Cook for three-quarters of an 
hour at 250° F. Hollandaise and tomato sauce are both ex- 
cellent to serve with fish timbale. 


2 cups cooked salmon, fresh Y2 cup soft bread-crumbs 
or canned 1 tablespoon lemon- juice 

Salt and pepper 3 eggs 

Remove the skin and bones from the salmon, chop the meat 
fine, and add salt, white pepper or paprika, soft bread-crumbs. 

FISH 203 

lemon- juice or vinegar, and egg-yolks. Mix thoroughly, add 
the well beaten egg-whites, and place in six or eight oiled cups, 
filling the cups even full. Set the cups at once in a pan contain- 
ing hot water that comes to about an inch below their tops, and 
bake for one-half hour in moderate oven (375° F.). Turn 
out upon a hot platter, thrust a sprig of parsley or celery, or a 
clove, into the center of each puff, and pour about them any 
desired fish sauce. 


1 cup cooked salmon, fresh or Salt and pepper 

canned 2 tablespoons lemon-juice 

1 cup drawn-butter sauce Bread-crumbs, cheese 

Flake the cold salmon, mix with the drawn butter, salt, pep- 
per and lemon-juice. Fill little earthen dishes with the mixture, 
cover with fine bread-crumbs, with or without cheese, and 
brown in the oven at 400° F. 


2 cups cooked salmon, fresh 4 tablespoons butter 
or canned Salt and pepper 

2 eggs Minced parsley 

Yz cup fine bread-crumbs 

Flake the fish, add the eggs beaten lightly, the melted butter, 
the bread-crumbs, salt, pepper and minced parsley. Put into a 
greased mold, and steam for an hour. When cold, arrange on 
a platter and garnish with slices of lemon, cucumber, and pars- 


2 cups cooked tunafish, fresh 1 Yz cups milk 

or canned 3 tablespoons capers 

2 tablespoons butter Paprika 

2 tablespoons flour 1 tablespoon minced parsley 
Yz teaspoon salt 

If canned fish is used, turn it from the can on to a plate and 
steam it until it is hot. In the meantime, melt the butter, stir 
in the flour and salt, and gradually add the milk. Add the 
capers. Transfer the fish to a platter, pour the sauce over it 
and dust lightly with paprika and parsley. 

Fresh cooked fish may be heated in the sauce, or heated 
separately and served with sauce poured over it. 



2 cups cooked fish, fresh or 1 cup cooked rice 

canned Salt and pepper 

4 tablespoons butter or other 2 hard-cooked eggs 

Free the fish from skin and bone. Melt butter in a saucepan, 
add the fish and stir gently. Put in the rice, the whites of the 
hard-cooked eggs, and season to taste with salt and pepper. 
Move gently about over the fire until thoroughly hot, and serve 
on a flat dish with the yolks of the eggs, pressed through a 
ricer, over the top. 


2 cups cooked fish, fresh or 2 hard-cooked eggs 

canned 2 tablespoons butter 

Yz cup mashed potatoes Salt and pepper 

2 cups milk 1 cup bread-crumbs 
2 tablespoons corn-starch 

Heat all the milk, except one-fourth cup, in a double boiler; 
add the corn-starch stirred up with the remaining cold milk; 
cook twenty minutes, stirring frequently. Add one table- 
spoon butter, rub smooth the yolks of the eggs and add them, 
and then the whites after they have been passed through a 
sieve. Flake the fish, add the potatoes and season with salt and 
pepper. Oil a baking-dish, put in a layer of the fish mixture, 
cover with sauce, add another layer of fish, then more sauce, 
and so on imtil all is used. Cover the top with the bread- 
crumbs, add small bits of butter and bake for fifteen minutes 
in a moderate oven (3 50° -400° F.). 

Dried and Salt Fish 

1 cup salt codfish 2 tablespoons butter 

1 cup milk 2 tablespoons flour 

1 ^%% 

Separate the fish into very small pieces and leave in cold 
water for three hours, changing the water three times. Heat 
the milk in a double boiler. Add the codfish, well drained, and 

FISH 205 

cook for ten minutes. Mix the butter with the flour until a 
smooth paste is formed, then stir it into the milk. Cook ten 
minutes. Take the dish from the heat, add the beaten egg, stir 
well and serve without further cooking, adding a sprinkling 
of pepper just before dishing. If the sauce is cooked after the 
egg is added, the milk is likely to curdle. The egg may be 


1 cup salt codfish 2 eggs 

2 cups mashed potatoes 54 cup butter or other fat 

" 2 cups milk or cream Pepper 

Pick very fine and freshen salt codfish as in preceding recipe; 
mix with mashed potatoes, milk or cream, well-beaten egg, but- 
ter and pepper. Turn into a baking-dish and bake twenty or 
twenty-five minutes in a moderate oven (3 50° -400° F.). 


1 cup salt codfish 2 tablespoons butter or other 
4 cups sliced raw potatoes fat 

2 tablespoons milk or cream 1 egg 


If the fish is not already shredded, pick out all the bones and 
shred the flesh. Simmer the fish and the sliced potatoes to- 
gether in plenty of water until the potatoes are soft. Drain, 
mash, and beat until fine and light; then add the pepper, fat 
and milk, and the egg, well beaten. Mix all thoroughly with 
a spoon. Shape into balls. Fry in a frying-basket in deep fat, 
(375°-390° F.) for two to five minutes. 


1 cup salt codfish 1 tablespoon butter or other 

2 cups raw potatoes fat 
2 tablespoons milk or cream Pepper 
2 eggs 

Place the fish and potatoes together in enough boiling water 
to cover them, and let them boil until the potatoes are done. 
Drain thoroughly, mash the potatoes and fish, and beat them 
well with a fork, adding white pepper, butter, milk or cream. 
The mass should be made light with vigorous beating. Then 


beat in the well-stirred yolks of two eggs, and lastly, fold in 
the well-whipped whites. Arrange the soujffle in an oiled bak- 
ing-dish and bake in a moderate oven (375° F. ) about twenty 
mihutes, until it is brown. Serve with cucumber pickles, 
pickled peppers, horseradish or fresh cucumbers. 


2 cups salt fish 2 cups milk 

4 tablespoons butter or other 4 tablespoons flour 
fat 2 hard-cooked eggs 

Soak fish over night, cook in fresh water, flake. Make a white 
sauce with the fat, flour and milk. Add the flaked fish to the 
white sauce and pour on to a warm platter. Cut the eggs into 
slices and arrange in a circle on top. Serve at once. 


Boiled — 

1 salt mackerel 4 tablespoons flour 

2 cups milk 4 tablespoons butter 

Clean the fish by scraping off rusty-looking portions and also 
the thin black membrane found on the inside, and leave it over 
night in plenty of cold water, with the skin side up. In the 
morning, drain the fish and place it in a frying-pan, skin side 
down, cover with fresh water, and slowly heat to the boiling- 
point. Drain off this water, add just enough fresh water to 
cover the fish and simmer until tender. Lift the mackerel out 
carefully (a pancake-turner will be found convenient for such 
work) and place it on the serving-dish in the oven to keep 
hot while the gravy is being prepared. 

To one cup of the water left in the frying-pan after the 
removal of the fish, add the two cups of milk. When the 
liquid boils, add the flour stirred to a paste with the fat, and 
season with salt and pepper. Let the gravy boil slowly three 
or four minutes, stirring constantly until smooth. Pour it 
over the mackerel. 

Baked — Prepare the fish as for boiling but place it in a shal- 
low baking-pan just large enough to hold it, and pour over it 
the milk. Bake twenty minutes in a hot oven (400° -42 5° F.) 
stirring into the milk at the end of fifteen minutes a smooth 

FISH 207 

paste made of two tablespoons of flour and two tablespoons of 
fat, with a sprinkling of pepper. Serve with the thickened milk 
poured around the fish. 


Soak in tepid water twenty-four hours, changing the water 
several times. At the hour wanted, broil, season to taste, dot- 
ting with bits of butter. All kinds of salt fish may be broiled 
in this way. 


1 finnan haddie Oil Lemon-juice 

Soak the fish in cold water for three-quarters of an hour, 
then lay in boiling water for five minutes. Wipe very dry, 
rub oil and lemon-juice into the fish and broil over a clear fire 
for fifteen minutes. Serve with hot butter sauce. 


1 cup flaked finnan haddie, 1 cup medium white sauce 

fresh-cooked or canned Salt, pepper, paprika 

If the whole fish is used, put it in a baking-pan, cover with 
cold water, and after soaking twenty minutes, bring the water 
to a boil. Reduce the heat and allow it to simmer for one-half 
hour. Drain, rinse, and with a fork separate the fish into flakes. 
Canned finnan haddie should be steamed. To one cup of fish, 
add one cup of medium white sauce. Bring to a boil; season 
with salt, pepper and a liberal quantity of paprika. 


Oysters, to be safe and palatable food, must be perfectly 
fresh. Buy them in the shells, if possible, and when purchas- 
ing them without shells be sure that the liquor is clear; if it 
is cloudy, the oysters should not be used. 

Opening and Cleaning Oysters 

To open an oyster, hold it firmly with the thick part of the 
shell toward the palm of the hand. Wash the shell thoroughly. 
Push a strong, thin knife between the shells near the back and 
run it along until it cuts the strong muscle which holds the 


shells together. Drop the oysters into a strainer, set over a 
bowl, and save the liquor that drains through to be used in 
cooking the oysters or making soup or sauce. Then examine 
each oyster and with the fingers remove all particles of shell. 
They are then ready to be used in any way desired. 


Raw oysters are served either on the half shell packed in 
crushed ice, on oyster plates, or in a block of ice. Allow to 
each person £ye or six oysters and one-fourth of a lemon, and 
pass with the oysters crackers or thin slices of delicately buttered 
brown or graham bread. 


30 medium oysters 1 teaspoon salt 

2 teaspoons prepared horse- 2 tablespoons vinegar 
radish 4 tablespoons lemon-juice 

3 tablespoons tomato catchup J4 teaspoon tabasco sauce 

Where oysters in the shell are obtainable, they are usually 
served on the half shell, on a plate of crushed ice, around a 
small glass holding the cocktail mixture. When it is not pos- 
sible to get the oysters in the shell, cocktails may be served in 
ice shells made for this purpose, or in cases made from green- 
pepper shells, in halves of grapefruit, or in large claret glasses. 
Put five medium oysters into each glass and pour the dressing 
over them. To make the dressing, mix horseradish, tomato 
catchup and vinegar, lemon-juice, tabasco sauce, and salt 
thoroughly. Both oysters and dressing should be very cold. 


1 pint large oysters J4 cup oyster-juice 

6 slices buttered toast 

Lay the oysters in a shallow dripping-pan, and pour over 
them a small quantity of oyster-juice, but not sufficient to raise 
or float them. Place the dish carefully in a hot oven (400°- 
425° F.) and just heat the oysters through. Be careful not 
to bake them. Moisten hot buttered toast with the hot juice 
from the oysters and serve the oysters on the toast. 

FISH 209 


24 large oysters Salt and pepper 

24 very thin slices fat bacon Parsley 

Season the oysters with salt and pepper. "Wrap one oyster 
in each slice of bacon and fasten with a toothpick. Heat a 
frying pan and put in the oysters. Cook on one side and then 
on the other just long enough to crisp the bacon, about five 
minutes. Cut slices of toast into quarters and place one oyster 
on each small slice of toast. Serve immediately, garnished with 


1 pint oysters 6 tablespoons flour 

4 tablespoons butter or other 1 pint rich milk 

fat Salt and pepper 

Heat the oysters in their own liquor until the edges curl. 
Make a white sauce with the fat, flour and milk. Combine the 
oysters and sauce, add seasoning and serve. 


1 pint oysters Nutmeg 

1 ^ cups milk or cream 2, egg-yolks or 1 whole egg 

1 tablespoon butter 2 tablespoons flour 

Salt and pepper Cayenne 

Set the oysters on the stove to heat in their own liquor. As 
soon as they begin to boil, skim carefully and turn them into 
a strainer. Add one-half cup of oyster liquor to one cup of 
milk or cream and make a white sauce with the fat, flour and 
this liquid. Season with salt, pepper, a slight grating of nut- 
meg and a grain of cayenne. Add one-fourth cup of cold 
milk or cream to the well-beaten egg or yolks of eggs. Place the 
oysters in the white sauce and add to the egg mixture. Cook 
over hot water for three minutes, or until the eggs thicken, 
stirring all the time; remove from fire immediately to pre- 
vent separating. Serve with a border of puff-paste cakes, 
buttered toast or baking-powder biscuit. If liked, one-half 
tablespoon of lemon-juice may be added just as the oysters are 
taken from the fire. 



1 pint oysters 2 eggs 

1 Yz cups milk 2 cups flour 

1 teaspoon salt 

Scald the oysters in their own liquor, and drain them 
thoroughly on a cloth. Make a batter with the milk, Qgg, flour 
and salt and dip the oysters in it. Fry a light brown, in deep 
fat (375°-390° F., two to five minutes) drain and serve. 
Seasoned bread-crumbs may be used instead of the batter. 


30 oysters in the shell Salt 

Butter Pepper 

Wash the shells thoroughly by scrubbing with a brush. Place 
in a baking-pan with the deep shell down. Set into a very 
hot oven (450°-500° F.) and bake until the shells open. Or, 
cover the pan, set it over a pot of boiling water, and steam 
until the shells open. Add a little butter, salt, and pepper to 
each oyster and serve immediately in the shells. 


30 large oysters 6 slices toast ^ pound bacon 

Cut the bacon into thin strips and cut the strips into pieces 
an inch or an inch and a half square. String the oysters and 
bacon squares alternately on six long, slender steel skewers, 
being careful to run the skewers through the hard part of 
the oysters. Place the skewers across a narrow, deep baking- 
tin so that the oysters will hang down but not touch the bottom 
of the tin; leave space between the skewers so that the heat will 
pass evenly around them. Cook in a very hot oven (450°- 
475° F.) for five minutes, or long enough to crisp the bacon. 
Place a skewer on each slice of toast. Pour the juice in the 
pan over the toast and serve immediately. 


30 large oysters Salt and pepper 

Butter Bread-crumbs, if desired 

Dry the oysters on a towel; sprinkle them with salt and pep- 
per and lay them in an oyster broiler (a fine-mesh broiler). 

FISH 211 

Brown on both sides. Serve on a hot plate with melted butter 
poured over them. The oysters may be rolled in bread-crumbs 
before broiling, if preferred. 


1 cup oysters 3 tablespoons butter or other 
1 cup cooked mushrooms fat 

(fresh or canned) 1 teaspoon onion- juice 

lYz cups milk J/2 teaspoon lemon- juice 

3 tablespoons flour 2 egg-yolks or 1 egg 
Yz teaspoon salt 

Drain the oysters and put them into a hot pan. Cook until 
the edges begin to curl, then remove to a hot dish. Make a 
sauce by adding to the oyster liquor the juice from the mush- 
rooms, and enough milk to make a pint. Thicken this with 
the flour blended with the butter or other fat and cook two 
to five minutes. Add chopped mushrooms, onion-juice, lemon- 
juice and a little salt. 

Beat the yolks of the eggs; add a little of the hot mixture, 
slowly, then all of it. Add the oysters, and cook over hot 
water until the sauce thickens, stirring constantly. Remove 
from the fire and serve at once. 


^ pound spaghetti lYz cups milk 

1 pint oysters 2 tablespoons flour 

Salt and pepper 2 tablespoons butter or other 

1 cup bread-crumbs fat 

Ys cup melted fat 

Break the spaghetti into small pieces, boil it in plenty of salted 
boiling water until it is quite tender, and then drain. Scald 
the oysters in their own liquor, reserving the liquor. Oil a 
baking-dish, put in a layer of the spaghetti and then a layer of 
the oysters, season with salt and pepper, and repeat the layers 
until all the oysters and spaghetti are used, finishing with a 
layer of spaghetti. To the liquor from the oysters, add enough 
milk to make a pint, reserving a small quantity to mix with the 
flour. Scald the remainder, add the scalded milk to the 
moistened flour, stir well and cook twenty minutes in a double 
boiler. Take from the fire, add the melted fat and pour over 
the layers in the dish. Top with bread-crumbs mixed with 


melted fat (see recipe for buttered crumbs), and bake in a 
quick oven (400° -450° F.) just long enough to brown the 
crumbs, about ten minutes. 


30 oysters Salt and pepper 

Bread or cracker-crumbs Fat for sauteing 

Drain the oysters well, season with salt and pepper and roll 
in fine bread or cracker-crumbs. Place two or three tablespoons 
fat in a saucepan and when it becomes very hot drop in enough 
oysters to cover the bottom of the pan. When one side is 
browned, turn the oysters carefully to brown the other side. 
Add more fat as needed. The iron pancake griddle is often 
used for this purpose, when many oysters are to be cooked at 
one time. Serve very hot on toast. 


1 pint oysters 6 tablespoons butter or other 

2 cups soft bread-crumbs fat 

J/4 cup milk Salt and pepper 

Oil a baking-dish; put in a layer of crumbs, then a layer of 
oysters, butter or other fat in little pieces, salt and pepper. 
Repeat, ending with a layer of crumbs, with small pieces of fat 
dotted over them. Do not have more than two layers of oysters. 
Moisten with milk and oyster liquor mixed together. Bake in 
a moderate oven (350°-400° F.) until brown, about half an 
hour, and serve in the same dish. 


30 oysters in the shell Pepper and salt 

Lemon-juice 30 one-inch squares sliced 

Buttered crumbs bacon 

"Wash and open the oysters. Into each shell put a half-tea- 
spoon of strained oyster liquor, a few drops of lemon- juice, 
then the oyster sprinkled with pepper and salt and covered with 
buttered crumbs. On each lay an inch square of bacon and set 
in a hot oven (400°-450° F.) for ten or twelve minutes. Shal- 
low ovenware dishes, with the half -shells embedded in coarse 
salt, are excellent for this purpose. The salt keeps the shells 
from tipping during baking. Where shells are not available. 

FISH 213 

arrange the oysters for each portion in a shallow ramekin. 
These are excellent for Sunday-night supper or as a luncheon 


1 pint oysters 1 cup milk or cream 
3 tablespoons butter or other 2 egg-yolks 

fat Salt and pepper 

2 tablespoons flour 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 

Drain the oysters, chop them, not too fine, and drain again. 
Make a white sauce with two tablespoons of the fat, the flour 
and the milk, remove from the fire and add the beaten yolks, 
the salt, pepper and parsley, and then the oysters. Fill small 
ramekins with the mixture, sprinkle lightly with soft bread 
crumbs, dot with fat, arrange in a baking-pan, and brown in a 
quick oven (400° -42 5° F., about seven minutes). 


Clams, like oysters, should be purchased in the shell whenever 
possible. The shell opens when the animal dies, making it easy 
to discard the bad ones. A dead clam is dangerous food. 

If obtained the day before they are to be used, cover the 
clams with cold water and sprinkle corn-meal over the top of 
the water, using about one cup of corn-meal for a peck of 
clams. Let them stand over night. 

To open clams steam in tightly covered vessel and if the 
clams are not to be served at once, remove them from the shells 
and drop them into cold water, to keep them from becoming 
tough. A peck will yield about a quart of clams without the 

Cut oflF the siphons of large clams,, as that part is very tough, 
and if the clams have not been treated with corn-meal, open 
the stomachs with a pair of scissors and scrape out the debris. 
Wash the clams well, to remove all sand. 


Small clams are served raw on the half shell, just as raw; 
oysters are served. (See Index.) 


Follow recipe for oyster cocktail. (See Index.) 



Steamed — 

30 clams in the shell Juice of Yz lemon 

6 tablespoons butter Salt and pepper 

The hard-shell clam is used for steaming. Scrub the shell 
with a brush and wash free of sand in several waters. Steam 
the clams in a steamer for ten minutes, or until opened. While 
the clams are steaming, melt the butter and mix with the 
lemon-juice, salt and pepper. Lay a napkin on a hot platter 
and place the clams in their shells on this. Cover with a 
second napkin and serve. In eating, remove the clam from 
the shell and dip it into the sauce. The thin, tough part known 
as the neck or siphon is not eaten. 

Roasted in the Oven — Prepare the clams as for steaming, 
put them into a pan, set the pan in a hot oven (400 ° -42 5 ° F.) 
and bake until the shells open. Remove the top shell, being 
careful not to spill the liquor. Arrange the clams in the half- 
shells on plates and on each place a piece of butter and a little 
pepper and salt. Add lemon -juice if desired. Serve imme- 

Clam-bake Roast — ^The seashore is the natural place for a 
clam-bake, but it is possible to have one at any place where 
there is a flat open space. Preparations should begin several 
hours before the time set for the meal. 

Make a circle of flat stones — from two to four feet in 
diameter, according to the size of the party — and on this circle 
build a hot fire of wood. Let this burn for two or three hours. 
Then rake off the fire and cover the hot stones with fresh sea- 
weed. On this lay fresh clams in their shells; also, if desired, 
oysters, potatoes in the skins, corn in the husk, and anything 
else that may be steamed. Cover with a thick layer of sea- 
weed^ and over all spread a large piece of sailcloth, fastening 
down the edges with stones. Leave for two or three hours; 
remove the cloth and the top layer of seaweed, and rake out 
the clams and other foods as needed. 

The same materials may be cooked in a large kettle at home 
using cheese-cloth between the layers, but will lack the fine 
flavor of the real clam-bake. 

FISH 215 


1 cup clams 2 tablespoons flour 
Yz cup milk 6 slices toast 

Yz cup clam-juice Salt and pepper 

2 tablespoons butter or other Parsley- 

Bake the clams in a pan, scalding them in their own liquor, 
or steam them and then remove from the shell, being sure to 
save the juice. Chop and add them to a white sauce made from 
the milk, clam-juice, flour, seasoning, and fat. Serve on slices of 
toast with parsley as a garnish. 


25 clams, fresh or canned 2 tablespoons bread-crumbs 

1 tablespoon butter or other 2 egg-yolks 

fat 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 

2 tablespoons flour Salt and pepper 
1 cup milk or cream 

Drain the clams and rinse them in cold water. Make a white 
sauce with the fat, flour, and milk or cream, and put in the 
crumbs, the raw egg-yolks, and the parsley. Remove from the 
fire, add the chopped clams, pepper to taste and salt if needed, 
fill scallop or clam shells, or small ramekins, with the mixture, 
brush them over with beaten yolk of tgg, sprinkle with bread- 
crumbs, and brown in a hot oven (400° F.). 


Wash soft clams (fresh or canned) and drain them upon a 
soft cloth, wiping them dry. Then dip each clam first into 
beaten q^^ and next into bread-crumbs, and, if much breading 
is liked, dip them again into the q^^ and crumbs. Have a sauce- 
pan containing hot fat (390° F.) about an inch deep. If you 
have no thermometer, test the fat by dropping in a bit of the 
soft part of bread. It should color to a golden hue in from 
40 to 50 seconds. Lay the clams in the fat, one at a time 
but as quickly as possible, and cook them until brown (about 
one to two minutes) . Serve very hot. 



18 opened clams 48 very small dice of fat 

6 large clams in shell bacon 

White pepper 4 tablespoons cracker-dust 

2 tablespoons minced celery 2 tablespoons butter or other 


Have the clams opened carefully, so that the shells will not 
be broken. Clean the shells well with brush and water. Lay- 
two clams in each half shell, dust with white pepper, and one- 
half teaspoon of minced celery, and add four of the bacon 
dice; cover with a very thin layer of cracker-dust, put a half 
teaspoon fat on top and bake in the oven (3 50° -400° F.) fif- 
teen to thirty minutes. 


The nearly round, ribbed shell of the scallop is known to 
many who have never seen the scallop itself. Only those who 
live in seashore towns ever see the whole bivalve, as the non- 
edible portions are discarded before the edible part, the large 
adductor muscle, is sent to market. 


1 pint scallops, fresh or Cracker-crumbs 

canned Beaten egg 

Salt and pepper 

"Wash the scallops, drain them and dry them thoroughly. 
Season fine cracker-crumbs with salt and pepper, dip the scallops 
in beaten egg, then in the crumbs, and fry in hot fat 360° F.^ 
for two minutes. If preferred, they may be simply seasoned 
and rolled in flour and then fried. Serve with Tartar sauce. 


Use recipe for broiled oysters. (See Index.) Either fresh or 
canned scallops may be used. 



FISH 217 


1 pint scallops, fresh or 1 pint thin white 

canned sauce 

"Wash and drain the scallops, add them to the sauce and cook 
about fifteen minutes in a double boiler. 

Sea Mussels 

Sea mussels are as agreeable to the taste as oysters, and may 
be eaten when oysters are out of season. Canned mussels are 
obtainable nearly everywhere. When fresh mussels are used, 
the shells may be opened by steaming, or with a knife. The 
horny "beard" must be removed and discarded. 


30 mussels in the shell Cayenne 

2 tablespoons butter Salt and pepper 

2 tablespoons flour Lemon-juice 

"Wash the shell with a brush in cold water, and open by steam- 
ing. Remove the mussels from the shells, place them in a 
saucepan, add the butter, salt and pepper, cayenne, and a dash 
of lemon-juice. Mix the flour with an equal quantity of cold 
water and rub out all the lumps, then add more water to make 
it about as thick as rich cream. Pour in a thin stream into the 
hot mixture, stirring constantly. As soon as the boiling- 
point is reached, remove from the fire and serve. Mussels, like 
oysters and clams, are made tough by over-cooking. 


Use recipe for fried oysters. (See Index.) 


Use recipe for creamed oysters. (See Index.) 


Lobsters are in season from June to September, and it is possi- 
ble to obtain them at any time of the year. The shell of a live 


lobster is usually a mottled dark green. Boiling makes the shells 
of all lobsters turn bright red. 

Uncooked lobsters should be alive when purchased. In buy- 
ing a boiled lobster, straighten its tail; if it springs back into 
place, the lobster was alive, as it should have been, when boiled. 

To Boil and Dress a Lobster 

Plunge the live lobster into boiling water, head downward. 
Add one tablespoon of salt, cover the kettle and keep it boiling. 
A medium-sized lobster will cook in about twenty minutes. 
Plunge it into cold water when done and when cool enough to 
handle, take the meat from the shell in the following order: 
Chop off the claws. Split the body lengthwise, remove and 
throw away the stomach, a small sac just back of the head. 
Running from the stomach to the base of the tail is the in- 
testinal canal. If this does not pull out with the stomach, it 
must be lifted out with a fork, in pieces, if necessary, and re- 
moved entirely. 

Crack the claws and remove the meat. If the lobster is not 
to be served whole, take out the meat from the body, the 
creamy green fat which constitutes the liver, and the coral or 
spawn found in female lobsters. The spongy particles between 
the meat and shell are not used. 

In cutting up the meat of cooked lobster, always use a silver 
knife or one of stainless steel, if possible, as an ordinary steel 
knife discolors or darkens the meat. 



This is simply cold boiled lobster, served in the shell, a spoon- 
ful of mayonnaise, colored red with the coral of the lobster, 
being laid on top of the lobster meat and the whole served in 
a bed of lettuce leaves. Canned lobster meat also makes a very 
nice dish served with lettuce and mayonnaise. 


1 lobster Melted butter 

Salt and pepper 

Kill the fish by inserting a sharp knife in its back between 
the body and tail shells, severing the spinal cord. Split length- 

FISH 219 

wise, remove the stomach and intestinal canal, crack the large 
claws and lay the fish as flat as possible. Brush the meat with 
fat; season with salt and pepper, place in a broiler, with the 
shell side down, and broil slowly until of a delicate brown. 
Twenty minutes is usually long enough. Turn the broiler and 
broil for ten minutes longer. Serve hot, with melted butter. 


Prepare as for broiling. Lay the lobster in a baking-pan, shell 
side down, season with salt, pepper and butter. Bake about 
forty minutes in a hot oven (400° F.), basting it twice with 
melted butter. 


2 lobsters 1 tablespoon parsley 

1 cup milk Salt and pepper 

1 tablespoon butter Nutmeg 

1 tablespoon flour 3 egg-yolks, hard cooked 

2 tablespoons bread-crumbs 

Boil the lobsters and cut the meat into small pieces. In open- 
ing the lobsters be careful not to break the body or tail shells. 
Make a white sauce with the milk, butter and flour. Remove 
from the fire and add the crumbs, parsley, lobster, salt and pep- 
per, a grating of nutmeg and the yolks of the eggs mashed very 
fine. Mix all well together. Wash the shells and wipe them 
dry, and with a pair of scissors cut off the under part of the 
tail shells. Join the large ends of both tail shells to one body 
shell, to form a boat-shaped receptacle. Put the lobster mixture 
into this boat, brush over the top with beaten eg§, sprinkte 
lightly with bread-crumbs, and bake in a moderate oven (3 50°- 
400° F.) fifteen to thirty minutes. 


No. 1. 

2 tablespoons butter or other 1 teaspoon salt 

fat 1 teaspoon pepper 

2 tablespoons flour 2 cups boiled or canned lobster, 
1 cup milk salmon or tuna 

Make a white sauce with the fat, flour and milk. Add sea- 
food cut into small pieces and the salt and pepper. Some cooks 
add a teaspoon of curry-powder. 


No. 2. 

2 cups fresh or canned 3 eggs 

lobster 2 teaspoons anchovy sauce 

1 cup milk 3 tablespoons cream 

1 cup soft bread-crumbs Salt, pepper and cayenne 

Heat the milk and pour it over the bread-crumbs. When 
nearly cold, add the beaten eggs, the lobster chopped fine, 
anchovy sauce, salt and pepper, and a large pinch of cayenne. 
Stir well, then add cream. Pour into an oiled mold, cover with 
an oiled paper and steam one hour. Serve with anchovy or 
other fish sauce. 


2 c«ps fresh or canned lobster Nutmeg 

1 cup soft bread-crumbs 1 tablespoon butter or other 

1 hard-cooked egg fat 

2 teaspoons lemon-juice 1 tablespoon flour 
Salt 1 cup milk 

Cut the lobster meat into dice. Add one-half cup of bread- 
crumbs, the egg chopped very fine and the lemon-juice, season- 
ing generously with salt and cayenne pepper and a grating of 
nutmeg. Make a white sauce of the fat, flour and milk. Add 
the white sauce to the lobster mixture to make a paste. Fill 
scallop-shells or shallow ramekins with the mixture, smooth 
the tops, sprinkle with remaining bread-crumbs and bake in a 
moderate oven (3 50° -400 F.) from fifteen to thirty minutes. 


No. 1. 

1 medium-sized lobster 2 tablespoons flour 

3 tablespoons butter or other 1 pint boiling water 

fat 2 tablespoons lemon-juice 

Cut the meat of the boiled lobster into small pieces and mash 
the coral with a tablespoon of fat. Rub the flour and the rest 
of the fat to a smooth paste. Add boiling water and cook five 
minutes, then add the coral and butter and lemon-juice. Sim- 
mer for four minutes. Strain the sauce over the lobster meatj 
place the whole on the fire and boil up once. 

FISH 221 

No. 2. 

1 medium-sized boiled lobster Yz pint drawn-butter sauce 

Salt and pepper 

Break up the coral and put it on a paper in a slow oven 
(2 50° -3 00° F.) for thirty minutes. Then pound it and set it 
aside. Chop the lobster meat, not too fine, and add it to the 
sauce, also putting in a pinch of the coral and salt and pepper to 
taste. The effect is spoiled if the lobster is cut too fine. The 
sauce should be like a creamy bed for the lobster. Serve in a 
shallow dish with the pounded coral sprinkled over the top. 


The blue crab, found on the Atlantic Coast and in the Gulf 
of Mexico, is about two and one-half inches long by five inches 
wide. The Dungeness crab of the Pacific Coast is much larger. 
Crabs go through a molting season, in the Spring and Summer. 
During the few days between the shedding of the old shell and 
the hardening of the new one, they are called soft-shell crabs. 
At other times, they are called hard-shell crabs. 

Oyster crabs are tiny, almost transparent, grayish-white 
crabs found in the shells with oysters. They are often served 
in oyster stews. 

Dressing Crabs 

All uncooked crabs should be vigorously alive when pur- 
chased, or the meat is not good. To prepare them for cooking, 
proceed as follows: 

Soft-shell Crabs — ^The back of the crab tapers to a point 
at each side. Lay the crab on its face, take one of these points 
between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand and pull the 
shell back about half-way. Pull off all the spongy substance 
which is thus exposed. Repeat the operation at the point on 
the opposite side. Pull off the tail (apron) which laps under 
the crab, and the spongy substance under it. "Wash the crabs 
in cold water, and they are ready for cooking. 

Hard-shell Crabs — ^Throw the live crabs head first into 
rapidly boiling water. After ^yq minutes, add one tablespoon 
of salt and boil for thirty minutes. When cold, break off the 
apron, or tail. Take the crab in both hands, with the thumbs 
at the tail end, and pull the upper and lower shells apart. Dis- 


card the material that sticks to the upper shell and pull off 
all the orange waxy material and white spongy substance be- 
tween the halves of the body and at each side. The edible part 
of the crab lies in the two compact masses remaining, and in 
the small flakes that may be extracted from the large claws. 
The latter must be broken with a cleaver or hammer. 


6 soft-shell crabs Salt and pepper 

Yi cup butter or other fat 54 teaspoon cayenne 

2 tablespoons lemon-juice Flour 

Prepare the crabs as directed. In a deep plate melt butter 
or other fat, and add lemon-juice, salt, pepper, and cayenne. 
Roll the crabs first in this mixture, then in dry flour. Place 
them in a double broiler and broil over hot coals eight minutes. 


6 soft-shell crabs Sifted bread-crumbs 

Egg Salt and pepper 


Prepare the crabs as directed, dip them in beaten egg, then 
in sifted bread-crumbs seasoned with salt and pepper. Fry in 
deep fat (360° F.) three to five minutes. Or, saute in a fry- 
ing-pan with just enough fat to keep them from scorching. 
Turn so that both sides are cooked. 


12 hard-shell crabs or 1 cup milk or cream 

2 cups crab-meat 2 tablespoons flour 

1 teaspoon mustard 1 Yz cups soft bread-crumbs 

1 teaspoon salt Nutmeg 

3 tablespoons butter or other Yz tablespoon chopped parsley 
fat Y2 tablespoon lemon-juice 

Prepare the crabs as directed. Wash the upper shells 
thoroughly. Heat the milk or cream in a small saucepan; 
thoroughly mix the flour and mustard and two tablespoons of 
the fat and stir the scalded milk or cream into this mixture. 
Boil two minutes, remove from the fire and add the crab-meat 
and seasonings. Mix well, and put the mixture into six crab 

FISH 223 

shells. Sprinkle with the crumbs and place the remainder of the 
butter, cut in small pieces, on top of the crumbs. Cook on the 
grate in a hot oven (400° F.) until the crumbs are brown. 
Serve on a bed of parsley, garnishing with the claws. 


Follow recipe for oyster cocktail. (See Index.) 


12 hard-shell crabs or 1 tablespoon butter or other 
2 cups canned crab-meat fat 

1 tablespoon flour Salt and pepper 

Yz cup milk Cayenne 

Prepare the crabs as directed. To white sauce made from 
the fat, flour and milk, add the shredded crab-meat and season 
with salt, pepper and cayenne. Serve very hot in individual 
cases, patty shells or on toast. 


1/4 cups crab-meat, fresh 2 cups milk 

or canned Parsley 

5 tablespoons butter or other 1 teaspoon onion-juice 

fat Salt and pepper 

4 tablespoons flour 1 cup soft bread-crumbs 

Make white sauce of four tablespoons of the fat, flour and 
milk, add a little chopped parsley, onion-juice, salt and pepper. 
Mix this with the crab-meat and one-half cup bread-crumbs. 
Fill shells or ramekins, place crumbs on top, dot over with one 
tablespoon butter, and bake in a moderate oven (3 50° -400° 
F.) from fifteen to thirty minutes. 


1 pint oyster crabs Flour 

Place crabs in sieve and hold under a cold-water faucet. 
Drain, roll in flour and fry in deep fat (360° F.) for two to 
three minutes, using a frying-basket. Drain on paper and 
serve on a napkin laid on a platter. Garnish with four lemon- 
baskets holding Tartar sauce. Or, fill pastry or paper cases 
with the fried crabs and serve very hot. 



1 cup oyster crabs Flour 

1 cup whitebait 

Mix equal quantities of oyster crabs and whitebait, both of 
which have been previously washed, drained and rolled in flour, 
and fry in deep fat (360° F.) for two to three minutes. Serve 
with Tartar sauce. 

Shrimps and Prawns 

Shrimps and prawns are very similar, but the prawn is larger 
than the shrimp; the former is often six or seven inches long, 
while the latter is seldom more than two inches. 

To Prepare Fresh Shrimps, simmer them in salted water, 
wash and drain. Remove the shell carefully, also the black line 
that runs the length of the body. 


2 cups cooked shrimps, 4 tablespoons flour 

fresh or canned 2 cups milk 

2 tablespoons butter or other Salt and pepper 


Make a white sauce with the fat, flour and milk, add shrimps, 
whole or broken into small pieces. When thoroughly heated, 
add seasoning and serve. 


2 cups cooked shrimps, 1 cup bread-crumbs 

fresh or canned 2 cups boiling water 

4 tablespoons butter or other 1 teaspoon lemon-juice 

fat 1 teaspoon salt 

4 tablespoons flour I/2 teaspoon pepper 

1 teaspoon mustard 

Prepare shrimps as directed. Melt three and one-half table- 
spoons of the fat in a saucepan. Add the flour and mustard and 
beat until light. Gradually pour the hot water on this. Place 
the saucepan on a fire, and stir the contents until they begin to 
boil. Add the lemon-juice, salt and pepper, and cook for six 
minutes, then stir in the shrimps. Turn the mixture into a shal- 

t FISH 225 

low scallop-dish, cover with the bread-crumbs and dot with the 
I half-tablespoon of butter broken into little bits. Bake for 
twenty minutes in a moderate oven (350° F.). 


1 cup shrimps, fresh or canned 3 hard-cooked eggs 

3 tablespoons butter or other Paprika 

fat 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 

4 tablespoons flour Few drops onion-juice 

2 cups milk Buttered crumbs 

Prepare shrimps as directed. Melt the fat, add the flour and 
stir until smooth. Add the milk, heat, stirring constantly, and 
when it begins to thicken, add the eggs, which have been put 
through the sieve. Cut the shrimps with a silver knife, and 
add to the sauce; season with the paprika, parsley, and onion- 
juice. Put the mixture in ramekins, cover with seasoned 
crumbs, and brown in a quick oven. 

Fresh- Water Crawfish 

Crawfish, or crayfish, look like lobsters, but are much smaller. 
They may be prepared and served in the same way as lobsters. 

Cook the crawfish in boiling salted water, drain, and remove 
the shell. Take out the intestines by pinching the extreme end 
of the center fin and jerking it suddenly. This removes the 
gall-cyst, which is very bitter. 


Frogs' legs (hindquarters only) are considered quite a deli- 
cacy. The skin can be turned over and slipped off the legs, 
like a glove taken off inside out. 


6 frogs* legs Salt and pepper 

1 egg Fine bread-crumbs 


Skin the legs and wash them in cold water; dry well on a 
towel or napkin. Season with salt, pepper and lemon-juice. 
Beat the egg, and season it with salt and pepper; dip the legs into 


the eggy then into dried bread-crumbs or fine cracker-crumbs, 
plunge them into deep fat (390° F.) and fry two to three 
minutes. Use a wire frying-basket, if possible. Frogs' legs are 
served for breakfast or luncheon and for the latter meal they 
are accompanied by Tartar sauce. 

Turtles and Terrapins 

These animals should be alive when purchased. If the large 
southern variety, the soft-shell or snapping turtles are used, cut 
off the head and let the turtle lie in cold water one-half hour 
or hang on a hook with neck down until blood stops dripping. 
Then wash and drop into boiling water and cook for ten 
minutes. Pour off the water and cover the turtle with cold 
water, letting it stand until cool enough to handle easily; then 
with a towel rub the nails and black skin from the legs. 

"Wash the turtle carefully, place it in a saucepan covered 
with boiling water and simmer until the flesh is tender. This 
will be when the joints of the legs can be broken with a slight 
pressure, and the shells separate easily. It will take from thirty 
to sixty minutes. It should be cooked until the skin is like 
jelly. Remove the turtle from the water, and after it has cooled 
a little, place it on its back with the head away from you, and 
loosen and remove the under shell. 

The liver, gall bladder and sand bag will be found near the 
head end, the gall being attached to the left side of the liver. 
Take out the gall as you would that of a chicken, being care- 
ful not to break it. Remove the entrails and throw them away. 

Take out the eggs, if there are any, remove the slight mem- 
brane and drop them into cold water. Cut all the meat very 
fine, saving any water that may collect in the shells. The turtle 
is now ready to use in a stew or in other ways. 

If terrapin is used, wash and plunge it alive into boiling 
salted water, and cook for about ten minutes. Then plunge 
it into cold water, rub off the toe nails and dark skin, place 
it again in salted boiling water and cook until the legs are 
tender, from thirty to sixty minutes. Clean the terrapin ac- 
cording to directions for turtles, but instead of throwing away 
the small intestines, cut them in very small pieces and use them 
for food. Discard the thick, heavy part of the intestines. 

FISH 227 


2 cups cooked terrapin or 2 cups cream or rich milk 

turtle meat Salt and pepper 

6 yolks hard-cooked eggs Allspice 

2 tablespoons butter or other Nutmeg 

Mash the yolks of the hard-cooked eggs and mix them with 
the fat. Put the cream or rich milk into a double boiler; when 
it is scalded, stir in the egg and fat mixture and beat till smooth; 
season with salt, pepper and gratings of allspice and nutmeg. 
Add the terrapin or turtle meat cut fine and simmer for ten 
minutes. Serve very hot. Terrapin is very often served in indi- 
vidual metal cups or saucepans with covers. 


1 pint cooked terrapin meat Yz pint chopped mushrooms 

1 pint medium white sauce Six slices toast 

To white sauce add terrapin cut in inch pieces and chopped 
mushrooms. Cook in double boiler for twenty minutes, or 
until thoroughly hot. Serve on toast. 


^ medium-sized onion, Dash of cayenne 

chopped 14 teaspoon thyme 

1/2 cup chopped mushrooms 1 bay leaf 

2 tablespoons butter 2 pimientos, chopped 

2 tablespoons flour 2 cups codced shrimps 

1 cup mushroom broth 4 wheat biscuits 

1 cup water Butter 

1/2 teaspoon salt 3 sprigs parsley 

y^ teaspoon pepper 

Saute onion and mushrooms in butter 3 minutes; stir in flour 
and cook 1 minute, then add liquid gradually and cook until 
thickened, stirring constantly. Add seasonings and shrimps and 
cook 5 minutes. Serve on wheat biscuits, cut in half length- 
wise, toasted and buttered, and garnish with parsley, or In ring 
molds of rice or spaghetti. 


THE name meat Is given generally to all edible flesh of ani- 
mals used for food. The name beef is used for the flesh 
of adult cattle; veal for the flesh of calves under one year of 
age; pork for the flesh of swine; mutton for the flesh of adult 
sheep and lamb for the flesh of sheep from six weeks to one 
year old. 


There are certain characteristics of good meat which serve 
as a guide to the purchaser. Flecks of fat all through the fibers 
indicate tenderness and flavor. Thin connecting tissue means 
a tender cut; thick tissue, a tough one. Meat well ripened or 
hung some time after slaughter is more tender than freshly 
killed meat. Meat of any kind should have a fresh odor and 
no dark, dry edges or spots. 


Good beef should have a bright red color and a moist juicy 
surface when freshly cut; firm, fine-grained muscle; dry, 
crumbly suet, white in color; and a thick solid edge of straw- 
colored fat. 


Veal should be at least six weeks old before slaughter. The 
sale of "bob" veal is prohibited in many states; it is soft and 
of poor flavor. Prime veal should be a faint pink color with 
little or no edge of fat. Flecks of fat in the meat should show 
a pinkish tinge. Milk-fed veal is particularly good. 


Pork should have firm white flesh with a faint pink tinge. 
The fat should be clear white. Pork of dull appearance, with 
yellowish lumps through the meat or fat should be avoided. 


MEAT 229 

Lamb and Mutton 

Lamb may be distinguished from mutton by the bones. In 
young lamb, the bones are sHghtly streaked with red and the 
joint is serrated. The joint of mutton is smooth and round. 
Lamb or mutton should have a deep pink flesh, hard white kid- 
ney fat, thin edge fat of a pinkish tinge, and firm, fine-grained 
fibers. The outer skin and fat of mutton should be torn oflf 
before the meat is cooked. 

Glands and Organs 

Liver — Calf's liver is often considered most choice in tender- 
ness and in flavor. Lamb's, however, is equally good and often 
cheaper in price. Pig's liver is good, and even beef liver is 
acceptable if properly prepared. 

Because of its value as an iron-rich food, liver is used exten- 
sively in the prevention and treatment of anemia. 

Kidneys — Calf's kidneys are best. Lamb's kidneys are good 
if the lamb is young. 

Sweetbreads — Sweetbreads from the young calf or lamb 
are used. There are two kinds, those in the throat and those 
near the heart. Those near the heart are round and compact 
and are considered slightly more desirable than those in the 
throat. Sweetbreads spoil quickly, therefore they should not 
be kept very long. 

Heart — Calf's and lamb's hearts are more tender than those 
from beef or mutton. 

Tongue — Calf's and lamb's tongues are most desirable. The 
tongue of older animals may be used in some recipes. 

Brain — Calf's brains are most desirable. Although a deli- 
cacy, there is so little demand for them that in many markets 
they may be purchased cheaply. 

Tripe — A part of the stomach of a ruminant — that from 
the ox is the one usually used for food. 

Amount of Meat to Buy for Each Person 

Meat shrinks from one-third to one-half in cooking. There- 
fore allow one-fourth pound of meat without bone for each 
serving, and one-half pound of meat consisting of lean, fat 
and bone as a minimum for each serving. 



Cuts of Meat 

Animals dressed for market are divided lengthwise through 
the backbone into two parts, each of which is called a side. 
Each side is divided again into two parts, the forequarter and 
the hindquarter. Each quarter is then divided into smaller 
cuts which are sold in the retail market. 

Comparative Cost of Various Cuts 

As a general rule the price of the different cuts of meat is 
determined by considerations such as tenderness, grain, general 
appearance and convenience of cooking rather than by food 
values in terms of fat or protein, or the ease with which they 
are digested. The cheapest cuts for lean meat are the neck and 
the two shanks. The cheapest for general use are the shanks, 
plates and chuck. The cheapest cuts for fat and lean are the 
neck, shank and plate. 

Beefsteaks, in the order of their economy as food, range as 
follows: chuck, round, flank, sirloin, and club or Porterhouse. 
Of the roasts of beef, the cheapest in terms of lean meat is the 
rump and most expensive is the first cut of the prime ribs. For 
stews and boiling, the neck and shank are less expensive than 
the rib ends and the brisket. 


As soon as meat comes from the market, the wrapping-paper 
should be removed, and the meat should be put on a granite 
or porcelain plate and placed in the refrigerator or other cool 

Before cooking meat, wash quickly under running water, 
remove outer membrane and inspection stamp. In hot weather, 
if meat is to be kept any length of time and there is any danger 
of its spoiling, it may be seared on the outside on a hot griddle 
or may be plunged into boiling water and kept there for Hve 
minutes; lamb, mutton, or veal may be partly cooked. It should 
then be cooled as quickly as possible, uncovered, and put into 
the refrigerator or other cool place. If meat has become slightly 
"strong," it may be rubbed with salt and the salt wiped off 


Retail Cuts 

Wholesale Cuts 

Leg of Lamb 

(Three cots from one leg) 

-Roast Broil Stew. Braise - 

Lamb Crown Fi'enched 
Roost Pib Chops 
Roost Broil 

Arm Blade 
Lamb Chop Lamb Chop 
Broil Roast Broil 

Lamb Nectt Slices 

Retail Cuts 

Loin English Rolled Loin 
Lamb Chop Lamb Chop of Lamb 

— Broil or Panbroil Roast 

Lamb Potties Lomb Loaf 

-Braiseor Broil Balte 

Lamb Shanhs 

-Braiseor stew— 

— National Live Stock and Meat Board 

M©Qt Cuts and How lo Cook Them 

Retail Cuts Retail Cuts 

Wholesale Cuts 

KnucRle Cross Cut 

Soup Bone Fore ShonR 

Soup Of Bivis* 

English Cot Ami Pot Roast Afm SteoR 

Rolled Necft Boneless NecR 

— National Live Stock and Meat Board 

Meat Cuts ond How to cook xnem 


Retail Cuts Retail Cuts 

Wholesale Cuts 

Boston style Rolled 

Butt BottonStyttButt 

— National Live Stock and Meat Board 


Retail Cuts Retail Cuts 

Wholesale Cuts 

Rolled Veal ruv Chicken 
Shoulder Roast titycnicKen 

-ifoost cr droise 

Vea I Fore Shank Vea I Patties 


— National Live Stock and Meat Board 



with a damp cloth, or the meat may be rubbed with soda, kept 
for a few minutes in boiUng water, wiped with a damp cloth 
and then cooked. 


Meat is cooked to soften connective tissue, to develop flavor, 
to improve appearance and to destroy bacteria or other organ- 
isms. The method of cooking depends on the kind and quality 
of the meat to be cooked. Only tender cuts of meat can be 
cooked successfully by dry heat. Although as desirable in 
nutritive value and flavor, the tough cuts of meat require moist 
heat and long, slow cooking to make them palatable. Since 
meat is largely protein, even the tenderest cuts may be toughened 
and hardened by too high a temperature. 

Searing — Meat is placed in a hot pan containing fat, a hot 
oven or over an open fire and is quickly browned on all sides. 
The temperature is then reduced and the cooking process con- 
tinued. Searing does not keep in the juices as was formerly 
thought but does produce a browner exterior. 

Broiling — Meat is cooked over or under or in front of an 
open fire or other direct heat. The meat is placed so that there 
is a distance of 3 or 4 inches between top of meat and source 
of heat. Broil on one side until nicely browned, turn and finish 
broiling. Season. Chops and tender steaks as porterhouse, sir- 
loin and first or second cut of round are the most desirable for 

Pan Broiling — Meat is placed in a sizzling hot skillet and 
browned on both sides. Reduce temperature and cook until as 
well done as desired, turning from time to time. 

Roasting — Meat is placed on a rack in an uncovered roast- 
ing pan, fat side up and baked in a slow oven, without water 
until as well done as desired. Basting is not necessary. The 
large tender cuts of meat are cooked by this method. 

Cooking in Water — Meat is covered with boiling water, 
then seasoned with salt and pepper and cooked slowly at sim- 
mering temperature, not boiling, until meat is tender. 

Stewing — Meat is cut into cubes. Brown, if desired, 
on all sides in hot fat, cover with boiling water and cook 
at simmering temperature in a covered kettle until meat is 
tender. Less tender cuts containing much connective tissue 







Stewed, dressed, or baked 
Steak, rolled, stuffed, baked 
Skirt, rolled, stuffed, baked 











CO ^ 























S^ ^ 

o 2 C 

<-> 2 o 






1 " 



s ° 





4-. cr 
















































-0 3 

3 cr 

















3 ^ 






















4-. .S -i< 
















































PQ c^ 






P^ P3 














































































































u •" 
3 o 

cr 3 
-o c 

2 -^ 





















rt O 


o ""^ 








2 « 

























ti 13 
3 rt 





































































are best cooked by this method which softens both tissue and 

The best cuts for stews are those containing both fat and 
lean and some bone. The shank is the most economical of all 
cuts for this purpose. Other cuts used are the neck, plate, flank, 
heel of the round and the short ribs. The brisket and the rump 
are sometimes used. Occasionally a cut like the round is used, 
as in beef a la mode. 

In making stews, one-fourth pound of clear meat or one- 
half pound of meat and bones should be allowed for each 
serving. One to two potatoes, one to two medium-sized car- 
rots, one small onion, one-fourth medium-sized turnip and one 
stalk of celery may be used for each person served. Any or 
all of these may be omitted. 

Braising — ^Use a thick-walled kettle or frying pan. Brown 
sliced onion and snip of garlic in a small amount of fat and sear 
meat thoroughly in this. If cooking is to continue on top of 
stove, leave meat in the kettle. For oven finishing, transfer to 
casserole or baking dish. Season, add a small amount of water 
or tomato juice and simmer. Pot roast is the most familiar 
braised meat. 

Frying and Sauteing — ^Some meats, such as chops and cut- 
lets, may be crumbed and fried in deep fat. Ham, liver and 
some other meats are sometimes sauteed in a small amount of 
fat at low temperature, after the first searing. 

Pressure Cooking — ^utilizes live steam in a special kettle. 

FiRELESS Cooking — continues cooking with no additional 

Cooking Glands and Organs — All glandular organs re- 
quire careful cooking at low temperature. Overcooking 
toughens them and destroys their delicate flavor, making them 
almost tasteless. 



6 pounds beef brisket 6 or more medium- sized 

Celery salt boiled potatoes 

Garlic Salt and pepper 

If the piece has much bone, part may be removed for soup, 
stock, or gravy to be used with the meat when warmed over. 
Simmer the solid part of the meat in a little water until tender, 

MEAT 235 

with a dash of celery salt and garlic added, turning it once dur- 
ing the cooking, which will take not less than three hours for 
the amount given. Remove the meat from the liquor; place 
it in a shallow pan with skin side up, and score several times 
across the top. Have boiled potatoes (hot or cold) in readi- 
ness and drop them into the kettle to take up some of the fat; 
then place them around the meat and brown all in a hot oven 
(400° -450° F.) about ten to twenty minutes. Make a gravy 
with the remaining liquor and serve separately. The meat 
should slice as firmly as cheese and be tender and appetizing. 


3 pounds beef brisket l/^ cup diced celery with 

1/^ cup sliced onions leaves 

1^ cup sliced carrots 1^ teaspoons salt 

Cover beef with hot water, add vegetables and simmer, cov- 
ered, until meat is tender, about 2^ to 3 hours. Do not boil. 
Add salt when half done and more water if necessary. Remove 
meat from broth, slice and serve with Horse-radish Sauce (page 
324) or Onion Sauce (page 315). Allow J/z pound per serving. 

Variations — 1. Brown meat in hot fat before cooking. 

2. With Navy Beans — Soak 1 pound navy beans in water 
overnight. Drain and place in a kettle together with Yz teaspoon 
mustard, Yz cup brown sugar, J/2 cup maple sirup, salt and 
pepper. Place beef brisket on top. Cover with water and cook 
slowly until tender, about 3 hours. 

3. Omit vegetables listed. For the last hour of cooking add 
1 quart sauerkraut, 1 cup vinegar and 3 tablespoons brown 
sugar. Cover and finish cooking. Stir in a grated uncooked 
potato 10 minutes before serving. 


Neck, brisket and navel are usually used. Rub the beef with 
salt and pack it in a clean hard wood barrel or crock. Pour 
over it the following picklcj enough for twenty-five pounds. 

2V2 pounds salt J4 ounce saltpeter 

Vz pound sugar 4^4 quarts water 

Mix the pickle thoroughly, boil it, remove the scum, and 
cool the liquid. Place a heavy weight on top of the meat to 


keep it in the brine. The meat may be left in the brine for a 
month, but it is at its best after ten days of curing. 


6 pounds corned beef 1 onion 

1 carrot Vinegar 


Soak the meat one hour in cold water. Drain, put into a 
kettle with carrot and onion, using enough cold water to cover 
well. Add to each quart of water one teaspoon of vinegar. 
Simmer until tender. Thirty to forty minutes for each pound 
is a fair allowance of time. Let it remain in the liquor twenty 
minutes after it is done. Then drain and serve. Butter rubbed 
over the meat just before serving improves corned beef pre- 
pared in this way. 


6 pounds corned-beef 

4 carrots 


6 potatoes 

1 cabbage 

6 beets 

3 white turnips 


Put the meat into the pot over a brisk fire with enough cold 
water to cover it. Bring it rapidly just to the boiling-point, 
then remove the scum, reduce the heat and simmer until tender 
(three to four hours). About three-fourths of an hour before 
it is to be served, skim the liquid free from fat. Put a portion 
of the liquid into another kettle with the cabbage which has 
been cleaned and cut into sections, the turnips, carrots, potatoes 
and beets prepared and cut into uniform pieces, and boil until 


1/4 pounds shank, neck, 1 small onion 

plate, flank, rump or Y^ cup cubed carrots 

brisket ^ cup cubed turnips 

54 cup flour 4 cups potatoes, cut in 

1 Yz teaspoons salt quarters 

54 teaspoon pepper 

"Wipe meat, remove from bone, cut in cubes of about one and 
one-half inch. Mix flour with salt and pepper and dredge the 

MEAT 237 

cubes of meat with it. Cut some of the fat from the meat 
and heat in a frying-pan. When part of the fat has tried out, 
add the cubes of meat and brown the surface, stirring con- 
stantly to prevent burning. Put this meat, with the melted 
fat in which it was browned, into the stew-kettle. Add enough 
boiling water to cover the meat or a pint of tomatoes, stewed 
and strained, and simmer until the meat is tender (about three 
hours) . 

The carrots and turnips are to be added during the last hour 
of cooking, and the potatoes twenty minutes before serving 
time. Fifteen minutes before serving time, add the dumplings 
to the stew. 

Dumplings — No. 1. 

2 cups sifted flour 1 egg, well beaten 

1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons melted butter 

4 teaspoons baking powder or other shortening 

y^ teaspoon pepper Milk (about % cup) 

Sift dry ingredients together. Add egg, melted shortening 
and enough milk to make a moist, stiff batter. Drop by tea- 
spoons into boiling liquid. Cover very closely and cook for 18 
minutes. Makes 2 dozen dumplings. 

These dumplings may be steamed in another kettle, as in fol- 
lowing recipe. 

No. 2. 

2 cups flour 1 teaspoon salt 

4 teaspoons baking-powder ^ cup milk 

Yz tablespoon fat 

Sift together the dry ingredients and rub in the fat. Add 
enough milk to moisten the flour, but do not make the mixture 
too wet. Roll out the dough on a board, making it about one 
inch thick, and cut with a biscuit cutter. Put the pieces on a 
plate in a steamer and steam twenty to thirty minutes. It is 
better not to steam the dumplings over the stew, as the rapid 
boiling required reduces the gravy too much. These dumplings 
may be cooked on top of the stew, as in the recipe above, but 
they will be lighter if steamed. 


3 pounds short ribs of beef Salt 

Flour Pepper 

1 cup water 

Cut meat into serving portions. Dredge with flour and brown 
in a hot kettle or oven. Season with salt and pepper, add water, 
cover and cook in kettle at simmering temperature or in a slow 
oven (300°F.) until tender, 1 ^ to 2 hours. Allow ^ pound 
per serving. 

Variations — Use Barbecue Sauce (page 253) for water. 

2. Spread prepared mustard over ribs and use tomatoes or 
tomato juice in place of water. 

3. Add sauerkraut during the last 45 minutes of cooking. 

4. Add uncooked pared potatoes, carrots and onions to the 
ribs about 45 minutes before ribs are done. 


3 pounds beef chuck 1 teaspoon salt 

Vinegar Yz teaspoon paprika 

Summer savory 8 onions 
y^ cup fat 

Cook the onions slowly in the fat. Cut the beef into cubes 
or slices and sprinkle with vinegar and a little savory. Add the 
salt and paprika. Add the cooked onions, cover tightly, and 
simmer for about two hours. The liquid may be increased 
just before serving by the addition of a little beef stock, or 
cream, either sweet or sour. 


2 pounds beef, plate, shank, % teaspoon ground cloves and 
rump or round thyme or Summer savory 

3 large onions, sliced 1 ' pint brown stock or boiling 
3 tablespoons fat water and meat extract 

3 tablespoons flour 2 tablespoons vinegar 

1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon catchup 

54 teaspoon black pepper 

Brown the onions slowly in the fat. Increase the heat. Cut 
meat into sizes desired for serving, add it to the onions, and 
brown. Mix the flour and the dry seasonings. Sprinkle this 

MEAT 239 

mixture over the meat. Add the stock, vinegar and catchup. 
Cover closely. Simmer until meat is tender, allowing at least 
two hours for shank or plate and one and one-half hours for 
rump or round. 


4 pounds chuck, round or 3 tablespoons fat 

rump of beef . Salt and pepper 

y^ cup flour 1/2 cup water 

Dredge meat with flour and brown on all sides in hot fat. 
Season with salt and pepper. Add water, cover and cook slowly 
until tender, 3 to 4 hours. As the liquid cooks away add more, 
as needed. Serve with brown gravy and vegetables. Makes 8 

Variations — 1. Add uncooked pared potatoes, carrots, green 
beans, celery and onions just long enough before serving to cook 
them. They may be whole, quartered or sliced. 

2. Use tomatoes or tomato juice in place of water. 

3. After browning, pour % cup horse-radish over meat. 

4. Before cooking, cut slits in the meat and insert stuffed 
olives, pushing them into the meat. 


3 pounds rump 2 tablespoons mild prepared 

Flour mixed with salt and mustard 

pepper 1 teaspoon celery seed 

3 large onions, sliced 1 cup strained tomatoes or I/2 

3 tablespoons fat can tomato soup 

Dredge the meat with flour and brown it in a heavy pan. 
Brown the onions in the fat; add the mustard, celery seed and 
tomatoes. Pour this sauce over the meat and simmer three hours 
or more. 


2 pounds steak cut 2l/^ inches Salt and pepper 

thick from shoulder, rump y^ green pepper, chopped fine 

or round 2 cups boiling water or 

1/2 cup flour 1 cup water and 

2 tablespoons fat 1 cup strained tomatoes 

Few slices onion 

Season the flour with salt and pepper and pound it into the 
meat with a wooden potato-masher, or the edge of a heavy 







I. Bureau Home 


meat mallet. Heat the fat and brown the meat in it. Add the 
onions, green pepper, boiling water and tomato. Cover closely. 
Simmer for 2 hours. This may be cooked in a casserole in a 
moderate oven (3 50°F.) about 1 to lYz hours. Vegetables may 
be added as desired. Serves 6. 


2 pounds flank or round steak 1 tablespoon chopped onion 

1 cup crumbs 1 small turnip, diced 

Yz cwp stock or water Yz cup chopped celery 

1 teaspoon salt 1 small carrot, diced 

Y4 teaspoon pepper Flour 

The meat should be cut from one-half inch to one inch thick. 
"Wipe the steak, remove the skin and lay the meat out flat on 
a board. Make a dressing of the crumbs, stock or water, salt, 
pepper, chopped onion and a small amount of celery and spread 
it on the meat. Roll the steak with the grain, so that when it 
is cut it may be cut across the grain of the meat. Place the 
diced vegetables in a roasting-pan and on them lay the rolled 
steak. Add two or three cups of water, depending upon the 
size of the pan. Cover and bake in a slow oven (3 50° F.) for 
three hours, or until tender. 

If you prefer to cook this meat on top of the stove, melt one- 
half cup of suet in the bottom of a flat-bottomed iron or 
heavy aluminum kettle, flour the meat thickly and lay the roll 
in the kettle. Turn from side to side until it is well browned, 
then add hot water nearly to cover, and simmer slowly for 
three hours. 

When the meat is cooked, remove it from the kettle or roast- 
ing-pan and thicken the broth, using one to two tablespoons of 
flour to each cup of gravy. 


1 ox- tail (cut in two-inch 2 tablespoons flour 
pieces) 1 cup hot water 

2 tablespoons fat 1 cup tomatoes 
2 small onions 3 bay-leaves 

1 carrot 3 whole cloves 

1 tablespoon chopped celery Salt and pepper 

Saute the pieces of ox-tail in the fat. Add the sliced onionj 
and carrot and the chopped celery, and brown all together. 

MEAT 241 

Sprinkle with browned flour. Add the hot water, tomatoes, 
bay-leaves, cloves, salt and pepper. Put into a casserole and 
cook slowly (350° F.) until the meat falls from the bones. 


2' to 3 pounds brisket or 1 chopped onion 

round of beef 1 chopped carrot 

Drippings or other fat for 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 

sauteing Yz cup diced celery 

2 tablespoons butter or other 1 cup canned tomatoes 

fat Salt and paprika 

Cut the meat into cubes; brown in hot frying-pan with 
drippings. Stir the meat so it will cook quickly and not lose 
its juices. Tender cuts can be cooked whole. Remove the 
pieces to a closely covered kettle that can be used either on top 
of the range or in the oven. Rinse the pan with a quarter cup 
of boiling water to save all browned bits, and pour this over 
the meat. Cover tightly and cook slowly for two hours. 

For the Sauce, melt butter or other fat and brown the 
onion and carrot in it. Add parsley, celery and tomatoes. 
Heat thoroughly. Add seasonings. Pour the sauce over the 
meat and continue cooking for another hour. 


2 pounds rump, flank or Sliced potatoes 

chuck steak Butter or other fat 

Pie paste Flour 

Chopped onion Egg 

Salt and pepper 

Cut the meat into strips two inches long by one inch wide. 
Put them with the bone, just cover them with water and sim- 
mer about an hour. Line the sides of a baking-dish with pie 
paste; put in a layer of meat with a few thin slices of onion, 
and sprinkle with salt and pepper; next add a layer of sliced 
potatoes, with bits of butter dotted over it. Alternate the steak 
and potato layers until the dish is full. Thicken the gravy 
with browned flour and pour in, put on a top crust, brush it 
with beaten egg and bake at 450° F. until quite brown — about 
thirty minutes. 



In preparing beef for roasting, trim it carefully then skewer 
and tie it into shape. Rub the lean parts with drippings and 
rub the whole with salt, pepper and flour. 

Place the standing or rolled rib roast fat side up in an open 
roasting pan. Then the roast will baste itself. Insert meat 
thermometer so that bulb reaches the center of the largest 
muscle, taking care that it does not rest on the fat or bone. 
Roast in a slow oven (300-3 50° F.) or, if a brov/n crust is 
wanted, start in hot oven (500° F.) for 20 minutes, then reduce 
to 300° F. until done as desired. The thermometer will read 
140° F. for rare, 160° F. for medium, 170° F. for well done. 
The time per pound needed is 18-22 minutes for rare; 22-25 for 
medium and 27-30 for well done. For making gravy, see page 

Yorkshire Pudding — 

1 cup flour 1 cup milk 

Y2 teaspoon salt 2 t%%s 

Put flour, salt, milk and eggs together in a bowl. Beat well 
with a rotary egg-beater. Pour drippings to the depth of one 
inch into a shallow pan. Have the drippings hot and pour in 
the mixture quickly. Bake for one-half hour in a hot oven 
(400° -42 5° F.). The pudding may then be placed under the 
trivet that holds the roast beef and left for about fifteen min- 
utes to catch the gravy that flows from the roast. If a trivet 
is not used, cut the pudding into squares and lay them around 
the roast in the pan. Serve the pudding with the beef. 


Beef fillet Salt and pepper 

Salt pork Flour 

Butter or other fat 

The fillet is the under side of the loin of beef, the tenderloin. 
The skin and fat should be removed with a sharp knife, and 
also every shred of muscle and ligament. If the fillet is not 
then of a good round shape, skewer it until it is so. Lard the 
upper surface with strips of fat salt pork and rub the entire 
surface with soft butter or other fat. Dredge well with salt, 
pepper and flour, and place the fillet, without water, in a small 


MEAT 243 

pan. Bake in a moderate oven (350° F.) to the desired degree 
of doneness, 40 to 60 minutes. Serve, cut into 2 inch sHces, 
accompanied with mushroom sauce or sauteed mushrooms. 


1 porterhouse, sirloin Salt and pepper 

or club steak 2 tablespoons butter 

Select a steak at least 1 to 1 J4 inches thick. Heat the broiler 
for 1 minutes with regulator set at 3 5 ° F. Arrange steak on a 
rack. Place rack 4 inches under heat. Broil for half the specified 
time, season with salt and pepper, turn and broil on other side. 
Remove to a hot platter. Place butter on top of steak, sprinkle 
with salt and pepper and serve at once. Allow Yz pound of meat 
per person. 

Broiling Time 

Degree of 

Doneness 1 inch thick 1 Yz inches thick 

Rare 9 to 10 minutes 14 to 16 minutes 

Medium 12 to 14 '' 18 to 20 

Well done 16 to 1 8 '' 25 to 30 " 


Heat a heavy skillet until sizzling hot. Place meat in hot pan 
and brown well on both sides. Reduce temperature and cook 
until the desired degree of doneness, turning from time to time, 
being careful not to pierce meat. Pour off fat as it accumulates 
in the pan. Place meat on a hot platter, spread with butter and 
season with salt and pepper. 

With Mushrooms 

Use mushroom caps, whole or sliced. Saute slowly in hot 
butter 5 to 10 minutes, stirring frequently. Allow 2 tablespoons 
butter for Y2 pound mushrooms. 

With Onions 

Slice onions into water and drain. Place in a shallow sauce- 
pan, cover closely, and cook over a slow heat for fifteen or 
twenty minutes, till tender. No water or fat should be used. 



as the onions contain both moisture and richness. Pan-broil 
the steak. Put the onions into the pan in which the steak was 
cooked and brown them. Serve steak with onions around it. 

With Oysters. 

1 quart oysters 3 tablespoons butter or other 

1 tablespoon sifted flour fat 

Set the oysters, with a very little of their juice, over the fire; 
when they come to a boil, remove any scum and stir in the fat 
in which the sifted flour has been rubbed. Boil one minute^ 
pour over the steak and serve at once. 


1 tender steak, 2 inches thick Butter 

Duchess potatoes Minced parsley 

Various kinds of cooked Salt 

vegetables Paprika 

Trim the fat and make outline of the steak even. Sear it on 
both sides on a hot griddle or pan, using no fat, or on a broiler. 
Cook fifteen minutes, turning frequently. Oil a heated plank 
(see directions for planked fish) , place the steak on the plank, 
and arrange border of Duchess potatoes around it. Arrange 
other cooked vegetables, such as stuffed tomatoes or green 
peppers^ small boiled onions, peas, string beans and cubes of 
carrot or turnip, around the steak, also, so that the board is 
entirely concealed. Place the plank in the oven until the potato 
border is browned and all the vegetables are heated through. 
After removing it from the oven, spread the steak with butter 
into which has been rubbed minced parsley^ salt and paprika. 
Send to table upon the plank. 


2 pounds chopped beef Onion-juice 

54 pound suet Flour 

Butter Salt and pepper 

Have the butcher chop the beef and suet together twice. 
Press it into a flat steak about three-fourths of an inch thick, 
sprinkle with salt, pepper, a little onion-juice and flour. Broil 
on a fine wire broiler or saute in a little fat. Spread with butter 

MEAT 245 

and serve on a hot dish. This steak is sometimes shaped into 
small, thin, flat cakes. When it is sauted, a gravy may be made 
by thickening the juices in the pan, to which a little water has 
been added. Two tablespoons of melted butter and one table- 
spoon minced onion mixed with the meat and seasonings im- 
proves Hamburg steak. 


1/4 pounds chopped beef 2 eggs 

2 cups bread soaked in milk 4 hard-cooked eggs 
1 small onion,, minced 1 cup tomatoes 

1 tablespoon butter or other Yz cup sliced onion 

fat Salt, pepper, ginger 

Have the meat put through the grinder twice. Add the 
bread, the onion, seasonings to taste and the two uncooked 
eggs, well-beaten. Arrange the hard-cooked eggs end to end 
across the middle of the meat and roll the meat mixture around 
them. Place the roll in a baking-pan, pour over it a sauce com- 
posed of the tomatoes, sliced onions, butter or other fat and 
water, and bake in moderate oven (350°-375° F.) for about 
two hours^ basting frequently with sauce. In serving, slice the 
roll crosswise. The hard-cooked eggs may be omitted. 


154 pounds beef from the 1 egg 

shank Flour 

Yi cup bread-crumbs Salt and pepper 

3 tablespoons soft fat 1 teaspoon lemon-juice 
1 cup stock Nutmeg 

Put the meat twice through a food-chopper, add bread- 
crumbs, salt, pepper, lemon-juice, a little nutmeg and the beaten 
egg. Shape into balls lightly and let them stand for half an hour 
or more to become firm, then roll them in flour and brown them 
in the frying-pan with the fat. Take out the meat balls, add to 
the fat a tablespoon of flour and a cup of stock. Season well, put 
the meat balls into this mixture, cover the frying-pan closely 
and simmer for an hour and a half. 



V/z pounds chopped beef 2 teaspoons salt 

2 eggs Additional seasonings to suit, 

1/4 cups bread-crumbs such as chopped celery or 

2 tablespoons chopped parsley onion, poultry seasoning, a 

Yz teaspoon pepper dash of thyme, savory, sage, 

Chop the meat. Mix it thoroughly with one unbeaten egg, 
bread-crumbs, chopped parsley, pepper and salt. Turn into a 
bread pan until almost filled. Press a hollow with spoon and 
drop an egg into the opening. Season, cover egg and continue 
to fill pan. Bake 40 minutes in hot oven (400° F.), basting 
every 8-10 minutes with stock or butter in hot water. Garnish 
with parsley or watercress and serve hot with mushroom sauce 
or onion sauce. It is simple to serve cold with horse-radish 


2 cups cooked corned beef 1 stalk celery 

cut into cubes 2 slices onion 

1 cup medium white sauce Buttered bread-crumbs 

Cook chopped celery and onions in the sauce. Put the 
corned beef in a shallow baking-dish and add the sauce. 
Sprinkle with buttered bread-crumbs. Cook fifteen to thirty- 
minutes in a moderate oven (3 50°-400° F.). 


Sliced cooked beef 6 onions 

1 cup bouillon or 1 to 2 tablespoons fat 

1 cup water mixed with 1 tablespoon flour 

canned tomato sauce 2 tablespoons vinegar 

Salt and pepper Bread-crumbs 

Slice the onions and brown them in fat in a frying-pan. 
Add the flour and brown. Then add the vinegar, and the 
bouillon or the water and tomato sauce. Cook together until 
slightly thickened, stirring constantly. Season with salt and 
pepper. Smother the slices of beef in the sauce for a few min- 
utes. Pour into a baking-dish ; sprinkle some bread-crumbs over 
the top and bake for ten minutes in a hot oven (400° F.). 

MEAT 247 


Sliced cooked beef J4 teaspoon pepper 

2 tablespoons flour 2 cups water 

3 tablespoons fat 1 teaspoon onion-juice 
IJ/2 teaspoons salt 

Season the meat with salt and pepper. Make a sauce of the 
fat, flour and water, and remainder of the seasonings. Add the 
cold meat and cook gently for three minutes, if it is rare beef, 
mutton or game; if the meat is veal or poultry, it may cook 
longer. Serve on a hot dish with a border of rice^ mashed po- 
tatoes or toast. 


2 cups chopped cold roast 1 cup beef gravy or hot water 

beef or steak 4 tablespoons butter or other 

2 to 4 cups chopped boiled fat 

Put the fat into a frying-pan and then put in the meat and 
potato, salt and pepper, moisten with beef gravy or hot water 
and cover. Let it steam or heat through throughly, stirring 
occasionally to mix it evenly and also to keep it from sticking. 
When done, it should be neither watery nor dry, but just firm 
enough to stand well when dished. If a drier hash is liked, 
reduce the liquid, and after the hash has been thoroughly 
heated through remove the cover and allow the hash to brown. 
If onion is liked, fry two or three slices in the fat before the 
hash is added, or mix a little chopped onion with the meat 
and potatoes. 


2 cups chopped corned beef 1^ ^^P ^^^^ ^^ water 

2 cups chopped cooked po- 2 tablespoons butter or other 

tatoes fat 
Salt and pepper 

Mix beef and potatoes together lightly and season. Pour 
the milk into a frying-pan with half the fat and, when this is 
warm, turn in the hash, spreading it evenly and placing the 
rest of the fat, cut in pieces, on the top. Cover the pan and 
place it where the hash will cook slowly for half an hour. There 
should then be a rich, thick crust on the bottom. Do not stir 


the hash. Fold it as an omelet Is folded and place it on a warm 
platter. This slow process of heating the hash gives it a flavor 
that can not be obtained by hurried cooking. 


% pound dried beef 4 tablespoons floxir 

2 tablespoons butter or other Pepper 

fat ^ 1 egg 
2 cups milk 

Place the butter or other fat and one and one-half cups of 
milk in a small frying-pan. When hot, add the beef, shredded. 
Cook three minutes. Rub the flour smooth in one-half cup 
cold milk, add a dash of pepper and stir into the beef. As 
soon as it thickens, draw the pan back, simmer five minutes, 
add the well-beaten egg and serve at once. The hot gravy will 
cook the egg sufficiently* The egg may be omitted. 


3 pounds veal Salt and pepper 

2 onions 5 potatoes 

The neck, ends of ribs, knuckle, breast or shoulder may be 
used. Cut the meat into two-inch cubes and place them in a 
kettle with the onion, salt and pepper, and just enough hot 
water to cover them. Simmer until the meat is tender, about 
an hour usually being sufficient. Strips of salt pork are some- 
times cooked with the veal and add much to the flavor. Half 
an hour before serving, add the potatoes^ cut in halves, and 
cook them with the meat. 

Place dumplings around the edge of a platter and with a 
skimmer lift the meat and potato from the kettle and lay them 
in the center. Thicken the gravy in the kettle with a little 
flour stirred to a thin smooth paste with water. Pour the gravy 
over meat and dumplings. (The Index will tell you where 
to find the recipe for dumplings.) 

MEAT 249 


5 pounds veal 1 tablespoon sliced onion 

2 tablespoons butter or other Salt and pepper 
fat 4 cups boiling water 

The breast, neck, shoulder, ends of ribs or knuckle may be 
used. Heat the fat and onion in a kettle. Season the veal with 
salt and pepper, put it into the kettle and sear it on all sides 
until brown. Pour over it the boiling water and cover tightly. 
Set the kettle in a slow oven (350° F.) and bake for two and 
one-half hours. Serve either hot or cold. If served hot, make 
a thick-ened sauce of the liquor in the kettle. When cold, the 
gravy will form a jelly to serve with the cold meat. 


2 pounds veal 2 tablespoons fat 

Puff paste or other rich paste 1 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons flour Pepper 

Cut the meat into small pieces and stew until tender. Line 
a baking-dish with paste. Set a small Inverted cup in the middle 
of the d&sh. Put in the meat, dredge it with flour, add fat and 
seasor^ing, and nearly cover with the stock in which the meat 
was cooked. Cover with paste. Bake thirty minutes in a quick 
oven (450° F.). If one-half pound of good salt pork or ham 
is cut in thin slices and parboiled with the veal, a nice flavor is 
added and very little, if any, butter need then be used, nor is 
any other salt necessary. Hard-cooked eggs cut in slices and 
arranged in layers on the veal and ham are an addition to this 
dish. When serving, lift the inverted cup and let the gravy 
flow back into the dish. 


2 pounds veal cutlets Drippings 

Salt and pepper 1 cup milk or cream 

Egg 1 tablespoon flour 
Bread or cracker-crumbs 

"Wipe the cutlets, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip them first 
in beaten egg and then in fine bread or cracker-crumbs, and 
saut^ in drippings until brown. If preferred, they may be cut 


into small pieces of similar size and pounded with a rolling- 
pin until little more than a quarter of an inch in thickness and 
then egged and crumbed and sauted. The cutlets should be 
thoroughly browned on both sides. Place them on a platter, 
add cream to the gravy in the pan, and thicken slightly with 
flour rubbed to a smooth paste with a little cold water. They 
may be served with slices of bacon. 


3 pounds veal shank 3 cups brown stock 

Crumbs A few peppercorns 

Salt Celery salt 

Egg Yz cup diced potatoes 

Butter or other fat Yz cup diced turnips 

Cook a veal shank in boiling salted water until tender. Re- 
move as much meat as possible from the bone and cut the pieces 
to resemble chops. Season the veal well. Roll in crumbs, q%% 
and crumbs again, and saute in butter or other fat. 

For the soup, take the remaining portion of the shank and 
put it into a kettle with the stock, peppercorns, salt, celery salt, 
and any other seasonings desired. Add the potatoes, turnips, 
and a little parsley. Cook for one-half hour. 


2 pounds veal 

Salt and pepper 

Cut the veal in pieces the size of an oyster, dip in beaten t%'g^ 
roll in cracker-crumbs and season with salt and pepper. Fry in 
deep fat (375°-400° F.). 


Vz pound sliced ham Salt and pepper 

1 Yz pounds veal cutlets 

Fry the ham, using no fat unless the meat is unusually lean. 
Remove the ham and place on the serving-dish. Cook the veal 
in the juices left from the ham, frying without covering until 
it is a deep brown. Put the veal on the same dish with the 
ham, add a little water to the gravy, season with salt and pepper, 
and pour it, without thickening, over the meat. 

MEAT 251 


4 pounds veal Flour 

Salt and pepper Fat or salt pork or bacon 

A roast may be cut from the leg, the loin, the rack, or the 
shoulder, or the breast may be boned for a roast. A fillet of 
five or six pounds from the heaviest part is the most economical 
for roasting. If the leg is used, it should be boned at the market, 
and the bone should be used for stock. Stuffing improves many 
roasts of veal (see recipes below). 

Wipe the meat, dredge with salt, pepper and flour and place 
it in a pan with some fat. Place in a slow oven (300° F.) and 
roast uncovered and without adding water until tender. Allow 
2 5 to 30 minutes per pound. If desired make an incision in meat 
and insert a roast meat thermometer so that the bulb reaches 
the center of the fleshiest part. When the thermometer registers 
170° F. the veal will be well done. Allow about J/3 pound per 


6 pounds loin of veal 1 tablespoon grated lemon rind 

1/2 pound boiled ham I/2 teaspoon salt 

2 hard-cooked eggs l/g teaspoon pepper 

1 cup bread crumbs 1 egg, slightly beaten 

y^ teaspoon chopped thyme Salt pork or bacon 

1 teaspoon chopped parsley 

Fiave the kidney end of the loin carefully boned and cut 
into a long shape like a flap. Line it with slices of boiled ham and 
hard-cooked eggs. Remove all the skin and fat from the kidney, 
chop fine and mix with bread crumbs, thyme, parsley, lemon 
rind, salt and pepper. Add beaten egg and blend thoroughly. 
Spread over the veal on top of the sliced ham and eggs. Roll 
the meat and sew or fasten tightly with skewers. Arrange strips 
of salt pork or bacon over roll. Place in a slow oven (300° F.) 
and roast without covering and without adding water until 
tender, 2 5 to 30 minutes per pound. If a meat thermometer is 
used it will register 170° F. when meat is well done. Allow ]/} 
pound per serving. Serve with brown gravy. This is delicious 
served cold. Garnish with spiced peaches or apricot halves in 
pineapple rings. 



4 pounds breast of veal y^ teaspoon pepper 

2 cups bread crumbs y^ cup minced onion 

y^ cup salt pork drippings I/2 cup diced celery 

1 teaspoon salt 1/2 ^^P ^^^ water 

Have a pocket cut in veal breast. Make a stuffing by com- 
bining remaining ingredients and tossing together lightly. Pack 
stuffing into pocket and sew or skewer edges together. Brown 
the meat in hot fat, then add % cup water, cover and cook in 
a moderate oven (3 50°F.) 1 ^ to 2 hours or until tender. 

Variations — Add Yz cup cooked pitted prunes, apricots or 
seedless raisins to the stuffing. 

Stuff breast with cooked and seasoned rice or noodles. 


254 pounds veal, knuckle 1 cup water or stock 

or shin 1 egg 

y^ pound salt pork Yz teaspoon sage 

2 teaspoons salt 2 tablespoons butter or other 
1 teaspoon chopped onion fat 

1 cup cracker-crumbs 

Chop the veal and pork very fine and add salt, onion, 
crumbs, one-half of the water or stock, the egg and sage. Mix 
all well together. Oil a small pan and press the mixture into 
it like a loaf, making it about six inches high. Cook for two 
and one-half hours in a moderate oven (350° F.) basting with 
the remainder of the water or stock, in which the butter or 
other fat has been melted. This may be served hot or cold. If 
served hot a white sauce may accompany it. 


A knuckle of veal Stalk of celery 

Yz onion Salt and pepper 

Few slices carrot 

Place the veal in boiling water, and simmer until tender, 
together with the carrot, onion and celery. Remove the veal 
from the liquid and cool both. When the meat is nearly cold, 
cut it into tiny cubes, or chop it fine; remove the fat from the 
broth, reheat the liquid and stir the veal into it, adding salt 

MEAT 253 

and pepper, and other seasoning if desired. Pack the hot mix- 
ture into a mold, cover with oiled paper, cover and let stand 
until set. Slice thin and serve cold. 


3 or 4-pound roast — lamb, 4 cups beef stock 
mutton, pork or beef % teaspoon dry mustard 

y2 cup salad oil Dash pepper 

2 tablespoons vinegar % teaspoon celery salt 
1 cup water Salt to season, about 1 
i/^ cup flour teaspoon 

Select meat which can be easily sliced across the grain. Mix 
salad oil and vinegar together and let meat stand in the mix- 
ture overnight. Place meat in a baking dish, add water and 
mixture in which meat was marinated. Bake, uncovered in a 
3 50° F. oven for 1 Yz to 2 hours or until tender. Baste several 
times during the roasting period and turn once so meat will be 
browned on both sides. Add additional water, if necessary. 
About Yz hour before serving time, remove Y3 cup fat from 
the baking dish, to a skillet, blend in flour and cook until flour 
is brown. Add beef stock or its equivalent in canned soup 
or dissolved bouillon cubes, gradually, stirring constantly. Add 
remaining seasonings. Serve sliced, in a heated covered dish, 
with sauce in a separate hot bowl — for 6 to 8 persons. 


6 pork chops Barbecue sauce 

"Wipe the pork chops with a damp cloth and dust with flour. 
Sear on both sides until browned, then place 1 tablespoon sauce 
on each chop. Reduce heat, cover and cook slowly 5 to 8 
minutes. Turn chops and place 1 tablespoon of sauce on other 
side. Cover and cook slowly until tender. Serve with sauce. 

Barbecue Sauce 

4 tablespoons minced onion 1 tablespoon salt 

1 cup tomato puree 1 teaspoon paprika 

% cup water 1 teaspoon chili powder 

3 tablespoons vinegar ^ teaspoon pepper 

2 tablespoons Worcester- l^ teaspoon cinnamon 
shire sauce Dash ground cloves 

Combine all ingredients in order listed. Heat to boiling and 
use as directed above. 


Mutton and Lamb 

The flavor of mutton may be reduced by rubbing the meat 
with lemon-juice or by putting slices of lemon in the water 
in which the mutton is boiled. Mutton marinated in oil and 
vinegar or in spiced vinegar becomes very tender. The marinade 
also tends to absorb or neutralize the mutton flavor. Mutton 
may be served rare, but lamb should be well cooked. Mutton 
should always be served very hot, with caper sauce, mint sauce, 
tart jelly or spiced fruit. 


6-pound leg lamb l/^ cup catchup 

2 teaspoons salt 2 tablespoons A-1 sauce 

Flour 2 tablespoons Worcester- 

1 onion, sliced shire sauce 

1 cup water l/^ teaspoon cayenne 

Wipe leg of lamb with damp cloth, rub with salt and dredge 
with flour. Place in a roasting pan and surround with onion. 
Combine remaining ingredients, mix well and pour over meat. 
Roast in a 3 50° F. oven 3 minutes for each pound. Baste every 
20 minutes with the sauce. Serves 8. 


2 pounds lamb cubes, shank, 6 potatoes 

breast, neck or shoulder 6 carrots 

2 tablespoons flour 3 onions 

2 tablespoons butter or other 4 white turnips 

fat 1 cup fresh peas 

Salt and pepper 3 tomatoes 

Hot water Flour 

Dredge lamb with flour and brown well in hot fat. Season 
with salt and pepper, cover with water and simmer until nearly 
tender, 1 to 1 ^ hours. Add peeled vegetables, except tomatoes, 
whole or cut in cubes and simmer 30 minutes longer or until 
tender. Add tomatoes and simmer 10 minutes longer. Mix a 
little flour with water to a smooth paste and add enough to the 
liquid to thicken slightly. Serves 6. 

MEAT 255 


1/2 cup each finely chopped 6 whole cloves 

celery, carrot and onion 1 clove garlic 

2 tablespoons drippings or 2 tablespoons chopped parsley 
other fat 12 peppercorns 

3 cups vinegar l/^ bay leaf 

3 cups water 1 tablespoon salt 

1 leg lamb or mutton 1 pint sour cream 

Yj teaspoon each of powdered I/2 pint stock 
thyme and marjoram 

Saute celery, carrot, and onion in drippings until light brown, 
add vinegar and water and cook until vegetables are tender. 
Cool. Place meat in deep dish, pour first mixture over meat, 
being careful to have meat entirely covered. Add seasonings. 
Marinate meat in this mixture for 24 hours. Drain and dry 
thoroughly. Place in roasting pan, bake in moderately slow 
oven (300° to 325° F.) for 30 minutes. Add sour cream and 
stock, cover and cook until tender, allowing 30 to 3 5 minutes 
per pound. Baste frequently. Boil liquor in which meat was 
marinated until only a small amount remains, strain and pour 
over meat when serving. 


3-4 pound shoulder lamb 2 recipes Bread Stuffing 

Salt and pepper No. 2 (page 303) 

Have shoulder bone removed from shoulder and sew on 2 
sides, leaving 1 side open for stuffing. Season with salt and 
pepper. Fill cavity in meat with stuffing and sew or skewer 
edges together. Place fat side up on rack in an open roasting pan 
and roast in moderately slow oven (300° to 350° F.) until 
tender, allowing 3 5 to 40 minutes per pound. Serves 6. 

Variations — 1. Add Yz cup chopped mint to stuffing. 

2. Add Y2 cup finely chopped dried apricots to stuffing. 

3. Omit milk in stuffing and add 1 cup tomato pulp. 

4. Saute Y2 pound sliced mushrooms in melted fat with onion 
and proceed with stuffing as directed. 

5. Use Sausage Stuffing (page 305) in place of Bread Stuffing. 

6. In place of Bread Stuffing use Y2 recipe Pineapple-Nut 
Stuffing or Rice Stuffing (page 305). 



6 mutton chops Oil Salt and pepper 

Mutton chops should be not less than one inch thick. The 
best way to cook them is to broil them. Sprinkle with salt 
and pepper, oil on both sides and broil, turning very often. 
Have them slightly underdone, and serve on a hot chop-dish, 
garnishing with French fried potatoes and sprigs of parsley. 

If preferred these chops may be breaded. Select chops with 
little fat, or trim off the fat, dip them in well-beaten egg, roll 
in cracker crumbs, and fry in deep fat (375°-400° F.). Serve 
with tomato sauce. 


11^ pounds ground lamb 1 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons grated onion l^ teaspoon pepper 

Mix all ingredients thoroughly. Shape into thick patties. 
Place on a rack under preheated broiler, about 3 inches from 
source of heat so that by the time the patties are browned on 
the top they will be half done. Turn and brown on other side. 
Allow about 1 5 minutes. Serves 6, 


1 crown of lamb or mutton 1 recipe Mushroom Stuffing 

Salt and pepper (page 305) 

Sliced salt pork 

A crown is usually prepared at the market and is made by 
shaping the ribs (12-15) into a crown and frenching or scrap- 
ing the rib ends. Season with salt and pepper. Fill center of 
crown with stuffing. Wrap rib ends with salt pork or bacon 
slices. Place crown on a rack in an open roasting pan and roast 
in a moderately slow oven (300° to 350°F.) until as well done 
as desired, allowing 30 to 3 5 minutes per pound. To serve, 
remove salt pork from rib ends and slip paper frills over them. 
Allow 2 ribs to each serving. 

Variations — Do not stuff. Roast crown upside down with- 
out wrapping ribs. To serve, turn right side up and fill center 
with vegetables: mashed potatoes, potato balls, peas, diced 
carrots or cooked whole cauliflower. 








— U. S. Bureau Home 





2 pounds loin cutlets Flour Salt and pepper 

Trim the cutlets and remove the fat, dip them in cold water, 
season with pepper and salt and sprinkle flour on both sides. 
Wet the inside of a thick saucepan with cold water, leaving 
about two tablespoons of the latter in the pan. Lay the cutlets 
in flat, place over a gentle fire and simmer for one hour or 
more, turning the cutlets when half done. Unless cooked slowly, 
the cutlets will not be tender or good. Season and serve with 
pan gravy. A little water may be added to the gravy, if 


1 leg lamb (5 to 6 pounds) II/2 tablespoons salt 

y^ teaspoon pepper 

Have shank bone removed at the market, if desired. Do not 
remove the fell. Rub meat with salt and pepper. Place, fat 
side up, on rack in an uncovered roasting pan. Roast in a 
moderately slow oven (300°-325°F.) 30 to 35 minutes to the 
pound, or until a meat thermometer registers 175° to 180° F. 
Place on a hot platter and garnish with sliced pineapple and 
sprigs of watercress. 

1. Rub meat with the cut edge of a clove of garlic or place 
slivers of garlic into deep narrow gashes cut in meat, or insert 
clove of garlic into joint of leg and remove before serving. 

2. Rub 1 teaspoon ginger over surface of meat. 

3. Baste lamb with vinegar which has been seasoned with 
finely cut mint leaves. 

4. Baste lamb with a mixture of Yz cup tomato catchup and 
2 tablespoons Worcestershire sauce. 

5. Rub meat with Yz cup finely chopped mint leaves. Baste 
meat frequently the last hour of roasting with Yz cup grape 
jelly melted in Y2 cup hot water. 

6. Rub 2 cups cooked apricots and juice through a sieve, 
add ^ cup sugar and cook until thickened. Baste roast with this 
during last hour of roasting. 

7. Cover meat with pineapple slices 1 hour before meat Is 
done. Brush with butter so that pineapple will brown. 



French chops are made by scraping the meat and fat from 
the bones of rib chops for a Httle distance from the end. Broil 
them over a quick fire, season with salt and pepper, and serve. 

They may be sauteed or fried. When cooked in this way, 
they are breaded — that is, seasoned with salt and pepper and 
dipped in beaten egg and then in cracker crumbs. 


Lamb breast and foreshank 1 cup cooked rice or barley 

Salt and pepper 1 tablespoon grated onion 

Have foreshank removed from breast and the meat ground. 
Have bones of breast cracked so that the meat may be carved 
between the ribs. Make a pocket lengthwise in the breast by 
cutting the meat close to the ribs. Sprinkle pocket with salt 
and pepper. Combine ground meat from the foreshank with 
cooked rice or barley. Season with onion, salt and pepper. Fill 
pocket with stuffing and sew or skewer edges together. Sprinkle 
outside with salt and pepper. Place uncovered in a pan and bake 
in a moderately slow oven (300° to 350° F.) for 1 hour, then 
cover and continue cooking until tender, about 1 hour longer. 
Serves 6. 

Variations — Add curry powder to rice stuffing. Fill breast 
with Bread Stuffing (page 303 ) . 



1 pound tenderloin 3 tablespoons bacon drippings 

Flour Salt and pepper 

% cup sour cream 

Cut tenderloin crosswise into 2 -inch slices. Flatten out and 
dredge with flour. Place in hot skillet containing drippings. 
Brown on both sides and season with salt and pepper. Reduce 
temperature, add cream, cover and simmer until tender, about 
20 minutes. Serves 6. 

Variations — Place unflattened slices on a baking sheet. 
Spread with a thick layer of catchup and bake in a moderate 
over (350° F.) until tender, about 45 minutes. 

Broiled — Do tiot flatten. Broil as for steaks, (page 243). 

MEAT 259 


2 pounds spareribs Salt and pepper 

Place spareribs in a shallow baking dish and sprinkle with 
salt and pepper. Roast in a moderately slow oven (300° to 
325° F.) about 1 Yz hours. Allow 1 pound per serving. 

Cover spareribs with greased paper and roast for y^ hour, 
then roast, uncovered for remaining time. Just before taking 
meat from oven, sprinkle with 1 cup bread crumbs seasoned with 
54 teaspoon each of sage and minced onion. Baste with drippings 
in pan and return to oven 5 minutes longer. 

Stuffed Spareribs — Use 2 matching sections of spareribs. 
Sew the edges together, except at 1 end. Fill with Bread Stuffing, 
Celery Stuffing (page 304) or apple stuffing, and sew or skewer 
the edges together. Bake in a moderately slow oven (300° to 
325° F.) for XVz hours. 

Barbecued Spareribs — Brown spareribs under broiler. Pour 
Barbecue Sauce (page 253) over ribs, cover pan and bake. 

With Sauerkraut — Brown spareribs. Place sauerkraut in 
a greased baking dish. Sprinkle with brown sugar. Add J/z cup 
water and arrange spareribs on top. Cover dish and cook in a 
moderately slow oven (300° to 325° F.) for 1 hour. 

Braised Spareribs — Place spareribs in a baking dish and 
brown in a hot oven (450° F.). Season with salt and pepper, 
add Yz cup water, cover pan and return to oven. Reduce 
temperature to moderately slow (325° F.) and continue cooking 
until tender, about 40 minutes longer. If desired, place cored 
apples around the ribs. Fill centers of apples with brown sugar 
and nut meats or raisins. 


Crown of pork Pepper 

1 1/2 tablespoons salt Cubes of salt pork 

Have crown prepared at the market. Rub salt and pepper 
into meat. Cover tip of each bone with salt pork. Roast in a 
moderate oven (350° F.) allowing 30 minutes per pound. To 
serve, replace salt pork with paper frills. If desired, center of 
roast may be filled with stuffing and baked. See Roast Lamb 
(page 256). For candle roast, do not roll ribs but leave loin in 
one straight piece. Roast with fat side up. 



Pork chops are delicious sauted. They require from twenty 
to thirty minutes. Some cooks sprinkle a little powdered sage 
over them, as well as salt and pepper, and thicken the gravy 
with flour. Sauted apples are delicious served wilii the sauted 
pork chops. Tomato sauce is good also. 


2 or 3 pounds thick end of Salt and pepper 

loin of pork 1 or 2 tablespoons catchup 

1 cup stock or water Parsley 

Plain pie paste Onion 

Cut pork into thick slices three inches long by two wide. 
Put a layer on the bottom of a pie-plate and sprinkle chopped 
parsley and onion, salt and pepper over it. Repeat until the 
dish is full and then pour in stock or water and catchup. Put 
a strip of good plain paste around the edge of the dish, cover 
with the paste, cut an opening in the center, and set the pie 
in a hot oven (450° F.). When the crust rises and begins to 
color, place the pie in the bottom of the oven, put a piece of 
paper over it and bake at a lower temperature (350*" F.) for 
two hotirs. Often the meat is partly cooked before the crust 
is put on. 


1 pound pork butt 1 small red cabbage 

4 large carrots Seasoning 

4 large parsnips 

Simmer the piece of pork one and one-half hovurs. Cook the 
vegetables in tie same kettle until they are soft, then remove 
tiiem and finish cooking the meat. Cut the pork into thin 
slices. Arrange them side by side down the middle of a large 
platter, and make a border of the cabbage, quart^:^, and the 
other vegetables cut into lengths. 

Boiled. -PIGS' FEET 

6 pigs* feet 1^ tablespoons sa^It 1 

Scrape and wash the feet thoroughly and tie eadi separatsely 

in a piece of cheese-cloth. Put them into a kettle or stew-pan, 



MEAT 261 

cover with boiling water and add the salt. Let the water boH 
up once, then set back on the fire and simmer for six hours. 
Cool in the water. When cold, drain, but do not take off the 
cloth, and place the feet on a platter. The next day they will 
be ready for broiling, frying or pickling. 


6 boiled pigs' feet Flour 

Salt and pepper Butter 

Split each foot, dredge with salt, pepper and flour and broil 
over clear coals for ten minutes. Serve on a hot platter, season- 
ing with butter, salt and pepper. 


I 6 boiled pigs' feet 1 egg 

Salt and pepper Bread-crumbs 


I Split the feet and season well with salt, pepper and lemon- 
juice. Dip in beaten egg, then in bread-crumbs and fry five 
minutes in deep fat (375°-390° F.). Drain and serve imme- 


6 boiled pigs' feet Butter or other fat 

Yz cup crumbs 2 cups boiled beets, fresh or 
I 1 egg canned 

Dip the feet in beaten egg, then in crumbs, and brown in 
fat. Bake in casserole at 350° F., basting with butter or other 
fat. Serve in the casserole with beets surrounding the pigs' 

Pickled (Souce). 

4 good-sized boiled pigs' feet, 1 tablespoon broken cinnamon 

with uppers J4 cup salt 

1 quart strong vinegar 2 teaspoons pepper 

4 bay-leaves Yz onion 

1 tablespoon whole cloves .1 blade mace 

Clean the feet carefully, and cover them with hot water. 
Boil ^owly until the meat will separate from the bones, then 
take them up carefully on a skimmer^ and place them in a 
stone jar, taking out the largest bones. Set the water aside in 
a cool place to be used later. 


Place the vinegar on the fire, adding bay -leaves, cloves, cinna- 
mon, salt, pepper, onion cut in eighths, and mace. Steep slowly 
in the vinegar for forty-five minutes, but do not allow the 
vinegar to boil rapidly at any time. Remove the fat cake from 
the top of the water in which the feet were boiled, and save it 
for cooking purposes. Add about one quart of the water to 
the vinegar; if the vinegar is not very strong, less water must 
be added, so that the vinegar may not be too much diluted. 
Strain the liquid through a sieve to remove the spice, etc., and 
pour it over the meat in the jar, helping it through the meat 
with a knife and fork until the two are thoroughly mixed. Set 
the jar in a cold place for two days. 


1 hog's head Corn-meal 

Salt and pepper Buckwheat flour 

Powdered herbs 

Scrape and clean a hog's head, then split it and take out the 
eyes and brain. The butcher will do this, if requested. Clean 
the ears and scrape them well. Put all on to boil in plenty of 
cold water and simmer gently for four hours, or until the bones 
will easily slip from the meat. Lift out the meat and bones into 
a colander, remove the bones and chop the meat fine. Skim 
off every particle of grease from the water in which the meat 
was boiled, and return the meat to the boiling stock in the 
kettle. Season highly with salt and pepper and powdered herbs. 
Add enough corn-meal and buckwheat flour, in equal quantities, 
to make a soft mush, stirring constantly for the first fifteen 
minutes, then lower the heat and cook for one hour. Pour 
into bread pans, cool, and keep in a cold place until needed. 

The scrapple may be served cold or may be cut into slices, 
dipped in t%^ and cracker-crumbs and sauted. I 


1 hog's head with ears and Sage I 

tongue Sweet marjoram I 

Salt and pepper Powdered cloves ^ 

Head-cheese is usually made of the head, ears and tongue of 
pork. Clean the head with the utmost care and boil all the 
meat and bones in salted water until the meat is very tender, 




about two or three hours. Take out the head, place it in a 
colander to drain, and remove all the bones. Cut the ears in 
very thin slices. Season the whole to taste with salt, pepper, 
sage, sweet marjoram and other herbs, and a little powdered 
cloves. Mix the mass well, and pack it tightly in a bowl, inter- 
spersing layers of the mixture with slices of the boiled ears. 
Press the whole into a compact shape and cover with a plate, 
on which place a heavy weight. The head-cheese will be ready 
to use in two or three days. It may be cut in thin slices and 
served with vinegar and mustard, or it may be cut in slices, 
dipped in e^g and cracker-crumbs and fried. 


1 ham Brown sugar Whole cloves 

Wash ham thoroughly, cover with boiling water and sim- 
mer, partially covered, for 25 to 30 minutes per pound, or until 
meat is tender. When cooked the internal temperature will be 
(160° F.). If ham is to be served cold, let it stand in water 
until it is cold, then peel off skin and serve. If it is to be 
served hot, peel off skin, rub with brown sugar, stick in a few 
cloves and bake in a hot oven (400° F.) to brown. When- 
ever possible follow packers cooking directions. 


1 ham 1 teaspoon mustard 

Brown sugar Whole cloves 

Soft bread-crumbs 

Cover ham with boiling water, simmer about 20 minutes per 
pound. Whenever possible, follow directions given by packers 
as to the best method for cooking their hams. Drain and remove 
skin. Mix sugar and crumbs in the proportions of four parts 
sugar to one of crumbs, add mustard and spread over ham. In- 
sert cloves one inch apart, making a diamond pattern. Bake in 
a slow oven (300° F.), allowing ten minutes per pound. To 
stuff, remove bone; see Stuffings, page 303. 


Place the slices on broiler and turn them frequently. Either 
boiled ham or raw ham may be used for broiling. 



1 pound ham in slices 1 cup milk 

about Yz inch thick Pepper 

1 tablespoon flour 

If the ham is too salt, place it in a frying-pan, cover with 
cold water and set the pan on a range in mild heat. When the 
steam commences to rise, pour off the water and add more cold 
water. As soon as this water steams, lift out the slices of meat 
and drain well before frying. Place the meat in a hot pan, 
and cook without addition of fat, unless the ham is exception- 
ally lean; in this case, a spoonful of drippings should be used. 
When the ham is nicely browned, place it on a platter, and 
add a cup of milk to the fat in the pan. When this boils, 
thicken it to a cream with one or two tablespoons of flour mixed 
to a smooth paste with a little cold milk, season with pepper, 
then turn the gravy over the ham. A more sim.ple gravy is 
made by adding a little hot water to the fat in the pan and 
pouring this over the meat. 


Fry a slice of ham, browning both sides. Break each eg^ 
separately in a saucer and slip into the hot fat in the frying- 
pan. Lower the heat, and baste with the hot fat. As soon as 
the color changes, they are done. Place them on top of the 
ham and send to the table hot. ^ _ 


1 pound sausage 1 cup milk 

1 tablespoon flour Salt and pepper 

When cooking sausage in casings, prick the skins thoroughly 
with a steel fork to prevent their brusting. If cooking in bulk, 
shape the sausage meat into balls with the hands. Place them 
in a hot frying-pan and fry until brown, adding no fat, as 
there will generally be plenty in the meat. When done, re- 
move the sausage to a platter. Pour off all but one tablespoon 
of fat, add one tablespoon of dry flour and cook one minute, 
stirring all the time; then gradually add one cup of milk, still 
stirring. When the gravy is boiling and is of a creamy con- 




—National Live Stock and ^ 

Meat Board 










— Institute American Poultry , 


MEAT 265 

sistency, add salt and pepper to taste, pour the gravy over the 
sausage and serve. 


1 cup cold cooked ham Powdered mace 

Cayenne pepper Mustard 

Mince some cold, cooked ham, mixing lean and fat together, 
and pound in a mortar, seasoning with a little cayenne pepper, 
mace and mustard. Put into a baking-dish and place in the 
oven (350° F.) for one-half hour; afterward pack it into pots 
or little stone jars, covering with paraffin and papen This is 
convenient for sandwiches. 


Cut the bacon very thin. Place in a hot pan and cook until 
brown. Turn the slices frequently, and in cooking a large 
quantity remove some of the fat from the pan occasionally. 

To broil bacon, place the strips on a broiler and lay the 
broiler over a dripping-pan. Bake in the oven or broil under 
direct heat. To keep bacon flat, broil between racks. 


Fry lean strips of bacon .until crisp. Remove and lay them 
on a platter. Break the eggs separately, gently slide them into 
the bacon fat and cook until they are set. See page 373. 


1 pound salt pork 1 pint milk 

10 tablespoons flour Salt and pepper 

Cut the slices thin and place them in cold water. After they 
have soaked one hour, drain well and dry them on a napkin. 
Heat the frying-pan very hot. Place one-half cup (8 table- 
spoons) of flour on a plate and dip each piece of meat in it. 
Fry until crisp. Drain off all but two tablespoons of the fat 
and stir two tablespoons of flour into that remaining in the 
pan. Cook two minutes, stirring well, then reduce the heat 
and slowly add one pint of milk. When the gravy is smooth, 
cook one minute and add pepper and salt, if needed. Turn the 
gravy aver the meat and serve. 



1 pound calf's liver 1 teaspoon Worcestershire 

% cup tomato sauce sauce 

Dash salt and pepper 

Wash liver, cut into 1^-inch cubes and place in casserole. 
Add sauce and seasoning, cover and bake at 3 50° F. J/2 hour. 
Just before serving, add Worcestershire sauce. 


1 calf's liver (about 2 pounds) Flour to dredge 

Bread Stuffing No. 2 3 strips salt pork 

(page 303) ^2 ^^P water 
Salt and pepper 

Wipe liver with a damp cloth and dry. Make an incision in 
the thickest part using a sharp knife. Fill with stuffing, sew edges 
together, season with salt and pepper and dredge with flour. 
Place in a baking pan and place strips of salt pork on top. Add 
water, cover pan and cook in a moderate oven (350° F.) until 
tender, I Yz to 2 hours. About 1 minutes before serving remove 
cover so that salt pork may brown. Thicken gravy in pan and 
serve with meat. Serves 8. 

Variation — Bacon may be used in place of salt pork. 


1/^ pound sliced bacon Flour 

II/2 pounds calf's liver, cut 1 teaspoon salt 

I/2 inch thick 1/^ teaspoon pepper 

Place a single layer of bacon in a cool frying pan and place 
over low heat. Turn bacon frequently and drain off excess fat 
so that the bottom of the pan is well greased. Cook slowly until 
bacon is light golden brown and crisped. Drain on absorbent 
paper. Keep in a hot place. Wipe liver with a damp cloth and 
dry thoroughly. Roll in flour to which salt and pepper have 
been added. Saute in drippings at reduced heat 5 to 8 minutes, 
until browned on both sides and center is just done. Overcook- 
ing ruins liver. Serves 4. 

Place the liver in the center of the platter with the bacon 

MEAT 267 

around it as a garnish. Put flour into the hot fat in the pan 
and stir until brown. Make a medium sauce of this browned 
flour and water. Season with salt and pepper, and pour the 
gravy over the liver and bacon. 


Preparing Sweetbreads — Sweetbreads should be plunged 
into cold water as soon as they are received, and soaked for one 
hour, then they should be parboiled in acidulated, salted water 
(one teaspoon salt and one tablespoon vinegar to one quart 
water) for twenty minutes. After draining they should be 
plunged into cold water again to make them firm. The little 
strings and membranes, which are easily detached after parboil- 
ing, should be removed. 


2 pairs sweetbreads Lemon-juice 

Butter Salt and pepper 

f Prepare as directed, then cut into thin slices, sprinkle with 
salt and pepper, and broil. Serve with melted butter to which 
a little lemon-juice has been added. 


2 pairs sweetbreads Salt and pepper 

2 tablespoons flour Egg 

I 1 cup milk Bread or cracker-crumbs 

Prepare as directed and cut in even-sized slices. Sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, dip in beaten Qgg and crumbs and fry in 
deep fat. When well browned on both sides, place them on a 
platter. Make a sauce with two tablespoons of the fat in which 
the sweetbreads were fried, the flour and milk and season with 
salt and pepper. 
I Fried sweetbreads are often served with green peas, placed 
in a mound or a little hill in the center of the platter. Macaroni 
may be boiled very tender and laid on the platter and the sweet- 
breads placed in the center, the pipes of the macaroni being laid 
about them in the form of a nest. 



2 pairs sweetbreads 1 teaspoon minced parsley 

4 tablespoons butter or other 2 cups milk or cream 

fat Salt and pepper 
4 tablespoons flour 

Prepare as directed and cut into dice. Make a white sauce 
with the fat, flour and milk or cream, add the sweetbreads, and 
stir steadily until very hot. Season with salt and pepper and 
minced parsley. 


2 pairs sweetbreads 1 pint seasoned stock 

Salt pork for larding 6 slices toast 

Prepare sweetbreads as directed. Lard them with salt pork, 
letting the ends of the strips curl over the edge of the sweet- 
breads. Lay in a roasting-pan, pour the stock over them, cover 
and cook in a slow oven (350° F.) for one hour. Serve on 
toast. Thicken the gravy in the pan and pour it around them. 


2 calves* hearts 2 tablespoons flour 

1 bay-leaf 2 tablespoons butter or other 

Salt and pepper fat 

Yz lemon 

Hearts must be carefully washed and the veins, arteries and 
clotted blood removed. After washing, place the hearts in a 
kettle with enough boiling water to cover them, and simmer 
for one and one-half hours. Remove all the fat, and set aside 
to cool. When the dish is intended for breakfast, this cooking 
must be done the day before. 

In the morning, cut the heart into small pieces, remove all 
the cords and artery cases, and use only the lean portions. Place 
the chopped heart in a saucepan, add the water and bay-leaf, a 
dusting of salt and pepper, and simmer gently for ten minutes. 
Rub the flour and butter or other fat together, add them, with 
sliced lemon, stir thoroughly for five minutes, and serve at 

MEAT 269 


1 beef heart 1 tablespoon chopped celery- 

Bread Stuffing No. 3, omit- Flour or corn-starch 

ting sage 

Wash the heart well, remove the large veins and arteries from 
the inside and take out every particle of blood. Add the celery 
to the stuffing and stuff the cavity of the heart. Tie the heart 
about with twine, and wrap it in a cloth, sewing the ends to- 
gether to keep the stuffing in. Place in a small stewpan with 
the point of the heart down, and nearly cover with water boil- 
ing hot. Place the lid on the stew-pan and simmer gently for 
three hours. When done, there should be about one pint of 
water in the pan. Remove the cloth and place the heart on a 
platter. Thicken the liquor in the pan with flour or corn- 
starch mixed with a little cold water, and season with salt and 
pepper. Pour t;he gravy over and around the heart. 


1 smoked beef tongue 10 chopped, cooked mush- 

1 cup Spanish sauce rooms 

Scrub the tongue. Soak it in cold water over night, then 
place it in enough fresh cold water to cover it, and simmer for 
five hours. Drain, lay in cold water for two or three minutes, 
remove the skin, trimming the thick end of the tongue neatly, 
and again place it in hot water for a few minutes. Drain and 
lay on the serving-dish, and pour over it sauce piquante or 
Spanish sauce, to which the mushrooms have been added just 
before serving. 


1 beef tongue, fresh % cup butter or other fat 

1 cup brown sugar 1 tablespoon whole cloves 

1 cup stewed cranberries }4 lemon 

Scrub the tongue and simmer it until tender, in water to 
cover. Remove the skin and trim the root end. Take one cup 
of the liquor in which the tongue was cooked and add the 
brown sugar, stewed cranberries, butter or other fat, cloves, 
and lemon, sliced. Simmer the tongue in this mixture for one- 


fourth hour. Place on a dish with the sauce, garnish with slices 
of lemon and sprigs of p?.rsley and serve. 
Tongue may be jellied and served cold. 


2 cups brains or 2 tablespoons chopped green 
1 whole brain pepper 

Pie paste or short biscuit Yz cup thick white sauce 

dough Y^ teaspoon salt 

Put the brains into a bowl of cold water, with salt, for 
thirty minutes. Cover with water and simmer fifteen minutes. 
Remove fiber and outer membrane. Drain, chop or put 
through the meat grinder, add seasoning and white sauce. 
Form into small balls. Roll pie paste or short biscuit dough 
quite thin. Place the balls on the paste equal distances apart. 
Place another sheet of paste over all. Stamp out with round 
cutter or cut them apart and press upper and lower crusts to- 
gether. Bake in hot oven (450° F.) for fifteen minutes. 
Brown in deep hot fat or oil (375°-390° F.) before serving. 


3 cups veal or beef kidneys 2 tablespoons flour 

2 bay-leaves 2 tablespoons butter or other 

Yz lemon fat 

Salt and pepper 

Split the kidneys and cut out the hard, white substances and 
fat from the center. Wash them well and soak for three or 
four hours in cold water, changing the water as soon as it be- 
comes cloudy. Then put the kidneys into a granite pan, add 
enough cold water to cover them and heat slowly. When just 
at the boiling-point, pour off the hot water and again just 
cover them with cold water, once more heating slowly and again 
changing the water when hot. Change the water in this way 
three times, then simmer (twenty minutes for small kidneys; 
forty minutes for a beef kidney.) Set away to cool. If the 
stew is to be used for a breakfast dish, this preliminary cooking 
must be done the day before. When ready to prepare, separate 
all the cords and veins from the kidneys, leaving only the lean 
part. Cut this into small pieces. Place the chopped kidneys 

MEAT 271 

in a granite pan, add the bay-leaves, two cups of water and 
the lemon, sliced, and simmer for twenty minutes. When 
ready to serve, remove the bay-leaves, add the flour rubbed 
smooth in the butter or other fat, season with salt and pepper^ 
and when thickened to the consistency of cream, serve on a 
hot dish. 


6 lamb's or 4 calf's kidneys Butter 

Cooking oil Lemon 

Salt and pepper Parsley 

Cut the kidneys into halves, remove the white tubes and fat 
and cover with cold water for thirty minutes. Drain and dry 
on a piece of cheese-cloth. Brush with, or dip into, cooking 
oil. Broil slowly until brown on both sides. Remove from the 
broiler and put in pan, sprinkle with salt, pepper and a little 
melted butter. Cover the pan and set over a slow fire for a 
few minutes. Serve garnished with slices of lemon and sprigs 
of parsley. 


Remove the skin from the kidneys, cut them into thin round 
slices, and soak them in salted water for thirty minutes. Drain 
and wipe. Saute until tender in butter or other fat. Serve with 
brown sauce or tomato sauce. 

If preferred, cut the kidneys in half after skinning, remove 
the white tubes and fat and then slice the kidneys lengthwise. 


Preparing Tripe — Tripe is usually sold in the city markets 
already cleaned. If not so obtainable, wash well through 
several boiling waters, then put it in cold water and let it soak 
over night. 

Stewed With Onions 

2 pounds tripe Salt and pepper 

2 onions 1 cup hot milk 


Simmer the tripe and onions in salted water for three or four 
hours. Drain. Chop the cooked onions very fine, place them 
in hot milk, and season with salt, pepper and butter. Pour this 
over the tripe and serve at once. 


Stewed with Tomato Sauce 

2 pounds tripe Salt and pepper 

1 onion 1 tablespoon butter or other 

2 cups tomatoes fat 
2 tablespoons flour 

Choose the honeycomb portions and the thick section of 
tripe. Wash it carefully, cover with hot water, add the onion, 
cut in halves, cover the stew-pan and simmer for thirty-five 
minutes. The tripe will then be tender and soft, but long cook- 
ing will make it tough and hard. 

Place the tomatoes in a separate stew-pan, cook them for ten 
minutes and strain through a sieve. Make a sauce of the to- 
matoes, flour, seasoning and fat. 

When the tripe is cooked, drain well, place on a hot plate and 
cut into slender strips. Then drain again, pressing the tripe 
gently between the back of a spoon and the plate to remove 
as much water as possible. Place it in the tomato sauce and 
serve as soon as the sauce is thoroughly heated through. 


iy2 pounds beef liver 2 tablespoons flour 

11^ cups boiling water 2 cups soft bread crumbs 

2 slices salt pork, 1^ ^^^^ '^i^ick 2 eggs, slightly beaten 

1 medium-sized onion Salt and pepper 

% cup chopped parsley l^^ cups cold water 

Wash liver quickly under running water, cover with boiling 
water and let stand 10 minutes; drain. Grind with 2 slices 
salt pork and an onion; add parsley, crumbs, eggs, 1 teaspoon 
salt and 54 teaspoon pepper, and mix thoroughly. Press into 
baking pan, 8x4x3 inches, and bake in moderate oven (350° F,) 
about 1 hour, or until browned. Remove loaf to hot platter. 
Stir flour into drippings ^nd brown; add water gradually and 
cook five minutes, stirring until thickened; season to taste and 
pour over loaf. 




2 pounds liver 1 cup sliced carrots 

Fat salt pork 1/^ cup sliced onion 

^2 pound lean salt pork 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 

2 cups boiling water Bit of bay leaf 

Small sprig of thyme 

Buy liver in solid piece, wash thoroughly, dry and lard with 
strips of fat pork (page 3). Cut lean salt pork in pieces and 
try out slightly; add liver and brown on all sides. Add hot 
water, vegetables and seasonings, cover and bake in moderate 
oven (350° F.) until liver is tender, or about 1 hour for veal 
liver and 2 hours for beef liver. Serve on hot platter surrounded 
by vegetables. Approximate yield: 8 portions. 


\y2 pounds beef liver, sliced 2 tablespoons flour 

thin % teaspoon salt 

1^ cup chopped onion Dash pepper 

2 teaspoons chopped parsley 3 tablespoons vinegar 

2 tablespoons butter 2]/^ cups bouillon 

Saute onion and parsley in butter in frying pan until lightly 
browned; stir in flour, seasonings and vinegar, and add bouillon 
gradually, stirring and cooking until well mixed. Place liver 
in gravy and cook, covered 1 5 minutes, turning once. 


Government breeding of reindeer has brought the meat back 
on the market in modern form. It is shipped frozen and may be 
thawed at low temperature or put directly under the broiler or 
in the oven, when additional time for cooking must be allowed. 
It is very much like beef or veal, with less fat, and has a pleas-» 
ant gamy flavor. The round is the desirable cut and steaks, 
pot roast, oven roaet, chops and cutlets are prepared like beef 
or veal except that they need larding more often. 


TJOULTRY includes all the domesticated birds that are used 
-^ for food — chicken and fowl, turkeys, squabs and pigeons, 
geese and ducks. Game includes wild birds — ducks, geese, 
partridge, reed birds, quail, plover, etc., and animals suitable 
for food which are pursued and taken in field or forest, as the 
deer, moose and rabbit. 

The flesh of game, except that of partridge and quail, is dark 
in color and has a fine strong flavor. The flesh of wild birds, 
except that of wild ducks and geese, contains less fat than the 
flesh of poultry. 

Seasons for Fresh Poultry and Game 

Poultry in some form is available in the market at every 
season. Chickens weighing about one and one-half pounds, 
known as Spring chickens or broilers, begin to appear in the 
market during January. The height of the season for broilers, 
however, is May and June. The so-called milk-fed or early 
Spring chickens appear in the market in July and are available 
until August. 

Roasting chickens begin to appear in September, and Phila- 
delphia capons come into the market at about the same time. 
Fowl are in the market now-a-days throughout the year. 

The season for turkey and ducks is the same as for chickens. 

Goose about twelve weeks old, known as green goose, is 
available from May to September. Geese, also, may be found in 
the market throughout the year. 

Fresh quail and partridge are in the market from Oct. 15 to 
Jan. 1. Cold-storage birds may be found much later. Grouse 
is fresh in the Fall. The cold-storage birds are obtainable 
throughout the year. Plover are in season from April to Sep- 

Selecting Poultry and Game 

There are a few general rules to be observed in the selection 
of young tender poultry and game. 

They should be plump in appearance, haVe smooth, soft legs 
and feet and smooth, moist skin. 



The lower or rear end of the breast-bone should be flexible, 
the skin should be easily broken when twisted between the 
thumb and finger, and the joint of the wing should yield 
readily when turned backward. 

The eyes should be bright, the comb red, and there should 
be an abundance of pin feathers. 

Birds with a yellow skin are likely to be plump, those with 
white skins are likely to be tender. 

Bruised, dry or purplish skin is an indication of careless 
dressing and of age. Hard, dry, scaly legs, hard breast-bone 
and the presence of long hairs are all signs of an old and tough 

Avoid birds with a full crop. Buy dry-picked poultry when- 
ever possible. Scalding the bird before plucking it impairs the 

Poultry and game unless they are in cold storage, should not 
be kept long uncooked. They should be drawn as soon as pur- 
chased, and should be kept in a cool place. 

Unless hen turkeys are young, small and plump, cock turkeys 
are more satisfactory. 

Geese should have an abundance of pin-feathers, soft feet 
and pliable bills. 

There is more meat in proportion to the amount of bone in 
fowls weighing five to six pounds than there is in smaller birds. 
Broilers should weigh one to two pounds. 

To Clean and Dress Poultry 

Cut off the head and remove the pin- feathers with a sharp, 
pointed knife. Singe by holding the bird over a flame, turning 
on all sides until all down and hair have been burnt off. 

If the feet and tendons were not removed at the market, cut 
through the skin around the lower joint or "drum-stick," one 
and one-half inches below the joint that connects the foot with 
the leg, but do not cut the tendons. Place the leg with this 
cut at the edge of the table and break the bone by pressing 
downward. Hold the bird in the left hand and with the right 
pull off the foot, and with it the tendons. In an old bird, the 
tendons must be removed one by one with a skewer or trussing 


To Prepare Poultry for Cooking Whole 

Make a small incision below the breast-bone. Insert the hand 
and carefully loosen the internal organs, the entrails, the giz- 
zard, the heart and the liver. Reserve the last three; these are 
known as the giblets. Care should be taken not to break the 
gall bladder, which is attached to the liver. The liquid content 
of the gall bladder is very bitter, and makes the flesh unpleasant 
to eat. 

Remove and discard the lungs and the kidneys. Insert two 
fingers under the skin close to the neck and remove the wind- 
pipe and the crop. Pull back the skin of the neck and cut off 
the neck close to the body, leaving enough of the neck skin 
to fold down under the back if the bird is to be roasted. Re- 
move the oil bag from the tail. 

Clean the inside of the bird by running water through it and 
wipe the outside with a damp cloth. 

To Stuff Poultry or Game — ^Fill the opening at the neck 
end with sufficient stuffing to make the bird look plump. Put 
the remaining stuffing in the body. If the body is full, sew 
up the opening; if not full, bring the skin together with a 
skewer. Do not fill the cavity too full. Allowance must be 
made for swelling of the stuffing especially when the stuffing 
is made with cracker-crumbs. 

To Truss Poultry or Game for Roasting — Clean, dress 
and stuff. Tie a piece of twine to the end of the neck -skin and 
pull the neck-skin over the back. Slip the ends of the wings 
over the back and press the wings close to the body. Press the 
thighs close to the body, draw the ends of the twine back on 
each side and up over the thighs. Cross the twine between 
the legs, and tie it down under the tail. 

If the poultry or game has little fat it should be larded with 
thin strips of salt pork or bacon laid across the breast. To pre- 
vent the burning of the legs, wind them with strips of cloth 
which have been dipped in melted fat. 

To Dress Birds for Broiling, Frying, Etc. 

For Broiling — Singe the bird, cut off the head and neck 
close to the breast and the legs at the knee joints. Beginning 
at the neck, make a cut through the back-bone for the entire 


■r .MMii^ E/ 

E a'SON"^^' bIsTTMI SS-E'D>^.»^ 

before tucking 
away in the 
roastera cover 

A SEL|;;,*|ASTEI^ 
-— Institutt ^Miwericanp 
Poultry lndtt|fries t 

^^itty^ iS SIMPLER 


■■^rALis OFF >^m 

.jiiiilitute American Pool 

^»... „ „Jm- 






\m^ fc^ 


length of the bird. Lay the bird open and remove the contents. 
Cut the tendons or break the joints. Cut out the rib-bones and 
remove the breast-bone, to faciUtate carving. 

To Make Fillets — Remove the skin from the breast and 
with a sharp knife make an incision close to the breast-bone, 
beginning at the end next the wish-bone and cutting through 
the entire length. Following the bone closely, remove all the 
meat, cutting it away from the wing joint. This fillet may 
be separated into two parts, the upper or larger muscle making 
the "large fillet" and the smaller *'fillet mignon." 

To Cut Up a Fowl — Remove pin-feathers, singe the fowl, 
cut off the head, tendons and oil-bag. 

Cut off the legs at the thigh joint. Separate the first joint 
or drumstick from the thigh. 

Cut the wings from the body. Cut off the tips of the wings. 

Separate the breast from the back by cutting clear down both 
sides of the bird below the ribs. 

Remove the heart, liver, gizzard, entrails and fat all together. 
Remove windpipe and crop. Carefully remove the lungs and 
kidneys from the back-bone. 

Cut back and breast into two pieces each, cutting crosswise. 
The back is sometimes further divided by cutting lengthwise. 
The wish-bone may be removed by inserting a knife under the 
tip and cutting downward, the knife following the bone. 

To Clean Giblets 

Cut the fat and membrane from the gizzard. Make a gash 
in the thickest part, cutting to, but not through the inner lin- 
ing. Remove the inner sac and throw it away. Carefully 
separate the gall bladder from the liver and cut off any part of 
the liver that has a greenish color. Remove arteries and veins 
from the top of the heart and squeeze out the clot of blood. 


1 roasting chicken Salt and pepper 

Stufiing Flour 


Wash, singe and draw the bird, rub it with salt and pepper 
inside and out, and stuff with any desired stufiing. Bread 


stuffing, chestnut stuffing and celery stuffing are particularly 
good. Truss and tie the fowl. Brush skin with melted or soft- 
ened fat. Turn breast side down and cover bird with a cloth 
dipped in fat. Place in a moderate oven (325° to 350° F.). Cook 
uncovered breast side down about one half the total time. Turn 
breast side up. Place any strips of body fat removed in dressing 
over breastbone. Bacon or salt pork strips may be used. Baste 
with extra fat. The cloth may be removed toward the end of 
the cooking if the bird is not well browned. Allow 30 minutes 
per pound for small birds; 22 to 25 minutes per pound for 
larger birds. 


Unless you are quite certain the chickens are tender, it is 
wise to steam them before broiling. This may be done as fol- 
lows: Set the dripping-pan in a moderate oven (3 50°-400° 
F.) and nearly fill it with boiling water. Place two sticks across 
the pan, extending from side to side, and upon them lay the 
chicken. Invert a tin pan over it, shut the oven door and let 
the chicken steam slowly for thirty minutes. This process 
relaxes the muscles and makes the joints supple, besides preserv- 
ing the juices that would be lost in parboiling. 

Transfer the chicken from this vapor bath to a wire broiler, 
turning the inside to the fire first. Broil until the chicken is 
tender and brown, turning it frequently. If the chicken is 
small, it will cook in twenty minutes or less. Do not have too 
hot a fire. Lay the chicken on a warmed platter, spread it with 
butter, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and serve. 


1 chicken Salt and pepper 

y^ cup fat 1 tablespoon cracker or 

Flour bread-crumbs 

1 cup hot milk Onion-juice 

Cress Chopped parsley or tarragon 

Prepare a chicken as for broiling and slightly flatten it with a 
rolling-pin. Place in pan, lay bits of fat upon it, and place it 
in a moderate oven (350° F.) allowing 15 to 20 minutes per 
pound. Bake uncovered. Baste with drippings every half 
hour. When it is nearly done, remove from the oven, salt 


and pepper both sides, strew once more with bits of fat, dredge 
with flour and return to the oven to brown slightly on both 
sides, the under side first. 

When the chicken is thoroughly done, place it on a hot 
platter with the skin side uppermost, cover, and set it where 
it will be kept warm. Pour hot milk into the pan and add 
cracker or bread-crumbs. Season with salt and pepper, if neces- 
sary, and add a few drops of onion-juice or a teaspoon of 
chopped parsley or tarragon, as preferred. Stir the gravy 
vigorously, let it boil one minute and turn it over the chicken. 
Garnish with cress or parsley and serve. 


2 chickens 1 cup milk or cream 

Flour Yz cup butter or other mild 
Salt and pepper fat 

Bread-crumbs 2 eggs 

Clean and disjoint young chickens, leaving the breasts whole. 
Put the necks and giblets into cold water and simmer to obtain 
a cup of stock for the gravy. Sprinkle each piece of chicken 
with salt and pepper, dip in flour, beaten q^% and soft crumbs 
and place in a greased pan. Bake in a hot oven (480° F.) 
from thirty to forty minutes, basting frequently with one- 
fourth cup of fat melted in one- fourth cup of hot water. 

When the chicken is done, make a gravy from the fat left 
in the pan, stirring in two tablespoons of flour, one cup of milk 
or cream and the cup of stock made from the giblets. If you 
like, add a few button mushrooms. Serve the chicken with the 
gravy poured around it. 


2 large broilers 1 teaspoon minced onion 

^ cup fat Salt and pepper 

1 teaspoon minced parsley 1 pint sauted mushrooms 

1 teaspoon minced green 1 quart seasoned mashed 

pepper potato 

1 teaspoon lemon-juice Garnishes for plank 

Make a savory fat by rubbing the minced parsley, green 
pepper and onion into the fat. Flavor with lemon-juice, salt 
and pepper. Split the broilers, sprinkle with salt and pepper 


and put in a pan. Pour over them a little oil or melted fat and 
bake them (400° F.) until nearly done (about twenty min- 

Prepare a plank of proper size, oil it, garnish with a border 
of potatoes forced through pastry-bag and tube, place the 
chicken in the center of the plank, arrange around it sauted 
mushrooms and spread over the chicken the savory fat. Place 
the plank in a very hot oven (500° F.) to brown the potato 
border and to give the chicken the final cooking. Planked 
dishes are invariably served on the plank. They may be 
elaborately garnished with stuffed tomatoes, green peppers and 
fancifully cut vegetables. 


No. 1 — Southern Style 

2 smaH chickens Flour 

Salt and pepper Yi cup fat 

Cut each chicken into four or six pieces, dip each piece 
quickly in cold water, then sprinkle with salt and pepper, and 
roll in plenty of flour. Saute the chicken in a little fat until 
each piece is brown on both sides, and admits a fork easily. Drain 
the pieces well and arrange on a warm platter, setting the dish 
in a hot place to keep the meat from cooling while the gravy 
is being made, as on page 279. 

No. 2— 

Dip the chicken into fritter batter and fry in deep fat 
(375°-390° F.) until brown. Transfer to a casserole or baking 
dish and bake in a moderate oven (250° F.-3 50° F.) for 30-60 
minutes. If the chicken is not young, parboiling before cutting 
will shorten the baking time. 


2 small chickens or 1 large one 2 or more tablespoons fat 

Salt and pepper Flour 

This is one of the most delicious ways of cooking chicken. 
Take off the neck and split the chicken down the back, wiping 
it with a damp towel. Season inside and out with salt and 
pepper, and dredge on all sides with flour. Lay the chicken, 


with the inside down, in a small baking-tin, and add a very- 
little water. The pan should be very little larger than the 
chickens, otherwise the gravy will be too quickly evaporated. 
Set into a rather slow oven (300°-350° F.) and cook for one 
hour in a covered baking-pan or, if baked without a cover, 
baste every ten minutes after the first twenty minutes. 

Should the chicken be decidedly lacking in fat, add fat as 
needed. When done, place the chicken on a hot platter, add 
enough water to make two cups gravy and thicken with two 
tablespoons flour. Should the chicken be quite fat, remove all 
but two tablespoons of the oil from the pan before making the 
gravy. Season with salt and pepper, pour it over the chicken 
and serve at once. 


In Winter there is no better way to prepare chickens than 
to simmer them whole and pour over them oyster or parsley 
sauce. The chicken should be well secured in a wet cloth that 
has been generously sprinkled with flour, then plunged into 
boiling water and simmered (not boiled) gently until the 
chicken is done. Allow twenty to thirty minutes to each pound 
of chicken. A large, tough chicken may be made very palatable 
by preparing it in this way. 


1 fowl (about 5 pounds) Salt and pepper 

1 onion Flour 

1 bay-leaf 

A chicken is more tender than a fowl and is to be preferred 
for light cooking, but a fat fowl a year or two old has a richer 
and finer flavor, and if steamed properly, will be perfectly 
tender. Singe and wash the fowl, draw and dress it as carefully 
as for roasting and wipe it dry inside and out. Rub it inside 
and out with salt and pepper, place an onion and a bay-leaf 
inside and tie the fowl into shape as for roasting. 

Then flour a cloth and wrap it about the fowl. Lay the 
chicken, back downward, in a steamer and allow it to steam 
continuously for three to four hours, according to its age and 
size. If properly steamed it will be as good as a roasted chicken. 
Serve with celery, oyster or parsley sauce. Steamed chicken 
may subsequently be browned in the oven if desired. 



1 chicken Salt and pepper 

1 cup oysters Yz cup cream or milk 

1 tablespoon fat 3 hard-cooked eggs 

1 tablespoon flour Minced herbs 

Prepare a full-grown Spring chicken as for roasting, season 
inside and out with salt and pepper, stuff with whole, raw 
oysters and place it in a steamer with a close-fitting cover, and 
steam until the chicken is done, then place the chicken on a 
warm dish and make a gravy as follows: Put the fat into a 
saucepan with the minced herbs and flour and stir until the 
mixture bubbles; add the liquor in the kettle below the steamer, 
the cream or milk, and cook, stirring constantly, until the mix- 
ture boils. Add the eggs, chopped fine, let the whole boil, pour 
it over the chicken and serve at once. 


1 chicken 1 teaspoon salt 

3 tablespoons flour 1 cup milk 

Salt and pepper 

Clean, singe and cut up the chicken, place it in a pot and 
nearly cover with water. Cover the pot and simmer gently. 
An old fowl will require at least three or four hours' slow cook- 
ing, but a year-old chicken should be done in one and one- 
half hours. Remove the cover during the last half-hour of 
cooking, to reduce the gravy to about one and one-half pints 
when done. 

Three-fourths of an hour before time to serve, make Dump- 
lings No. 2 (see Index). When the dumplings are ready to 
serve, add salt and pepper to the chicken and make the gravy 
by adding to the liquor in the kettle three tablespoons of flour 
stirred to a paste in one cup of milk. Skim out the chicken, 
lay it on a platter, place the dumplings on the top and pour 
over them the gravy.' 


1 chicken 1 tablespoon gelatin to each 

Salt and pepper pint broth 

Clean, singe and cut up a chicken. Place it in a kettle with 
a little water, cover closely and simmer until the meat will fall 


from the bones. Lift the pieces from the kettle with a skimmer 
and scrape all the meat from the bones, separating the white 
meat from the dark and taking out the pieces of skin. Season 
with salt and pepper. 

Soften gelatin in two tablespoons of water for each tablespoon 
of gelatin and add to the boiling chicken broth. Place the meat 
in the dish it is to be pressed in, laying the white and dark in 
alternate layers, and adding from time to time a little of the 
broth to moisten all well. When all the meat is in the dish,^ 
pour over it enough of the broth to cover it; lay a plate on top 
of it; place a heavy weight upon the plate and set away in a 
cool place. This makes an attractive dish for luncheon, sliced 
and garnished with parsley. 


1 chicken 1 egg-yolk 

2 tablespoons fat Salt and pepper 
2 cups chicken stock Herbs 

2 tablespoons flour Salt pork 

1 cup milk or cream Rice or dumplings 

Singe, clean and cup up the chicken. Brown in a pan with 
the fat. Cover with boiling water, add salt, pepper, herbs and 
a few slices of salt pork. Simmer until tender (about an hour) , 
strain and thicken one pint of the liquor with the flour mixed 
to a smooth paste with a little cold water; add the milk or 
cream beaten with the yolk of the egg. Heat again until 
slightly thickened, pour over the chicken and serve with rice 
or dumplings (see Index for recipe). 


1 chicken Salt and pepper 

2 or 3 small slices salt pork 1 teaspoon onion-juice, if 
2 tablespoons flour desired 

1 pint boiling water 

Cut in pieces as directed for white fricassee. Place salt pork 
in a frying-pan, and when hot put in the chicken, leaving 
plenty of room to turn the meat; cook until each piece is a 
rich brown. Remove the chicken and keep it warm. Add the 
flour to the fat in the pan, stir well and when it has cooked two 
minutes, add the boifing water. When the gravy is smooth 
and boiling, replace the chicken, season with salt and pepper. 


cover the pan, and simmer gently until the chicken is tender, 
then add a teaspoon of onion-juice, if desired, and serve at 
once. The gravy will be thick enough, and if the pan has a 
tight cover, it will not be diminished, even after long cooking. 


1 chicken Salt and pepper 

Pie paste Flour 


Clean, singe and cut up chicken as for fricassee. Place in a 
kettle and add enough hot water to cover. Put the cover on 
the kettle, and simmer slowly until the chicken is tender, add- 
ing a little more water if needed. Make a gravy of the stock, 
using two tablespoons flour for each cup of stock. Use for the 
crust puff paste, or a good pie paste, rolled a little thicker 
than for fruit pies. Line the sides of a deep baking-dish with 
crust; invert in the middle of the dish a small cup or ramekin; 
put in part of the chicken and season with salt and pepper, 
then add the rest of the chicken, and season the same way. 

Put in the dish two cups or more of the gravy made from 
broth in which the chicken was cooked and cover the top with 
crust. The cup or ramekin will hold the crust up and will pre- 
vent evaporation. Most chicken pie is too dry; therefore, use 
a generous amount of the broth. Bake in a hot oven (450° F.) 
until crust is done (one-half hour) . "When serving, after cut- 
ting the first slice, carefully slip the knife under the ramekin 
and release the gravy which is held there by suction. Additional 
gravy should be served in a gravy-dish. 


1 chicken ( 1 ^ or 2 pounds) 2 tablespoons fat 

1 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon to 2 tablespoons 

2 onions curry-powder 

1 egg-yolk 1 tablespoon flour 

Cut up the chicken as for fricassee, put in a saucepan with 
sufficient water to cover it, and simmer until tender, keeping 
the pan closely covered. Remove from the fire, take the chicken 
out and pour the liquor into a bowl. Put the onions into the 
saucepan with the fat and saute until brown, then skim them 
out and put in the chicken ; fry for three or four minutes, then 


sprinkle over it the curry-powder. Next pour in the chicken 
liquor, stew five minutes longer and stir in the flour mixed 
until smooth with a little cold water. Stir the mixture until 
it thickens; add the beaten yolk of egg, adding a little of the 
hot mixture to the egg first. Serve with a border of hot boiled 


% cup fat lYz cups strained tomatoes 

1 tablespoon chopped onion Salt, pepper and paprika 

1 chopped carrot 1 chicken 

1 slice turnip Salt-pork fat 

5/4 cup flour 1 cup button mushrooms 

1 cup water 2 tablespoons chopped olives 

Make a savory sauce by melting the fat and cooking in it 
chopped onion, carrot and turnip cut in small pieces. Stir in 
flour and add gradually boiling water and tomato, previously 
stewed and strained. Season with salt, pepper and paprika. 

Cut up a chicken, dredge with flour, and saute in salt-pork 
fat. Remove from the pan, place in a saucepan and cover 
with the savory sauce. Cook until the chicken is tender. At 
the last moment, add the mushrooms and chopped olives. Ar- 
range the pieces of chicken in the center of the platter and pour 
the sauce around them, garnishing with triangles of toast and 
stuffed olives. 


2 cups cooked chicken meat 2 tablespoons flour 

1 pint broth in which chicken Salt and pepper 

was cooked Bread-crumbs 

Fat 2 cups sliced, cooked potatoes 

Cut the cooked chicken meat into dice. Thicken the broth 
with a paste made of the flour and two tablespoons of fat and 
season with salt and pepper. Fill a pudding-dish with alternate 
layers of bread-crumbs, chicken and potatoes. Cover the top 
with crumbs. Pour in the gravy and add a few bits of butter 
or other fat and bake fifteen to thirty minutes in a moderate 
oven (3 50°-400° R). 



2 cups cooked chicken Salt and pepper 

2 tablespoons fat 1 tablespoon parsley 

2 tablespoons flour 1 egg-yolk 

1 cup milk or cream 

Make a white sauce of the fat, flour and milk. Season with 
salt and pepper. Add the parsley and chicken and cook until 
the sauce is thoroughly hot again. Beat the egg-yolk, adding 
two tablespoons of milk, and pour into the mixture. Cook 
two minutes, stirring constantly, and serve in a border of riced 
potatoes or in croustades. 

Creamed chicken may be varied in a number of ways: by 
substituting mushrooms or chopped cooked eggs for part of 
the chicken or by adding chopped pimientos and olives. 


Capons are large, plump young roosters, especially fattened 
for the table. They are prepared for cooking in the same way 
as chickens. For stufl&ng, choose a delicate flavoring such as 
oysters or chestnuts. Mushrooms or truffles are especially good 
with capon. 



Dress as directed for roast chicken and roast in an uncovered 
roaster in a slow oven (300° F.) allowing 15 to 25 minutes per 
pound, depending upon age and size of bird. The larger birds 
require less time per pound than the small birds. Baste the bird 
at half hour intervals. Serve with giblet gravy. 


1 turkey ^ cup onion 

Stuffing Yz cup turnip 

Yz pound salt pork 4 cups water or stock 

Yz cup chopped celery Salt and pepper 
Yz cup chopped carrots 

This is a very satisfactory way of cooking an old turkey that 
is unfit for roasting. StuflF the body and breast with any de- 


sired stuffing, and truss. Spread thin slices of salt pork over 
the breast and legs, and cover the turkey with a strong sheet 
of oiled paper, fastening the paper on by passing a string 
around the body. In a double roasting-pan large enough to 
hold the turkey, spread sliced salt pork and the chopped vege- 
tables. Lay the turkey on this mixture, with the breast up, 
sprinkle with salt and pepper, cover the pan tightly, and place 
in a moderate oven (350°-400° F.). Allow twenty-five min- 
utes for each pound. 

At the end of thirty minutes, add water or stock. During 
the last half -hour take the cover from the pan, remove the paper 
and pork from the turkey. This permits the meat to brown 
lightly. Serve with mushroom sauce, or with the gravy in the 
pan, strained and thickened. 


Breast fillets Yz teaspoon onion- juice 

Egg and crumbs Salt and pepper 

1 cup white stock 2 teaspoons butter 

1 cup rice 1 tablespoon grated cheese 

6 tablespoons oil 

Skin the breast of a plump turkey, and sKce. The slices 
should be nearly half an inch thick, and as nearly uniform in 
size as possible. Dip in beaten q^^, then in crumbs, again in the 
Qg^, and once more in the crumbs. Set in the refrigerator. Put 
the white stock into a saucepan; add rice, onion-juice and 
one-half teaspoon salt^ and simmer slowly until the liquid is 

When the rice is tender, add butter and grated cheese,^ and 
season with salt and pepper. Cover and let it stand at the 
side of the fire until the fillets are ready. Heat salad-oil or 
cooking fat slowly in a frying-pan to 375°-390° F., and cook 
the fillets to a nice brown. Mound the rice in the center of a 
hot dish and arrange the fillets about it. 


Young turkeys may be broiled or panned, like chickens. A 
young turkey is easily distinguished by its smooth, black legs 
and white skin. 



6 tablespoons fat 3 tablespoons flour 

]/3 cup onion, finely chopped 1/^ teaspoon salt 

1 large apple, peeled, diced 1 to ll/^ teaspoons curry 
1 large can mushrooms or powder 

1 pound fresh mushrooms 1 1/^ cups turkey stock and top 
3 cups turkey, diced milk, or cream 

Cook onion, apple, mushrooms, and turkey in the fat until 
onion and apple begin to be transparent: 10 to 15 minutes. If 
fresh mushrooms are used, saute several minutes before adding 
to other ingredients. Remove from heat, add salt, flour, and 
curry powder and stir thoroughly. Add liquid, and cook until 
thickened throughout. Set over hot water, cover and cook 15 
minutes longer to blend the flavors. Taste and add more 
seasoning if desired. Serve with hot boiled rice. Little or no 
salt is added in cooking rice. 


1 goose (about 8 pounds) Salt and pepper 

Potato stuffing Flour 

Salt pork if goose is not fat 

Select a goose that is about four months old. An old goose 
is better braised than roasted. Singe the goose, wash it carefully 
in hot water, and wipe it dry on the outside; then draw it and 
clean it thoroughly inside. Flatten the breast-bone by striking 
it with a rolling-pin. Partly fill the cavity with potato stuf- 
fing, stitch up the openings and truss the goose. If it is not 
fat, lay thin slices of pork upon the breast, but if the goose has 
considerable fat, omit the pork. Bake in a hot oven (500° F.) 
for forty-five minutes. Remove it from the oven, pour out 
all the fat, sprinkle the bird all over with salt and pepper, 
dredge with flour, and return it to the oven. Reduce the heat 
but do not let it get below 3 50° F. 

When the flour is a good brown, pour one cup of hot water 
into the pan and baste the goose often, dredging it each time 


with a slight sifting of flour to absorb the fat. Allow twenty 
minutes to the pound for a young goose and twenty-five for 
one that is old. Remove the goose from the pan, add a cup 
of hot water to the gravy and thicken it, if necessary, with 
browned flour. Garnish the goose with parsley and serve with 
giblet gravy. 

Apple sauce is often served with roast goose. 

Goslings may be roasted in the same way, allowing, however, 
only fifteen minutes to the pound for cooking. 


1 eight-pound goose 1 teaspoon salt 

2 cups bread-crumbs Pinch of pepper 

1 chopped onion 6 to 8 apples 

2 tablespoons fat 54 cup brown sugar 
y^ teaspoon sage 3 sweet potatoes 

Cook the giblets until tender, chop and add to stuffing made 
by mixing bread-crumbs, onion, fat, sage, salt and pepper. 
After cleaning and washing the goose thoroughly, stuff, and sew 
the neck and back. Roast for fifteen minutes at 500° F., then 
reduce the heat to 3 50° F. and cook about three hours. Wash 
and core six to eight apples; sprinkle with brown sugar, stuff 
with mashed and seasoned sweet potato; bake until tender and 
serve hot with the goose. 


1 goose 1 teaspoon pepper 

Potato stuffing 2 tablespoons made mustard 

J4 cup vinegar 1 tablespoon salt 

After cleaning the goose and wiping it well with a damp 
cloth, plunge it into a kettle of boiling water, and simmer for 
one hour. Take it from the kettle, drain well, and wipe it dry. 
Partly fill the body and neck with potato stuffing, sew up and 
truss, and roast in a moderately hot oven (3 50° -400° F.), al- 
lowing fifteen to twenty minutes to the pound. Pour over it 
a mixture of the vinegar, pepper, and made mustard, and baste 
frequently. Serve with giblet gravy. 

An old goose that can not be made eatable in any other way 
may be cooked in this way, two hours instead of one hour 
being allowed for the simmering. 



Epicures prefer young ducks rare, and without stuffing. 
Some people consider that ducks have too strong a flavor, and 
to absorb this flavor lay cored and quartered apples inside the 
body. These apples are removed before the duck is sent to the 
table. Celery and onions also may be placed inside the duck to 
season it and improve the flavor, two tablespoons of chopped 
onion being used to every cup of chopped celery, which may 
consist of the green stalks that are not desired for the table. 
This stuffing is also removed from the bird before it is sent to 
the table. Should filling be preferred, use potato stuffing, put- 
ting it in very hot. 

Truss the duck, sprinkle it with salt, pepper and flour, and 
roast in a very hot oven (500° F.) fifteen to thirty minutes, 
provided the duck is young and is desired rare. 

Full-grown domestic ducks are roasted in a moderate oven 
(350° F.) allowing 20 to 25 minutes per pound. Bake uncov- 
ered. Baste every half hour with drippings in pan. Serve with 
giblet gravy and applesauce or grape or currant jelly. Green 
peas should also be served with roast duck. 


1 brace ducks Parsley 

3 slices bacon Salt and pepper 

1 carrot 1 small turnip, diced 

1 onion stuck with cloves Oil or cooking fat 

Thyme Flour 

Prepare ducks as for roasting, put them into a large stew- 
pan with the bacon, carrot, onion and a little thyme and 
parsley; season with salt and pepper and cover with water. 
Simmer over a low fire until the ducks are tender, then remove 
them from the pan. Cook the turnip in the fat until brown, 
then drain and cook in liquor in the stew-pan, until tender. 
Strain the liquor, thicken with flour and pour the gravy thus 
made over the ducks. Garnish with pieces of turnip. 



2 cups cooked duck Salt and pepper 

2 tablespoons fat Paprika 

1 tablespoon flour lYz cups consomme or 

2 tablespoons chopped ham bouillon 
2 tablespoons onion 1 clove 
Chopped celery %, teaspoon mace 
Chopped pars-ley Chopped sweet pepper 

Melt the fat and add the flour, then stir in the ham. Season 
with salt, pepper, paprika, onion, celery, sweet pepper and 
parsley. Stir for two minutes, add the consomme or bouillon, 
the clove and mace. Simmer one hour. Strain this sauce and 
stir in the cooked duck, cut into cubes. Cook just enough 
longer to heat all thoroughly. Serve with diamonds of fried 
hominy or mush. 

Guinea Fowls 


Roast the guinea fowl either with or without stuffing, keep- 
ing it well basted and the breast covered with a slice of fat 
bacon, which may be removed five minutes before serving. 
Have the oven very hot (500° F.) for the first fifteen minutes; 
then reduce to 3 50° F. Allow thirty-five to forty minutes for 
a medium-sized bird. Serve with currant jelly and giblet sauce. 


1 guinea fowl 1 teaspoon salt 

4 slices bacon ^ teaspoon pepper 

2 tablespoons flour 

A guinea fowl makes a delicious fricassee. Clean and cut 
in pieces. Place bacon in pan and when it has fried long enough 
to extract some of the fat, add the pieces of the fowl and brown 
them well. Add the flour, stir until thoroughly mixed, and 
then add two cups hot water, salt and pepper, and stir until 
the gravy boils. Cover well and simmer until the meat is 
tender, which is generally in one and one-half to two hours. 
Serve with the gravy from the bottom of the pan, adding more 
salt and pepper if needed. 



These fowls are cooked in the same way as turkeys. They 
should be larded with shreds of bacon, trussed and roasted about 
one and one-fourth hours. 

Pheasants, Partridges, Quail and Grouse 

Game should not be kept too long; birds rarely should be 
hung longer than one week. Hang in a cool dry room where 
the air circulates freely. If birds are to be kept many days, 
draw but do not pick them before hanging. Place a piece of 
charcoal in the body and sift powdered charcoal into the 
feathers. A distinction must be made between white meat 
and dark meat in cooking game. Quail and partridges are 
white meat and, like chicken, must be thoroughly cooked but 
not dried. Ducks, pigeons or squabs, grouse (prairie chicken) , 
snipe, and woodcock are dark meat and are preferred by the 
epicure cooked rare and served very hot. 

The methods of cooking all these birds are substantially the 
same, except as to the degree of rareness desired. They should 
never be washed, but simply wiped with a damp towel, all shot 
being carefully picked out of the flesh with a sharp-pointed 
knife. Small birds are often skinned when the birds are 
cleaned. There is a difference of opinion among epicures as to 
the drawing of these birds ; sometimes they are cooked undrawn. 
The English do not draw woodcock, regarding the entrails as 
edible, and some American housekeepers copy them in this 


Clean the birds and split them down the back. Sprinkle with 
salt and pepper, dust with flour to keep in the juices and broil 
in a wire broiler, laying the inside first to the fire. Allow about 
ten minutes for quail, twenty-five to forty minutes for par- 
tridges and pheasants. When done, lay them on a warm dish 
and butter or oil them plentifully on both sides. During the 
broiling, if the breasts are quite thick, cover the broiler with 
a pan, and see that the fire is not too hot. 



Clean the birds and split them down the back. Dip them 
quickly into hot water and sprinkle with salt, pepper and flour. 
The water causes the seasoning to adhere more thickly to the 
meat. Place the birds in a small baking-dish with the inside of 
each upward; place a teaspoon of butter or other fat in each 
bird, add a cup of water, and roast in a very hot oven (500° F.) 
allowing fifteen to twenty minutes for quail and proportion- 
ately longer for larger birds. After the first fifteen minutes re- 
duce the heat to 3 50° F. Baste every five minutes after the first 
fifteen. Thicken the gravy, add salt and pepper if necessary, 
and pour over the birds. 


Clean, truss and stuff the birds. Roast in an uncovered 
pan in a moderate oven (350° F.) until meat is tender and bird 
is well browned. Baste every half hour with butter or other 
fat and water. Thicken the gravy and pour it over the birds. 
Serve with bread sauce. 


Grouse are rather dry birds and need to be larded to be palat- 
able. Clean and wipe with a damp towel. On each bird lay 
thin slices of bacon, covering the bird entirely and keeping the 
bacon in place with crossings of soft twine. Place in a roasting- 
pan and pour over them boiling water, sufficient to use for bast- 
ing the birds while cooking. Cook in a very hot oven (500° F.) 
fifteen to twenty-five minutes, basting three times. Reduce 
the heat after fifteen minutes. When done, remove the strips 
of bacon, brush the birds with oil, melted butter or other fat, 
dredge with flour and place in the oven again until a rich brown. 
The liquor in the pan may be thickened, seasoned, and used as 
a gravy. Arrange the birds on a platter and garnish with rings 
of sauted green peppers and the strips of bacon used to cover 
the birds while roasting. 



6 quail Flour 

6 large oysters Salt and pepper 

Strips of bacon Butter or other fat 

Dress, clean and truss the birds. Stuff each with one large 
oyster. Lard breast and legs with strips of bacon. Bake as di- 
rected for larded grouse, allowing fifteen to twenty minutes for 


6 birds 2 tablespoons browned flour 

Salt and pepper 2 tablespoons fat 

^ cup minced parsley 2 cups diced potatoes 

Yz chopped onion Rich paste for side and top 

2 whole cloves crust 

54 pound diced salt pork 

Clean the birds thoroughly. Halve them, put them into one 
quart of water and bring to boiling-point. Remove the scum, 
add salt, pepper, parsley, onion, cloves and salt pork. Simmer 
until tender, carefully keeping the birds covered with water. 
When the birds are done, thicken the liquid with the browned 
flour and let the gravy come to a boil. Add the fat, remove 
from the fire and cool. 

Put the paste around the sides of a greased pudding-dish, lay 
In some of the birds, then some potatoes, and repeat until the 
dish is full. Pour in the gravy, put on the top crust, slashed 
in the center, and bake in a hot oven (450° F. to 425° F.) for 
thirty-five to forty-five minutes until done. 

Pigeons and Squabs 

Pigeons need long, slow cooking to make them tender. 
Squabs are tender and are usually broiled. 


6 squabs Butter 

Salt and pepper Toast 

Split the birds down the back, flatten the breast, wipe inside 
and out with a damp cloth. Put on a broiler, season with pepper 
and salt, and when nicely browned, pour a generous amount 
of melted butter over them. Serve on toast. 



3 pigeons 2 tablespoons mushfoom 
1 tablespoon fat catchup 

1 pint stock or gravy Salt and pepper 

2 tablespoons cream Cayenne 
54 cup mushrooms 

Clean and cut pigeons into small portions and let them cook 
a short time in the fat in a saucepan, being careful not to 
brown them. Next add to the contents of the pan the stock 
or gravy, the mushroom catchup, and salt, pepper and cayenne 
to taste. Simmer an hour, or until tender, add the mushrooms, 
simmer ten minutes more, and then stir in the cream. Arrange 
the mushrooms around the pigeons on a hot platter. 


6 pigeons Chopped parsley 

3 slices bacon Hot water or stock 
Any simple stuffing J4 cup fat 

1 diced carrot 54 cup flour 

1 diced onion Buttered toast 

Clean and dress pigeons, stuff, truss, and place them upright 
in a stew-pan on the slices of bacon. Add the carrot, onion, 
and a little parsley, and cover with boiling water or stock 
Cover the pot closely and let simmer from two to three hours, 
or until tender, adding boiling water or stock when necessary. 
Make a sauce of the fat and flour and two cups of the stock 
remaining in the pan. 

Serve each pigeon on a thin piece of moistened toast, and pour 
gravy over all. 


6 pigeons Flour 

Bread stuffing Rich pie paste 

Salt and pepper 3 hard-cooked eggs 


StuflF each pigeon with bread stuffing. Loosen the joints with 
a knife, but do not cut them through. Simmer the birds in 
a stew-pan, with water enough to cover, until nearly tender, 
then season with salt and pepper. Make a medium thick gravy 
with flour, fat and liquor in which pigeons have cooked and 


let it cool. Line the sides of a greased pudding-dish with rich 
paste and cut the hard-cooked eggs in sHces. Put successive 
layers of egg, pigeon and gravy into the dish until it is filled, 
put on a cover of paste and bake (at 450° F.) for one-half 

wad Ducks 

Nearly all wild ducks are likely to have a fishy flavor, and 
when dressed by an inexperienced cook are often unfit to eat. 
This flavor may be much lessened by placing in each duck a 
small peeled carrot, plunging the fowls in boiling water and 
simmering them for ten minutes before roasting. The carrot 
will absorb some of the unpleasant taste. An onion will have 
somewhat the same effect, but unless a stuffing with onions is 
used, the carrot is to be preferred. When there is an objection 
to parboiling (as when the ducks are young) rub them lightly 
with an onion cut in two and put three or four uncooked cran- 
berries in each before cooking. 


Clean, wiping inside and outside with a damp towel. Tuck 
back the wings, and truss. Dust with salt, pepper and flour. 
If not fat, cover the breast with two thin slices of salt pork. 
Place duck in a baking-pan, and add one cup of water, and 
two tablespoons of fat. Bake in a very hot oven (500° F.) 
from fifteen to thirty minutes, according to rareness desired, 
basting frequently. Reduce the heat after fifteen minutes. 
Serve with slices of lemon or orange and a brown gravy or 
with olive sauce. Currant jelly may also be served. Wild 
ducks are served rare and are seldom stuffed when roasted. 
An old saying is that a young wild duck to be well cooked 
should only fly through a very hot oven. 


This bird is in season from the last of November until March. 
As it feeds mainly on wild celery, it requires no spices in cook- 
ing. Its flavor is best preserved by roasting quickly in a very 




hot oven (500° F.) so that it will be brown on the outside 
and underdone on the inside. Dress it in the usual way and 
wipe with a wet towel. Truss its head under the wing, place in 
a dripping-pan and roast one-half hour, or twenty minutes if 
liked underdone, basting often. Reduce the heat after fifteen 
minutes. Season with salt and pepper and pour over it the 
gravy in the baking-dish. 


These ducks, in season during the Fall and Winter, are very 
dry when roasted. They are good if stuffed with bread stuffing-, 
then well sewed up, tied in shape and placed in a large kettle 
with a couple of slices of onion, a little thyme, and a small 
quantity of water and cooked slowly for one hour. Turn the 
bird frequently during the cooking; replenish the water if 
necessary, but use only enough to keep the ducks from burn- 
ing. Make a gravy from the juices in the kettle by adding one 
cup of water and thickening with flour. Pour this gravy over 
the ducks when served. Dressed in this way all parts are 
equally good. 


Venison is prepared and cooked in the same way as mutton. 
The roasting pieces are the saddle and the leg. It should be 
served underdone, allowing ten to twelve minutes to the pound, 
for cooking, and served with tart jelly and green salad. 


Leg of venison % cup fat 

Fat salt pork Flour 

Salt and pepper 

Wipe carefully, and draw off the dry skin. Lard the lean 
side of the leg with strips of the pork, then soften the fat, rub 
it over the meat, and dredge with salt, pepper and flour. Lay 
the leg on the rack in a baking-pan, sprinkle the bottom of the 
pan with flour, place it in a very hot oven (500° F.) and 
watch carefully until the flour in the pan is browned, which 
should be in £Lve minutes. Add boiling water to cover the bot- 
tom of the pan Baste the venison v/ell every fifteen minutes, 


until the meat is done, renewing the water in the pan as often 
as necessary. Reduce the heat after fifteen minutes. If a double 
roasting-pan is used, basting is not necessary. 

Most tastes require at least an hour and three-quarters for 
cooking a ten-pound roast; but if the meat is liked very rare, 
allow only an hour and a quarter. Serve with a gravy made 
from the juices in the bottom of the pan. Always serve a tart 
jelly like currant or wild grape or plum jelly with venison. 


Venison steak Currant jelly 

Salt and paprika Possibly salad oil and 

Butter lemon-juice 

This requires about three minutes more time for broiling 
than beefsteak. If strong, marinate in salad oil and lemon- 
juice for two hours before cooking. Drain without wiping, 
and broil over clear, hot coals, turning often to avoid scorch- 
ing. Serve on a very hot platter, sprinkle with salt and paprika 
and spread both sides with a mixture of butter and currant 
jelly, allowing half as much jelly as butter. 


Venison steak Rolled crackers 

Salt and pepper Yz cup fat 

Flour 1 tablespoon currant jelly 

Rub the steak with a mixture of salt and pepper, dip in wheat 
flour or cracker meal and cook a rich brown on both sides in 
one-half cup of hot fat. Place on a dish and cover to keep 
warm. Dredge two teaspoons of flour into the fat in the pan 
and stir until brown (but not burned), add a cup of boiling 
water with one tablespoon of currant jelly dissolved in it, stir 
a few minutes, strain the gravy, pour it over the meat and 

Rabbits, Hares and Squirrels 

Choose rabbits with soft ears and paws — stiffness is a sign of 
age. Also, be sure that they are fresh and free from any un- 
pleasant odor. Neither hares nor rabbits should be drawn be- 
fore hanging, as they may become musty. In Winter, select a 
dry place for hanging, and they may remain for some time. 


Dressing and Trussing 

To skin and dress a rabbit, hare or squirrel, cut off the fore 
feet at the first joint, cut the skin around the first joint of the 
hind leg, loosen it and then with a sharp knife slit the skin on 
the under side of the leg at the tail. Loosen the skin and turn 
it back until it is removed from the hind legs. Tie the hind 
legs together and hang the rabbit to a hook by this fastening. 
Draw the skin over the head, slipping out the fore legs when 
they are reached. Cut off the head and thus remove the entire 
skin. Wipe with a damp cloth. Remove the entrails, saving 
heart and liver, and wipe carefully inside. If it requires wash- 
ing inside, use water acidified with vinegar. 

Before cooking, soak in tepid water for a time. If blood has 
settled in any part, cut with the point of a knife where it is 
black and soak in warm water; this will draw out the blood. 

Skewer firmly between the shoulders, draw the legs close 
to the body and fasten with skewers. 


Hare or rabbit Salt and pepper 

Forcemeat or stuffing Beef -drippings or other fat 

Wipe the hare or rabbit dry, fill it with good forcemeat or 
stuffing, sew up and firmly truss it. Season well with salt and 
pepper and roast. Baste well with beef-drippings, butter 
or other fat. A thin piece of beef-suet skin may be tied over 
the back for the first three-quarters of an hour and then re- 
moved. One and three-quarters hours is the full time for roast- 
ing a medium-sized hare at 500° F. for the first fifteen minutes 
and 3 50° F. for the rest of the time. Serve with brown gravy 
and currant jelly. 


Hare or rabbit Butter 

Salt and pepper 

Skin and clean the rabbit or hare, wipe dry, split down the 
back, and pound flat; then wrap in oiled paper. Any tough 
white paper may be oiled. Place on a greased gridiron and 
broil over a clear, brisk fire, turning often. Remove the paper 


and serve on a hot platter, seasoned with plenty of salt, pepper 
and butter, turning over and over so it will take up the fat. j 
The oiled paper is not essential but results in a juicier product. \ 


Hare or rabbit Flour 

Egg Milk or cream 

Bread-crumbs Salt and pepper 

Dress as directed and put into boiling water. Boil ten min- 
utes and drain. When cold, cut into joints, dip into beaten 
egg, then in bread-crumbs and season with salt and pepper. 
Saute in any good fat over a moderate fire. Thicken the gravy 
with the flour and pour in milk or cream, boil up once and 
pour over the rabbit. Garnish with sliced lemon. 


1 hare or rabbit 2 cups water 

1 slice onion 1 teaspoon salt 

1 stalk celery 1 tablespoon "Worcestershire 

1 bay- leaf sauce 

2 tablespoons oil 1 tablespoon capers 
2 tablespoons fat 12 stoned olives 

2 tablespoons flour Chopped parsley 

Clean and dress as directed and place in a baking-pan. Add 
onion, celery cut fine, and bay-leaf, brush with oil, then bake at 
450° F. for thirty minutes. Lift the meat from the pan, add 
the fat and the flour and stir until a rich brown. Add hot 
water, stir well, and when smooth, add salt, Worcestershire 
sauce, capers and olives. Lay the meat again in the pan, cover 
closely and bake at 3 50° F. for thirty minutes. Dish the game, 
strain the sauce over the meat, arrange the olives as a garnish, 
sprinkle the whole with finely chopped parsley and serve. 


Dress as directed and divide into pieces suitable for serving, 
cutting the back into three parts. Immerse in salted water for 
one-half hour, wipe dry, and then rub with lemon- juice, salt 
and pepper. If the rabbit is very plump, gash the thickest part 
several times, allowing the seasoning to penetrate. Follow di- 
rections given for game pie. 



Hare or rabbit 1 teaspoon salt 

3 tablespoons fat % teaspoon pepper 

4 tablespoons flour Garlic, if liked 

Rub the frying-pan with garlic, if it is not objectionable. 
Dress and cut up the rabbit and cook in the fat in a frying- 
pan until brown. Remove the meat from the pan, stir the 
flour into the fat, add two cups hot water, salt and pepper, and 
let it come to a boil, stirring it constantly. Place the meat in 
a baking-dish, pour the gravy over it, cover closely and bake in 
the oven or fireless cooker (350° F. ) until tender. 

If the garlic is not used, a teaspoon of currant jelly may be 
added to the gravy before serving. 


Squirrels Pepper and salt 

Salad oil Onion-juice 

Lemon-juice or tarragon Oil 

vinegar Brown stock 

1 cup bread-crumbs Worcestershire sauce 

Cream Paprika 
1 cup button mushrooms 

Clean the squirrels thoroughly, wash in several waters and 
cover with salad oil mixed with lemon -juice or tarragon vine- 
gar. Let stand for an hour on a platter. Soak a cup of bread- 
crumbs in just enough cream to moisten them, add a cup of but- 
ton mushrooms cut in dice, pepper, salt and onion-juice. Stuff 
each squirrel with this mixture, sew and truss as you would a 
fowl. Rub with oil, place in a dripping-dish, and partly cover 
with brown stock diluted with a cup of boiling water. When 
the squirrels are well roasted, make a gravy out of the liquor 
in the pan, by adding a teaspoon of "Worcestershire sauce, and 
paprika, salt and lemon-juice to taste. 



2 squirrels 6 potatoes 

1 tablespoon salt 1 teaspoon pepper 

1 minced onion 2 teaspoons sugar 

1 pint Lima beans 1 quart sliced tomatoes 

6 ears corn y^ pound butter 

Yz pound salt pork 

This dish is named for a county in Virginia and is a favorite 
dish in that section of the country. It is served in soup-plates. 

Cut the squirrels in pieces, as for fricassee. Add the salt to 
four quarts of water and when boiling add the onion, beans, 
corn, pork, potato, pepper and the squirrels. Cover closely and 
simmer for two hours, then add the sugar and tomato, and sim- 
mer one hour more. Ten minutes before removing the stew 
from the fire, add the butter, cut into pieces the size of a wal- 
nut and rolled in flour. Boil up, adding salt and pepper if 
needed, and turn into a tureen. 


Opossum is very fat with a peculiarly flavored meat. To 
dress, immerse in very hot water (not boiling) for 1 minute. 
Remove and use a dull knife to scrape off hair so that skin is 
not cut. Slit from bottom of throat to hind legs and remove 
entrails. Remove head and tail if desired. Wash thoroughly 
inside and out with hot water. Cover with cold water to which 
has been added 1 cup salt. Allow to stand overnight; in the 
morning drain off the salted water and rinse with clear, boil- 
ing water. 

Make stuflSng as follows: Brown 1 large, fine-chopped onion 
with 1 tablespoon butter. Add chopped opossum liver and cook 
until tender. Add 1 cup bread crumbs, a little chopped red 
pepper, a hard-cooked egg, finely chopped, dash Worcestershire 
sauce, salt and water to moisten. Stuff opossum with mixture, 
fastening the opening with skewers or by sewing. With 2 table- 
spoons water roast in moderate oven (350° F.) until meat is 
tender and richly browned. Baste constantly with the opossum's 
own fat. Remove skewers or stitches, serve on heated platter. 
Skim fat from gravy and serve with baked yams or sweet 


QTUFFING does not necessarily have to be baked in the fowl 
^ or meat. If the bird is small or if there is some stuffing left 
over, it may be baked or steamed in a well-greased ring mold, 
loaf pan or individual molds. Fill center of ring with vegetables. 
Croquettes of stuffing, made by the usual method, are served in 
a circle around the bird. 

No. 1. 

114 cups bread-crumbs y^ teaspoon pepper 

y^ cup butter or other fat 1 egg 

1 teaspoon salt 

Moisten the bread-crumbs with the egg slightly beaten and 
the melted fat. Season and mix well. This makes a rich, moist 

No. 2. 

2 to 3 tablespoons melted fat 1 to 2 tablespoons milk or 
1 tablespoon chopped onion stock 

1 cup dry bread-crumbs Yz teaspoon each sage, chopped 

1 teaspoon salt celery, parsley 

54 teaspoon pepper 

Melt the fat in the frying-pan; add the onion, and saute 
until tender. Add the bread-crumbs and seasonings and mix 
well. Then add the milk or stock. This makes a loose, light 
stuffing much preferred by many to the soft moist or compact 
type. It can be varied by leaving out the onion or the sage, 
by adding chopped celery or by adding two tablespoons of 
seeded raisins. 



No. 3. 

Yz cup milk 54 teaspoon pepper 

2 cups grated bread-crumbs J4 teaspoon thyme 

1 Yz tablespoons melted fat Yz teaspoon powdered sage 

1 t^'g Y2 teaspoon chopped onion 

Yz teaspoon salt J4 teaspoon summer savory 

Pour the milk on the crumbs and let stand about one hour, 
then add the seasonings, the fat, and the t^g slightly beaten. 


1 cup cracker-crumbs % teaspoon pepper 

2 tablespoons butter or other Ya teaspoon salt 

fat Ya teaspoon poultry seasoning 

Y4 cup boiling water 

Melt the fat and mix with the crumbs. Add the water, and 
then the seasonings. When this stuffing is used, a greater allow- 
ance than usual must be made for swelling. 


2 cups hot mashed potato 1 teaspoon sage 

1 cup bread-crumbs 4 tablespoons melted butter or 
Yz teaspoon pepper other fat 

Yz tablespoon salt 2 tablespoons onion-juice 

Mix the ingredients in the order given. 


2 cups chopped celery 1 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons fat Y2 teaspoon pepper 

2 cups stale bread-crumbs 

Chop the celery fine. Melt the fat, add the crumbs and mix 
well. Add the celery, salt and pepper. 


2 cups oysters 2 cups dry bread-crumbs 

1 teaspoon salt Ya cup fat 

Ya teaspoon pepper 

Mix the oysters well with the bread-crumbs and seasoning, 
and add the melted fat. 



4 cups stale bread, I/2 ^^^^ 1 teaspoon paprika 

cubes 1 pimiento 

% cup celery, finely chopped Dash cayenne 

% cup pineapple, small ll/^ teaspoons salt 

pieces % ^^P butter 

1/2 cup walnuts, chopped fine 2 eggs 

Combine bread, celery, walnuts, pineapple, pimiento, and 
seasoning. Melt butter, remove from heat, stir in unbeaten 
eggs, add to bread mixture. Toss lightly. Use as stuffing for 
turkey, chicken, duck, veal roll, lamb chops or pork chops. 
Substitute crisp bacon cut in small pieces for nuts, reduce salt 
one-third and add grated onion, or substitute red or green bell 
pepper for pimiento. 


Yz pound sausage-meat 1 tablespoon onion-juice 

2 cups dried bread-crumbs 1 tablespoon minced parsley 

Salt and pepper 

Mix sausage and crumbs, then add seasonings. 


3 cups stale bread-crumbs 2 teaspoons salt 

6 tablespoons butter or other Yz teaspoon powdered thyme 

fat 1 teaspoon minced parsley 
Yz cup chopped mushrooms 

Mix ingredients in the order given. 


1 cup milk 4 cups cold boiled rice 

1 cup soft bread-crumbs Y2 pound sausage 

1 chopped onion Sage 

1 tablespoon butter or other Parsley 

fat Sweet herbs 
Salt and pepper 

Pour the milk over the crumbs. Cook the onion in the fat 
until brown, then add the rice, the soaked crumbs, the sausage, 
and seasonings to taste. 



No. 1. 

1 quart chestnuts 1 tablespoon salt 

3 tablespoons butter 54 teaspoon pepper 

Shell and blanch chestnuts and boil one-half hour in water 
enough to cover them, then drain. Do not chop or mash. them. 
Add to them the butter, salt and pepper. 

No. 2. 

1 quart chestnuts 2 tablespoons cream 
5^ cup bread-crumbs Salt and pepper 

2 tablespoons butter or other Onion-juice, if desired 

Shell and blanch the chestnuts and cook in boiling water 
until tender. While they are still hot, rub them through a 
coarse sieve or colander. Add other ingredients in order given. 


2 cups stale bread crumbs 1^ cup broken walnut meats 

y^ cup butter, melted 1 teaspoon salt 

1/^ cup chopped seeded Yg teaspoon pepper 

raisins 1/^ teaspoon sage 

Mix ingredients together lightly with fork. Yield: 2% cups 


y^ cup chopped onion ^ pound sausage meat 

y^ cup butter 3 cups boiled wild rice 

1 cup chopped mushrooms 1 teaspoon salt 

Saute onion in 2 tablespoons butter 5 minutes, or until lightly 
browned, and remove from pan; add remaining 2 tablespoons 
butter and mushrooms, and cook 5 minutes, then remove from 
pan. Fry sausage meat until lightly browned, stirring constantly; 
remove from heat and stir in onion and mushrooms; add wild 
rice and salt, mixing lightly. This makes a light goose stuffing. 
Yields 5 cups stuffing or enough for 1 (10 lb.) goose. 




SAUCES add variety to the diet, make foods more attractive 
to the eye and to the palate, and thus stimulate appetite, 
aid digestion and improve nutrition. 


Methods of combining flour or corn-starch with liquids are 
given in the front of the book. (See Index.) The simplest 
method of thickening sauces is by means of a roux. Equal parts 
of fat and flour make the best roux. If much more fat than 
flour is used, the fat rises to the top of the mixture. If less fat 
than flour is used, the paste may burn. Therefore, if more fat 
than flour is required in the sauce, it should be beaten in in small 
pieces after the liquid is added and just before the sauce is 
served; if less fat than flour is required, it is better not to make 
it into a roux but to use another method of thickening the 

All sauces thickened with corn-starch should be cooked for at 
least fifteen minutes. Standing over hot water in a double 
boiler for an hour or longer improves the flavor. Sauces 
thickened with flour are better if cooked for at least five minutes 
after thickening. The seasonings should be added just before 
the sauce is served. 

To Make a Roux 

For a White Sauce — The American method of making a 
roux for white sauce is to melt the fat, add the flour and cook 
only until the, mixture bubbles before adding the liquid. This 
saves time, but at the expense of the flavor of the sauce. The 
French method is to melt the fat, add the flour and cook, with 
constant stirring, for £.Ye minutes, before; adding any liquid. 
This removes the raw taste of the flour. 

For a Brown Sauce — Melt the fat and allow it to brown 



before adding flour, then stir in the flour and stir constantly, 
until the flour is brown. The color depends on this browning, 
but care must be taken not to scorch This long preliminary 
cooking is the secret of a successful brown sauce. Tomato juice 
or sauce may be used as liquid. 


Thin White Sauce. 

For cream soups 

1 tablespoon butter or other 1 cup milk 
fat % teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon flour 1/^ teaspoon pepper 

Medium White Sauce. 

For gravies, sauces, creamed and scalloped dishes 

2 tablespoons butter or other 1 cup milk 

fat 14 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons flour y^ teaspoon pepper 

Thick White Sauce. 

For cutlets, croquettes and souffles 

4 tablespoons butter or other 1 cup milk 

fat y^ teaspoon salt 

4 tablespoons flour I/3 teaspoon pepper 

Use method 1 or 2 for making these sauces. 

Method 1 — Melt butter, blend in flour until smooth. Add 
milk gradually, stirring constantly until boiling point is reached. 
Reduce heat and cook for 3 minutes longer; add seasonings and 
blend. Place over hot water to keep hot and cover tightly to 
prevent film from forming. 

Method 2 — Heat milk. Blend butter or other fat and flour 
together and add to hot milk, stirring constantly until mixture 
thickens. Cook for 3 minutes longer, add seasonings and blend. 

Method 3 — When less butter than flour is used, heat % of 
the milk; mix remaining milk with flour to make a smooth 
paste; stir into hot milk, heat to boiling and cook until thickened, 
stirring constantly. Add butter or other fat and seasonings and 
cook for 3 minutes. 



Use 1 cup mediura white sauce as the basis for each sauce. 

Caper Sauce — Add 2 to 4 tablespoons chopped capers. 

Celery Sauce — Add Yi cup chopped cooked celery. 

Cheese Sauce — Add 2 to 4 ounces grated cheese. Set over 
hot water and stir until the cheese is blended with sauce. Season 
to taste with mustard and paprika. 

Cream Gravy — Use 2 tablespoons meat drippings for butter 
in white sauce recipe. 

Cream Sauce — Use cream instead of milk in white sauce. 

Egg Sauce, No. 1 — Add 1 hard-cooked q^^, chopped. 

No. 2 — Beat an uncooked t^^, dilute with 1 tablespoon of 
hot thin white sauce, then beat this into the remainder of a cup 
of sauce. If the egg white is beaten separately, the sauce will be 

Lobster Sauce — Add }^ cup finely flaked cooked lobster. 

Mock LIollandaise Sauce — Pour sauce over 2 slightly 
beaten q^^ yolks, 2 tablespoons each of butter and lemon juice, 
beat thoroughly and serve immediately. 

Mushroom Sauce — Add /4 to J/^ cup chopped or sliced 
cooked mushrooms to sauce. 

Olive Sauce — Add J4 cup chopped ripe or stuffed olives. 

Oyster Sauce — Heat 1 pint small oysters in their own 
liquor to boiling point. Remove from heat after they have 
cooked y2 minute and combine with sauce. Season to taste. 

Parsley Sauce — Add 2 to 4 tablespoons chopped parsley. 

PiMiENTO Sauce — Add 2 tablespoons minced onion and 
6 tablespoons minced pimiento. Onion may be browned in fat 
when making white sauce, if desired. 

Shrimp Sauce — Add Yz cup chopped cooked shrimp. 

SouBiSE Sauce — Rub 4 boiled onions and 2 sprigs parsley 
through a coarse sieve. Combine with sauce. 

Tomato Cream Sauce — Cook 1 cup fresh or canned toma- 
toes, 1 stalk celery, 1 slice onion, Yz teaspoon salt and a few 
grains cayenne together for 20 minutes. Rub through a sieve. 
Add gradually, stirring constantly, to white sauce. 

Veloute Sauce — Use 1 cup well-seasoned white stock for 
milk in thin or medium white sauce. 

Yellow Sauce — Add hot sauce to 1 or 2 slightly beaten Q^g 
yolks and beat thoroughly. 

310 ______ 


No. 1. 

Use one-half cup of meat stock instead of half of the milk 
in medium or thin white sauce. If an acid flavor is desired, add 
one teaspoon of lemon juice to each cup of sauce. 

No. 2. 

1 small onion ]/4 cup chopped lean raw ham 

2 tablespoons fat 4 tablespoons flour 
1 pint milk 

Slice the onion, place the fat in a saucepan and slightly brown 
the onion and ham in it. Add the flour and, when well mixed, 
the milk. Stir until it boils, then cook over hot water for ten 
minutes or longer. Add seasonings, strain and use. 


White — Soak one tablespoon gelatin in cold water and add 
to one cup of hot veloute sauce. Mix well; strain, if necessary; 
let cool and use to coat cold meats. 

Brown — Use a brown roux and brown stock in making the 

Yellow — Add the beaten yolks of two eggs to white chaud- 
froid sauce just before removing from the fire. 


6 tablespoons sugar 1 cup orange juice 

^ tablespoon cornstarch Grated rind 1 orange 

1 cup water y^ cup crushed pineapple 

Combine ingredients in the order listed. Heat to boiling and 
cook for 3 minutes. Serve with ham or tongue. 
Brown sugar may be used in place of granulated. 
Add 54 cup raisins and cook until they puff. 


1 cup veloute sauce 2 egg yolks 

1 cup cream 

Slowly add, with constant stirring, the veloute to the Qg% 
yolks, beat in the cream and reheat over hot water. Beat well 


and serve at once. It is improved by adding, a little at a time, 
one tablespoon butter, the juice of half a lemon, a tablespoon 
of chopped parsley and a dash of nutmeg. 


1 cup cold water Yz tablespoon flour 
4^ tablespoons butter Juice of 1 lemon 

Make a sauce of one-half cup cold water, one-half tablespoon 
butter and the flour. When the mixture boils, stir in quickly 
four tablespoons butter and add, by degrees, another one-half 
cup of cold water to keep the mixture from boiling. Stir in 
the juice of a lemon and strain. It must be served at once and 
hot. It becomes oily if kept long. One tablespoon of chopped 
parsley may be added. 


Yj, cup butter 1 pint boiling water 

4 tablespoons flour Ya teaspoon salt 

Make a roux of four tablespoons of the butter and all of the 
flour. Gradually add the boiling water, stirring constantly 
over hot water, until the sauce comes to the boiling-point. 
Simmer until it is thick and smooth. When ready to serve, add 
salt and the remaining butter in small bits, beating constantly. 


2 cups drawn-butter sauce 2 egg-yolks 

1 tablespoon lemon-juice Salt and pepper 

1 tablespoon chopped parsley 

Add the lemon-juice and chopped parsley to the drawn-but- 
ter sauce. Let it cool slightly, add the beaten yolks and season 
with salt and pepper. Do not permit the sauce to boil after 
the addition of the egg-yolk. 


Follow the recipe for maitre d'hotel sauce, omitting the 
parsley and adding three tablespoons capers. This is excellent 
with fish. 

(For another recipe for caper sauce, see Variations of White Sauce, page 309.) 


^2 cup chopped pickles 2 cups drawn butter sauce 

To the drawn butter sauce add pickles, cut into tiny cubes 
of a uniform size and well drained. Boil for one minute. Serve 
with fish or chops. 


2 ^gg yolks 14 teaspoon salt 

1/^ cup butter Dash cayenne 

1 tablespoon lemon juice 

Place yolks with 54 of the butter in top of a double boiler. 
Keep water in bottom of boiler hot but not boiling. Stir eggs 
and butter constantly; when butter melts add another portion 
and as it melts and the mixture begins to thicken add remaining 
butter. Keep stirring all the time. As soon as mixture is thick, 
remove from heat and add seasonings. The sauce is delicious 
served over vegetables. Should sauce separate, beat in 2 table- 
spoons boiling water, drop by drop. Makes 1 cup sauce. 

Increase lemon juice to 1 ^ tablespoons. 

With Water — Cream butter, add ^gg yolks 1 at a time, 
blending each one in thoroughly. Add remaining ingredients 
and beat. Just before serving add ^ cup boiling water grad- 
ually, beating constantly. Cook over hot water, stirring con- 
stantly until thickened. Serve at once. 

"With Anchovy — Season sauce with anchovy paste. 

With Sherry — Just before serving sauce, add 2 tablespoons 
sherry, drop by drop, beating constantly. 


4 tablespoons fat 1 tablespoon tarragon vinegar 

Yolks 4 eggs 1 teaspoon onion juice 

1/2 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon chopped tarragon 

1/2 teaspoon pepper 1 teaspoon chopped parsley 

Stir the fat until perfectly soft and creamy. Place the Qg% 
yolks and the salt and pepper in the top of a double boiler and 
beat light with an ^gg beater, then add one-third of the fat and 
beat until smooth, add another third and beat again, and then 
add the remainder and beat until all is perfectly smooth. Add 
the vinegar and onion juice and beat again. Place over boiling 


water and cook for three minutes, beating constantly with the 
egg-beater. Remove from the fire, put in the chopped parsley 
and tarragon and use immediately. 


Yz teaspoon fine chopped 1 teaspoon lemon-juice 

shallot 1 teaspoon meat extract or 

1 tablespoon tarragon vinegar one meat cube 

J/3 cup butter, washed (p. 591) 1 tablespoon grated horse- 
Yolks of two Q.^^s radish 

Cook the shallot in the vinegar for iisfo. minutes. Wash the 
butter and divide, it into thirds. Add one of the thirds to the 
vinegar, with the egg-yolks, lemon-juice and meat extract. 
Cook over hot water, stirring constantly. As soon as the butter 
is melted, add the second piece, and then the third piece. 
When the sauce thickens, add the grated horseradish. 


Giblets and neck of fowl 2 tablespoons flour 

2 tablespoons chicken fat Salt and pepper 

Place the giblets (liver, heart and gizzard) and the neck in 
a saucepan and cove^ them with cold water. Simmer slowly 
and when they are tender remove the flesh from the neck and 
chop it fine with the giblets. Save the stock in which the giblets 
and neck were cooked. Heat the fat in a small saucepan on 
top of the stove and when it is hot stir in the flour. Cook two 
minutes, them add one cup of the stock pouring it in gradually 
so that it will not thin the gravy too much. If the gravy seems 
too thick, add a little, hot water. Last, put in the chopped 
giblets and season to taste with salt and pepper. 


1 cup stale bread-crumbs 1 onion 

2 cups milk 3 tablespoons butter 
Salt Pepper 

This sauce is generally served with small birds. It may be 
served with roast chicken or duck. The crumbs must be entirely 
white. Sift them through a coarse sieve, place the ones that 
pass through in the milk, add the onion and place in a stew- 


pan on the fire to cook. Cook for twelve minutes, remove the 
onion and add one tablespoon of butter with salt and pepper 
to taste. 

Browned Crumbs — Place the remaining butter on the fire 
in a frying-pan, add the coarse bread-crumbs and fry them 
until brown, being careful to have the fat very hot before 
putting in the crumbs. Stir vigorously for two or three min- 
utes, but do not allow the crumbs to burn. Serve the sauce in 
a gravy-dish and sprinkle with the browned crumbs. 


1 tablespoon chopped onion 2 tablespoons flour 

2 tablespoons fat 1 cup brown meat stock 
Pepper Salt 

Brown the onion and fat. Add the flour and make a brown 
roux (See Index). Pour in the brown stock and cook with 
constant stirring until the sauce thickens. Strain to remove 
the particles of onion, and season with pepper and salt. If the 
roux was not sufficiently brown to make the? sauce a desirable 
color, a few drops of vegetable flavoring or of Worcestershire 
sauce may be added. If a more highly flavored sauce is desired, 
add a slice of carrot, a sprig of parsley, a little thyme and a few 
peppercorns to the onion, and brown in the fat. 

No. 2 — In making brown sauce for a roast, the simplest way 
is to use the fat and juice of the roast. Add two tablespoons 
of flour to two tablespoons of the hot drippings, stir and cook 
well. Then add one cup of boiling water, stir well to avoid 
lumps, and season to taste with salt and pepper. If liked, add 
a tablespoon or two of catchup or a flavoring of Worcester- 
shire or other sauce. 


2 small onions Butter or other fat 

1 carrot Flour 

Small piece of lean beef, size Pepper 

of eggy or 1 beef cube or Salt 

1 teaspoon beef extract Catchup 

Cut up onions and carrot, place them with the lean beef or 
extract in a stew-pan with the fat and brown all together. Add 
enough water to cover the mixture and stir slowly until the 


vcjgetables are cooked. Strain, thicken with flour, using two 
tablespoons to each cup of liquid, and add pepper, salt and 
catchup. Color brown with caramel or vegetable flavoring if 


1 onion 1 stalk celery 

1 tablespoon fat 1 bay-leaf 

1 tablespoon flour 2 tablespoons vinegar 

Yz cup currant jelly 2 cups stock 

Slice the onion and cook in the fat till it begins to color, 
the^ add the flour and herbs and stir until brown. Add the 
vinegar and the stock and simmer twenty minutes. Strain, 
skim off all the fat, put in the jelly and stir until it is melted. 
This sauce is used with game. 


4 tablespoons fat 1 cup mushrooms, fresh or 

4 tablespoons flour canned 

2 cups stock Salt and pepper 

Make a brown sauce of the fat, flour and stock. Add one 
cup mushrooms and cook until hot. If mushrooms are over- 
cooked they will become tough. Three or four minutes is 
sufficient for those that have been canned and five or six min- 
utes for fresh ones. 

This sauce is used with any kind of roasted, broiled or braised 
meat, particularly with beef. 


Yz cup minced onion 1 Y2 cups beef stock 

3 tablespoons fat 1 tablespoon minced parsley 

3 tablespoons flour 

Cook the onion with the fat until slightly browned. Stir in 
the flour, then add the stock and parsley, stirring constantly. 
Serve with beef. 



2 tablespoons butter or other 2 cloves 

fat 1 clove garlic 

2 onions 2 tablespoons flour 

2 carrots 1 cup beef or veal stock 

2 shallots Yz cup vinegar 

Thyme Salt and pepper 

1 tablespoon minced parsley- 
Melt fat, slice into it onions, carrots and shallots. Add a little 

thyme, minced parsley, cloves and clove of garlic. Let this 
mixture cook until the carrot is soft, then add flour. Let it 
cook for five minutes more, and add beef or veal stock and 
vinegar, skim, and strain through a sieve. Add salt and pepper 
when boiling. 


6 onions 1 tablespoon mushroom 

2 tablespoons fat catchup 

2 tablespoons flour Salt and pepper 

1 cup stock Mustard 

1 tablespoon lemon-juice 

Slice onions and saute them in the fat in a small saucepan 
until they are well browned; then add the flour, mushroom 
catchup, stock, salt, pepper and mustard to taste and the lemon- 
juice. This sauce may be served with both cold and hot meats. 


1 tablespoon fat 1 pint stock, milk or water 

2 teaspoons chopped onion 1 tablespoon flour 
1 teaspoon curry-powder Salt and pepper 

This sauce is used as a basis for many dishes. Cold meat or 
fish, oysters, hard-cooked eggs, canned or left over salmon, lob- 
ster, and shrimps, all may be heate,d in this sauce and a great 
variety of dishes is thus made possible. Have the fat hot and 
saute in it the chopped onion until a delicate brown, then add 
the curry-powder and stock or wate;:. Simmer for ten minutes 
and then stir in the flour that has been rubbed smooth in a 
tablespoon of cold water. Allow it to boil for a minute or two, 
stirring constantly. Strain and it is ready for use. 



2 tablespoons fat 2 tablespoons lemon-juice 

2 tablespoons flour 2 teaspoons chopped parsley 

1 cup chicken stock 

Place the fat in a frying-pan, over the fire, and when it is 
hot, add the flour. Stir well* When it is turning brown, add 
the chicken stock and boil for several minutes, stirring con- 
stantly. Then add the lemon-juice and the parsley. After 
the sauce has boiled up once, it is ready to serve. 


2 dozen olives 2 tablespoons flour 

2 tablespoons salad oil 1 pint stock 

1 slice onion Salt and pepper 
1 lemon 

Place the olives in an earthenware bowl, cover with hot water 
and let them remain for half an hour to draw out the brine. 
Place the oil in a frying-pan, and add the onion; when this 
commences to color, add the flour. Stir until smooth. After 
it has cooked for two minutes, add the stock, and regulate the 
heat so that the sauce will simmer gently. Pare the olives from 
the stones, round and round as though paring an apple, leaving 
the pulp in a single strip. If this is done carefully, the olives 
will coil back into shape. Place them in the sauce, add the 
seasoning and the juice of the lemon and simmer for twenty 
minutes. Skim carefully and serve. 


1 tablespoon minced lean raw 2 tablespoons flour 

ham Yz cup stock 

1 tablespoon chopped celery* Yz cup tomato- juice 

1 tablespoon chopped carrot Y2 teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon chopped onion Y& teaspoon pepper 

2 tablespoons fat 

Melt the fat. Add the ham and vegetables and cook until 
they are brown. Make a sauce of this mixture and the flour, 
salt, pepper and liquid. 



3 tablespoons fat Pepper 

1 tablespoon lemon- juice 1 teaspoon minced paisley 

1 teaspoon salt 2 cups Spanish sauce 

Whip together the fat, lemon- juice, salt, a pinch of pepper 
and minced parsley. Add the Spanish sauce, reheat, stir for 
a moment and serve. 


1 quart fresh or canned 3 tablespoons fat 

tomatoes 3 tablespoons flour 

1 slice onion Salt and pepper 
8 cloves 

Set the) tomatoes, onion and cloves on the fire and cook for 
twenty minutes. Brown the fat in the frying-pan, add the 
flour, and cook until smooth and brown, stirring constantly. 
Add the tomatoes, cook for three minutes, season with salt and 
pepper and pass through a strainer fine enough to hold back 
the seeds. This makes a very thin sauce. Use more flour if 
you prefer a thick sauce. 


2 slices bacon or small quan- 2 cloves 

tity uncooked ham Yz teaspoon peppercorns 

1 slice onion Few gratings nutmeg 
6 slices carrot ^ No. 2 can tomatoes 
Bay-leaf 5 tablespoons flour 

2 sprigs thyme 1^ cups brown stock 
Sprig parsley Salt and pepper 

1^ No. 1 can mushrooms 

Chop the bacon or ham, and cook with onion and carrot 
for iiYQ minutes. Add bay-leaf, thyme, parsley, cloves, pepper- 
corns, nutmeg, and tomatoes, and cook five minutes. Mix the 
flour with five tablespoons of cold water and rub out all the 
lumps; then add enough water so that the batter can be poured 
in a thin stream. Add to the sauce, stirring constantly. As 
the sauce thickens, dilute it with the stock. Cover, set in the 


oven (300° F.) and cook one hour. Strain, add salt and 
pepper to taste and the mushrooms, drained and cut in quarters. 
Then cook two minutes over direct heat. 


1 cup thin white sauce 1 tablespoon minced chervil 

% cup lemon-juice 1 tablespoon minced tarragon 

1 tablespoon tarragon vine- leaves 

gar 1 tablespoon minced chives 

1 tablespoon minced shallot 1 tablespoon butter 

While sauce is hot, add other materials, except butter. Keep 
hot five minutes, strain, beat in butter. Serve hot or cold. 


Place a piece of butter in a hot frying-pan and toss about 
until it browns. Stir browned flour into it until it is smooth 
and commences to boil. This is used for coloring gravies, 
sauces, etc. 


Spread flour on a pie-tin and place on the stove or in a very- 
hot oven (450° -5 00° F.). When it begins to color, stir con- 
stantly until it is evenly browned throughout. When cold, 
cork closely in jars. 


No. 1 — Boil one quart of consomme until it is reduced to one 
cup. For half-glaze, reduce it to one pint. 

No. 2 — Simmer a small amount of jellied stock with burnt 
sugar until it becomes like a sirup. 

No. 3 — To one cup brown stock, add one-half tablespoon 
gelatin soaked in four tablespoons water. The glaze should be 
melted over hot water and applied to meat, fish, game or 



1 quart cranberries 2 cups boiling water 

2 cups sugar 

Boil the sugar and water together for Hyq minutes. Remove 
any scum that may have formed. Add the cranberries and 
cook without stirring until they are thick and clear. 

No. 2 — Cook the cranberries and water together until the 
skins of the berries are broke;i. Add the sugar and simmer 
for five or ten minutes. Chill before using. 

No. 3 — If a strained sauce is desired, cook the cranberries 
and water as in No. 2 and rub through a sieve. Return the 
strained portion to the fire, add the sugar and simmer for £Ye 
or ten minutes. 


4 cups cranberries 5 allspice 

5 cloves 2 sticks cinnamon 

3 cups sugar 2 blades mace 

Pick over and wash the berries. Place in a saucepan and 
cover with cold water. Tie spices in a cheese-cloth bag and 
drop in with the berries. Cook until the berries burst. Re- 
move spices, add sugar, and cook until the mixture is clear. 


1 quart cranberries 2^ cups sugar 

1 cup water • 1 teaspoon almond flavoring 

Add cranberries to boiling water, cover and cook until the 
berries burst. Add sugar and boil a few minutes longer. Add 


4 quarts sweet cider 2 quarts apples 

By boiling it uncovered, reduce four quarts of new cider to 
two quarts. Pare, quarter and core the apples and simmer 
with the cider for four hours. Flavor with cinnamon, if de- 


No. 2. 

1 quart apples 1 cup sugar 1 cup water 

Pare, chop and place apples in a deep pudding-dish; sprinkle 
with sugar, and pour water over them. Bake in a slow oven 
(250°-350° F.) two hours or more^, until they are a rich red- 
brown. Serve with goose, pork or game. 


1 tablespoon powdered sugar J4 cup minced mint leaves 

Yz cup vinegar 

Dissolve sugar in vinegar. Pour this over minced mint 
leaves and set where it will keep warm but not hot. Allow it 
to infuse for half an hour. If vinegar is very strong, dilute 
with water. 


^ cup currant jelly 1 to 2 tablespoons chopped 

Shavings from orange-rind mint leaves 

Separate jelly into pieces, but do not beat it. Add chopped 
mint leaves and orange-rind shavings. Serve around roast. 


^ cup butter or other fat 2 tablespoons chili sauce 

1 sour pickle, finely chopped 4 slices lemon 

2 tablespoons chopped onion 1 teaspoon brown sugar 

2 tablespoons Worcestershire 1 green pepper, chopped fine 

sauce 1 cup vinegar 

Combine all ingredients and mix thoroughly. Place in a 
saucepan and simmer until butter or other fat melts, stirring 
constantly. Place in the top of a double boiler and keep warm 
until ready to use on barbecued meats or as a sauce for barbecued 
sandwiches. Makes 1% cups sauce. 

Barbecued Meats, beef, lamb, veal and pork in the form 
of roasts, chops or steaks are braised in this sauce. Chicken may 
also be used. 



2 cucumbers Salt and cayenne 

Yz cup stock Celery essence 

J/2 tablespoon vinegar 

Cut peeled cucumbers into very small pieces. Simmer until 
tender in a saucepan with stock, vinegar, salt, cayenne and a 
little celery essence. Celery-salt may be used instead of plain 
salt, if preferred. A bit of boiled onion and a little butter 
may be added also, if desired. Strain through a sieve. 


54 cup fresh butter Cayenne pepper 

1 teaspoon anchovy paste 

Melt the butter and stir in the anchovy paste and the cayenne 
pepper. Warm and stir thoroughly and serve with either boiled 
or fried fish. 


2 tablespoons butter 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 
1 tablespoon vinegar Yz teaspoon salt 

1 teaspoon lemon-jiiice ^ teaspoon pepper 

Place the butter in a frying-pan and when it is browned add 
the other ingredients. Boil up once and serve. This sauce is 
poured over fried fish or boiled fish just before serving. 


3 tablespoons butter 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 
J/2 to 1 tablespoon lemon- Yz teaspoon salt 

juice Yz teaspoon pepper 

Cream butter and add lemon-juice, chopped parsley, salt 
and pepper. This may be used to spread on fried or boiled fish 
or over potato balls. "When intended for potato balls, one-half 
tablespoon of lemon-juice will be enough. 


I lobster coral 3 tablespoons butter 

3 tablespoons chopped lobster Seasoning 

Lobster butter is used in lobster soups and sauces to give 
color and richness. Pound the coral of a lobster to a smooth 


paste with two tablqspoons of butter, add chopped lobster and 
remaining tablespoon of butter and pound again until all is 
reduced to a smooth paste, then rub through a fine sieve. If 
coral is not obtainable, the small claws may be pounded with 
the butter. 


1 tablespoon dry mustard 1 tablespoon vinegar 

Yz teaspoon sugar 1 tablespoon melted butter 

Y^ teaspoon salt Ya cup boiling water 

Mix dry ingredients, add liquids, mix well and serve. 


1 glass currant or grape 1 teaspoon dry mustard 

jelly 1 teaspoon salt 

Turn the currant or grape jelly out into a deep plate and 
beat it to a foam. Then add dry mustard and salt and beat 
again thoroughly. 


1 cup boiling water 1 tablespoon flour 
Juice and grated rind of one 1 tablespoon butter 

orange Yi cup seeded raisins 

Ya cup sugar 

Mix the dry ingredients, add boiling water and cook until 
clear. Add the orange- juice and rind, the raisins and the butter. 


2 hard-cooked egg-yolks 7 cups oil 

1 raw egg-yolk 1 teaspoon mustard 

3 tablespoons tarragon vinegar 54 teaspoon salt 

3 tablespoons cider vinegar 1 teaspoon parsley 

Put the cooked yolks of eggs through a coarse wire sieve, and 
then put thetm in z. dish with the raw yolk and the seasoning. 
Add two tablespoons of the vinegar and beat thoroughly isNt 
minutes. Next add the oil, one teaspoon at a time, beating 
the mixture two or three minutes at a time after each addition 
of oil. When five teaspoons have thus been added, the rest of 


the oil may be put in in larger quantities, three or four teaspoons 
at a time. Whenever the sauce becomes so thick that the 
beater turns hard, put in one-half tablespoon of vinegar. This 
sauce may be used for meat| for salads, or for such vegetables 
as asparagus, broccoli and artichokes. It may be varied by 
adding capers, minced gherkins and a dash of cayenne. There 
is not a great deal of difference between remoulade sauce and 


1 cup mayonnaise dressing 1 tablespoon chopped 

1 teaspoon onion-juice cucumber pickle 

1 tablespoon capers 

Make the mayonnaise rather more sour and with a little more 
mustard than for salad, and mix into it the capers, pickle and 
onion- juice. Set in the refrigerator until needed. It should be 
quite thick when served. 


1 teaspoon mustard Salt 

3 tablespoons cream Horseradish 

1 tablespoon vinegar 

Mix the first four ingredients and add as much grated horse- 
radish as needed to make it the desired thickness. 

No. 2. 

% cup heavy cream 1 tablespoon vinegar 

3 tablespoons grated horse- ^ teaspoon salt 

radish Sprinkle of cayenne or pepper 

Whip the cream stiff. Mix the other ingredients and beat 
them gradually into the whipped cream. Serve on baked ham. 


y^ pound butter y^ cup brown sugar 

1 teaspoon grated orange rind 

Cream the butter until light and fluffy. Add brown sugar 
gradually, beating the mixture to a light, fluffy mass. Stir in the 
grated orange rind. Use for waffles and pancakes. 



1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon chopped pickle 

54 teaspoon paprika 1 tablespoon chopped green 
Few grains pepper pepper 

1 tablespoon tarragon vinegar 1 teaspoon chopped parsley 

2 tablespoons cider vinegar 1 teaspoon chopped chives 
6 tablespoons olive oil 

Mix the ingredients in the order given. 


2 tablespoons chopped Salt and pepper 

onion 2 tomatoes or I/2 cup canned 

4 tablespoons minced green tomatoes 

pepper 1 cup bouillon 

2 tablespoons butter J4 ^P sliced mushrooms 

3 tablespoons flour 

Saute onion and pepper in butter 5 minutes; add flour and 
seasonings and stir until browned; add tomatoes and mushrooms 
gradually and cook 2 minutes; then add bouillon and heat to 
boiling. Serve with omelet, spaghetti and fish. Yield: 2 cups. 


3 tablespoons flour % cup tomato juice 

2 tablespoons butter ^ cup liquid drained from 

Y2 teaspoon salt stewed or canned mush- 

% teaspoon paprika rooms 

Dash of tabasco 2 tablespoons heavy cream 

Stir flour into melted butter; add seasonings and tabasco, 
then add tomato juice and mushroom liquor gradually and cook 
5 minutes, stirring constantly until smooth and thick. Add 
cream and blend. Serve on macaroni or spaghetti. Yield: IJ^ 
cups sauce. 


AN entree is a dish that is served as an independent course 
between two main courses of a meal. In an informal meal, 
an entree of protein food may be served as the main course. 

An entree is usually a "light" dish, small in bulk, and is often 
accompanied by a sauce which may or may not be an integral 
part of the dish. It may be served either hot or cold. Hot 
entrees are often accompanied by a hot sauce, such as Hol- 
landaise or maitre d'hotel; and cold entrees by cold sauces, 
— vinaigrette, tartar, etc. Ordinarily the hot entree precedes 
the roast and the cold entree follows it. 

Entrees may be made of a great number of foods — eggs in 
many attractive forms; fish of all kinds; meat, such as lamb, 
veal and tender cuts of fowl and beef, cooked by some method 
other than roasting; macaroni and spaghetti; some fruits; and 
many kinds of vegetables. 

Increasingly in America today vegetables are served as 
entrees. This is undoubtedly due to the fact that the eating 
habits of the nation have changed, because we have a growing 
knowledge of and interest in the food -values of vegetables and 
fruits. For luncheon and dinner now one vegetable is often 
raised to the dignity of becoming a course by itself. 

Hot Entrees 

Creamed Mixtures — These are the most simple and easily 
prepared of the hot entrees. Any well-seasoned creamed mix- 
ture may be use4. It must be kept hot and transferred at the 
last possible moment to the container in which it is to be served. 
This may be merely a slice of toast, an individual case such 
as a ramekin, patty shell or timbale case, or a border formed 
of bread, rice or potato. 

Forcemeats — ^These should have a smooth^ velvety texture. 
They call for more effort in preparation than any other type of 
entree. They are made of cooked or uncooked meat or fish 
in finely divided form, those made of the uncooked material 
being considered the more choice. Such foods as chicken and 



ham, shell fish and any fine white fish make typical forcemeats. 
Forcemeats may be use,d in combination with other materials 
or cooked alone to form cutlets and timbales. The cutlets are 
cooked in shallow, chop-shaped molds and the timbales in deep, 
straight sided molds. 

Croquettes — Croquettes are made of cooked and chopped 
ingredients held together, usually, by means of a thick sauce. 
When the mixture is cold, it is made into shapes of uniform 
size, which are coated with flour or sifted crumbs, then rolled 
in an egg mixture so that the egg forms a continuous film, then 
rolled in crumbs again. The egg mixture is made by adding 
two tablespoons of water or milk to each egg required, and beat- 
ing just enough to break up the white of the egg. The cro- 
quettes may be allowed to stand until dry or may be fried at 
once in deep hot fat. This is a good way to use left-over cooked 

Croquettes are made In the form of balls, rolls, cones, nests 
or cups, cutlets or flat cakes. Whatever shape is desired, it is 
usually easier to attain it by making the mixture into a ball 
first, thus insuring a compact mass from which the chosen 
form may be readily molded. 

Cutlets — ^This word, as used in this chapter refers to the 
form in which the food is cooked rather than to a distinct type 
of food. Sometimes cutlets are made by packing forcemeat 
into shallow, chop-shaped molds, but more often they are cro- 
quettes, cut or shaped to look like breaded chops or cutlets. 
The term may be extended to include boiled cereal, such as 
rice or cornmeal, which has been packed into a shallow dish, 
left until cold, and then cut into pieces, rolled in egg and crumbs 
and fried or sauted. 

Fritters — ^These may be composed of a piece; of fruit en- 
closed in a batter, then fried in deep hot fat and served with 
an appropriate sauce; or chopped fruit, chopped vegetable, or 
other chopped food, such as dams or lobster, stirred into the 
batter and fried by spoonfuls. 

Timbales — ^This term is sometimes used to describe force- 
meat cooked in straight-sided deep molds. More frequently 
perhaps it refers to sugarless custards cooked in timbale molds. 
In timbales of this type, where egg is the thickening agent, 
savory seasonings are used, and the milk which ordinarily forms 
an important component of custard is replaced in part or en- 
tirely by meat stock or vegetable puree. 



All timbales are cooked in molds of some sort; they are 
cooked by oven-poaching and are not browned. They are 
turned out of the molds before they are served. A circle of 
buttered paper laid in the bottom of the mold before it is filled 
insures perfect unmolding. 

Hot Souffles — These are the lightest of the entrees, being 
made' so by well-beaten egg-white folded into the seasoned 
foundation mixture. This may be simply a fruit puree or 
pulp; it may be a white sauce combined with egg-yolks and 
the characterizing ingredient; or it may be a panada made by 
cooking either cracker or bread-crumbs with milk and adding 
the prepared ingredient, this method being best for meat souffles. 
Souffles need the same careful baking given to egg timbales and 
are served in or from the baking-dish. The top should be 

Fillets — ^This type of entree is composed of a solid piece of 
meat or fish, and may comprise breasts or joints of poultry, 
chops, large oysters, scallops, crabs, fillets of fish and the first 
three cuts of beef tenderloin. These when used as entrees, 
may be cooked by broiling, sauteing, frying or oven-poaching, 
but never by roasting because the flavor and effect would be 
too much like that of the main course. 

Vegetable Entrees — ^Hot or Cold 

The following vegetables are suggested for service as en- 
trees: asparagus, cauliflower and broccoli, hot with HoUandaise 
or butter sauce, or cold with vinaigrette; tomato surprise, 
stuffed, for instance, with mushrooms; corn on the cob; mush- 
rooms; baked lima beans; long, thin string beans, not cut or 
split; large beets hollowed out and filled with bread crumbs 
and tiny peas or chopped carrots or both; stuffed peppers; 
egg plant; baked Hubbard squash, Brussels sprouts; braized 
celery or endive; cucumbers; and artichoke bottoms stuffed 
with forcemeat and baked. 

Cold Entrees 

Asi'ics — Aspic is a spiced tart jelly made from brown or 
white meat stock alone or in combination with gelatin. It is 
used to enclose a variety of foods in a mold or to give a trans- 
parent coating of shining, sparkling finish. Various foods may 


be molded in aspic — for instance, stuffed olives, plain or stuffed 
tomatoes, eggs, birds, beef tongue, chicken salad or a mousse. 

Aspics give ample opportunity to show inventiveness in de- 
sign, for they are usually elaborately decorated. Decorative 
shapes may be cut from pimiento, green or red pepper, olives, 
pickles, hard-cooked egg-white, yellow custard, parsley, truffles 
or cooked vegetables. Green peas and capers, alsoj are fre- 
quently used. 

Chaud Froids — ^For these dishes, the sauce is made up hot 
but the finished product is served cold. The sauce, which 
may be white, yellow or brown, and stiffened with gelatin, 
is used to give a smooth, glossy surface to eggs, cutlets, breast 
or other choice pieces of chicken, fish fillets, etc.^ all of which 
must be plainly cooked and well seasoned. A decoration is 
usual, also a final coating of aspic. 

Mousses — ^This term, used in connection with entrees, refers 
to a dish made of a meat, fish or vegetable puree stiffened 
with gelatin and made light by means of beaten cream. It 
is molded to give it shape, chilled^ then unmolded for serving. 

Cold Souffles — ^It is difficult to differentiate these from the 
mousses. About the only difference is the manner of serving. 
The mixture may be put into individual dishes of china, or 
paper cases, having paper bands pinned about the top to give 
greater height. When the mixture is chilled, the bands are 
removed. The mixture, extending above the edge of the, con- 
tainer, gives the effect of great lightness, thus simulating a 

Salads — Salads are not usually thought of as entrees, but 
in a formal menu are so considered. 

Borders and Cases 


Cut slices of bread from one to two inches thick. Remove 
the brown part of the crust. Cut each trimmed slice into 
two oblongs or two triangles, for large croustades, or into four 
squares or four triangles, for small croustades. Or shape the 
bread with cookie cutters into circles, diamonds, etc. Insert 
the point @f a sharp knife into the top of the shaped piece, one- 
half inch from the edge, and cut around the outline^ running 


the knife down to within one-half inch of the bottom. Insert 
the knife point horizontally through one side of the slice, one- 
half inch from the bottom, and cut out and remove the center^ 
leaving a box with half-inch walls and bottom. Fry these 
cases in deep fat, (375° -390° F.) or, if you prefer, brush 
them over with melted fat and set them in a moderate oven 
(350°-400° F.) to brown. 


Cook one cup of washed rice in white stock instead of in 
water. Drain well, mix with a thick white sauce, and spread 
in a greased pan to the depth of about two inches. Cover 
with oiled paper and place weights on top, so that the mix- 
ture may become very compact when cold. When it is per- 
fectly firm, cut it in circles,- make a cavity in the center of 
each, dip the case thus made in fine bread-crumbs, then in eggy 
and again in crumbs, and fry in deep fat (375°-390° F.). 


9 medium-sized potatoes 1 tablespoon salt 

2 tablespoons butter 2 eggs 
Yz cup hot milk 

Boil and rice the potatoes. Add remaining ingredients except 
54 teaspoon salt and the egg whites. Beat the mixture until very 
light. Pack into a border mold, well greased, and set in warm 
place eight minutes. Unmold onto an oven-proof platter. Beat 
egg whites, with remaining salt, to a froth, spread over the 
border and brown in a slow oven (300°-350° F.). 

Potato Timbales — Peel potatoes and cut into tiny strips 
lengthwise. Heat in a small amount of fat until slightly soft — 
don't brown. Remove, sprinkle with salt and arrange nests 
inside large deep muflSn tins, pressing firmly against sides and 
bottom. Bake in hot oven (450° F.) for 15 minutes. Use car- 
rots, parsnips, macaroni, spaghetti or fin« noodles instead of 
potatoes. ^j^^ BORDER 

1 cup rice 2 tablespoons butter or other 

3 cups white stock fat 

1 tablespoon salt 3 tablespoons milk or cream 

2 egg-yolks 

Cook washed rice in white stock for one-half hour, then 
add salt and butter or other fat and cook slowly twenty minutes 


more. Beat the yolks of the eggs with the cream or milk and 
stir in. Grease a border mold, pack the rice firmly into it, let 
it stand eight to ten minutes in a warm (not hot) place and 
turn out on a hot platter. Fill the center with any meat 
preparation warmed in sauce. 


1 egg ^2 cup flour 

10 tablespoons irradiated % teaspoon salt 

evaporated milk l^/^ teaspoons sugar 

Beat ^gg slightly. Add milk. Sift flour, then measure. Re- 
sift with salt and sugar into the ^gg and milk mixture. Stir 
until batter is smooth. It should be about the consistency of 
heavy cream. Use a deep, heart-shaped timbale iron. Dip in the 
hot fat to heat, then in the batter, being careful that the batter 
does not come up over the top of the iron. 

Have ready a small, deep kettle of fat, place the iron in it 
and heat until the fat is hot enough to brown a piece of bread 
while counting sixty (370° F.). The fat should be deep 
enough to cover the mold end of the iron. Take out the heated 
iron, remove surplus fat with a piece of absorbent paper and 
lower the iron into the batter until it is covered not more than 
three-fourths its height. This is necessary to allow for the 
rising of the batter during cooking. If only a thin layer of 
batter adheres to the iron, plunge it in again, and repeat if 
necessary until there is a smooth layer of partly cooked batter. 
Plunge it quickly into the hot fat and cook from two to three 
minutes. Remove from the fat, slip the case from the iron 
on to absorbent paper and continue until you have the required 
number of cases. 

A fluted iron is easier to work with than a plain one, be- 
cause the case does not slip off until thoroughly cooked. A 
properly cooked case, however, should slip easily from the 
mold. If the cases are not crisp, the Datter is too thick and 
should be diluted with milk. 

These cases may be filled with a creamed vegetable, creamed 
oysters, chicken or sweetbreads, or with fresh or cooked fruit 
topped with whipped cream or powdered sugar. When sweet 
fillings are used, they are served as a dessert. This recipe makes 
about 20 cases with an iron of average size. 



These are practically little turnovers, filled with a highly- 
seasoned mixture of chopped chicken and ham or other deli- 
cate meat moistened with white sauce. Roll puflF-paste very 
thin and cut in circlfe^. Place a teaspoon of the mixture in the 
center of each circle^ moisten half the circumference with cold 
water, and fold the other half over^ pressing the edges closely 
together. Dip in slightly beaten egg mixed with a tablespoon 
of water. Fry in deep fat (3 60° -370° F.) and drain 


iSmall pastry shells or cases filled with creamed meat or game 
are called bouchees, and are much in vogue for entrees. They 
provide an excellent way of utilizing left-overs of chicken, 
sweetbreads, fish, etc. Paper cases, bought at the confectioner's^ 
may be used instead of the pastry shells. 


Roll puff -paste to the thickness of one-half inch and with 
a cookie cutter shape circles two and one-half to three inches 
in diameter. With a tiny cutter, remove the centers from half 
of the circles. Brush the edges of the complete circles with 
water and lay the rings on top. Chill thoroughly? then bake 
in a hot oven (400° -450° F.) from fifteen to twenty minutes. 
At the same time, bake the small centers removed from the 
upper layers of the cases, and use them as lids for the filled 


A vol au vent is a large patty. The French name signifies 
something that will fly away in the wind. Roll out puff -paste 
one and one-half inches in thickness, and cut a circle about 
six inches in diameter, using a cutter or, with a sharp knife, 
cutting around the edge of a plate laid on the paste. Place the 
circle on a baking-tin andy with a sharp pointed knife or a 
snialler cutter, cut a circle around the top about one and one- 
half inches from the edge and about an inch deep. Do not 
remove the center but bake the entire circle in a large, flat pan 
in a hot oven (450°-500° F.) from thirty to fifty minutes. 












When the outer crust is cooked, Hft out the center, remove the 
uncooked paste from below, and the shell is ready to be filled. 
It may be filled with lobster meat, oysters, chicken, or any 
kind of dedicate meat or fish chopped and seasoned, and heated 
in Bechamel, white, brown or mushroom sauce, or with sweet- 
meats of any kind or fresh berries, sweetened. In using fish, 
always add one teaspoon of lemon-juicq to the mixture after it 
is taken from the fire. 

Creamed Mixtures 


Patty cases are usually made ahead of time and must be 
thoroughly heated before they are filled. To heat them, place 
them in a moderate oven (350°-400° F.) fifteen or twenty 
minutes before they are to be filled. 

Chicken — ^Fill hot patty cases with creamed chicken. 

Clam — Fill hot patty cases with creamed clams (See Index) . 

Lobster — ^Fill hot patty cases with creamed lobster. 

Sweetbread — ^Fill hot patty cases with creamed sweetbreads. 


2 cups cooked diced chicken 1 cup mushrooms, sliced 

2 tablespoons flour 1 cup chicken stock or milk 

2 tablespoons butter 1 cup sour cream or evapo- 

2 egg yolks rated milk 

1 green pepper, minced 4 teaspoons sherry 

1 pimiento, cut in thin strips Salt and pepper to taste 

Melt the butter, add the peppers and mushrooms and saute 
light yellow. Lift out. Blend the flour with the seasoned but- 
ter. Then add the chicken stock and cook till thickened. Add 
the chicken and, when hot, add the cream combined with the 
beaten egg yolks, the mushrooms, pepper and pimiento. Add the 
sherry and serve immediately. Do not cook after adding the 
eggs or the mixture may curdle. Stand over hot, not bubbling, 
water, if necessary. Use 1 can red salmon, boned and skinned. 



2 pounds uncooked chicken- 2 cups onions cut into threads 

breast cut into pieces one- 2 cups bamboo shoots cut 

sixteenth inch by one inch into pieces the same size 

by one-half inch as the chicken 

Bean sprouts equal in mea- 2 cups mushrooms sliced thin 

sure to the chicken Fat or oil 

Put the chicken meat, bean sprouts, onions, bamboo shoots 
and mushrooms into a frying-pan with a little fat or oil to 
prevent sticking and saute for ten minutes. Add hot water to 
cover and cook for fifteen minutes longer. Add Chinese gravy; 
season to taste; remove from fire and serve at once. 

Chinese Gravy — 

1 cup primary soup or Sugar Salt 

chicken stock 1 teaspoon Chinese sauce 

1 teaspoon corn-starch (can be bought ready pre- 

Sesamum seed oil pared) 

Mix the corn-starch in a little cold water, stir in the primary 
soup or chicken stock and let it boil until it thickens. Add the 
Chinese sauce, a few drops of sesamum seed oil and sugar and 
salt to taste. Stir well. 

Primary Soup — 

Yz pound lean pork 1 pint water 

Yz pound chicken 

Chop the meat into small pieces and simmer two and one- 
half hours, then strain through several folds of cheesecloth. 


1 pair sweetbreads 1 cup cream or milk 

2 dozen oysters 2 egg-yolks, hard cooked 
1 tablespoon fat Pepper and salt 

1 tablespoon flour Puff or plain pie-paste 

Prepare sweetbreads (see Index). Make a white sauce with 
fat, flour and cream or milk, and add the egg-yolks, chopped 
very fine. Add sweetbreads and prepared oysters to the sauce. 
Season, put into a deep baking-dish, cover with a layer of paste, 
and bake. 



1 dozen clams or oysters 1 dozen large mushrooms 

lYz cups milk 3 tablespoons butter 

3 tablespoons flour % teaspoon grated onion 

1 or 2 teaspoons anchovy Paprika 

paste Salt and lemon-juice 

Cut rounds of toast in two or two and one-half inch circles 
and arrange in a shallow baking-dish; place large peeled mush- 
room caps on the toast. Dip clams or oysters in melted butter 
seasoned with salt, lemon- juice and paprika and lay on mush- 
rooms, using enough butter to season mushrooms also. Bake 
in a moderate oven (375° F.), until mushrooms are tender and 
clams are cooked. Make a thin white sauce of milk, butter and 
flour, season with onion and anchovy and color with vegetable 
bouquet. Pour around the toast and serve. 


2 tablespoons fat 1 tablespoon anchovy paste 
1 tablespoon flour Yz teaspoon salt 

1 cup milk 6 slices of bread 

5 hard-cooked eggs 

Prepare a white sauce with fat, flour and milk, add eggs 
chopped fine^ anchovy paste and salt. Have the bread toasted 
and lay it on a hot dish. Pour the hot mixture over it and 
serve immediately. 

Croquettes or Cutlets 

1 cup cooked beef 1 egg 

2 cups mashed potatoes Flour or egg and crumbs 

Chop cold roast or corned beef fine and mix with well- 
seasoned hot mashed potatoes. Beat the egg, work it in with 
the mass and shape the mixture into little cakes. Roll either 
in flour, fine crumbs or egg and crumbs and fry in deep fat 
(375°-390* F.) from two to £.ye minutes. 



2 tablespoons fat 54 teaspoon celery salt 

^ cup flour 1 teaspoon lemon-juice 

1 cup milk Few drops onion-juice 
1^ cups cooked fowl 1 teaspoon chopped parsley- 
Salt and pepper Egg and crumbs 

Make a white sauce with the fat, flour and milk. Add fowl, 
seasoned with celery salt, lemon-juice, onion-juice, parsley, salt 
and pepper. Cool, shape, dip into flour or fine crumbs, then into 
egg and again into crumbs, and fry in deep fat (375°-390° F.) 
from two to five minutes. White meat of fowl absorbs more 
sauce than dark meat. 

No. 2. 

2 cups cooked chicken Yz teaspoon onion-juice 
4 tablespoons chopped 1 tablespoon lemon-juice 

mushrooms 2 tablespoons fat 

1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon flour 

Yz teaspoon pepper 1 cup milk or cream 

1 teaspoon parsley 4 eggs 

Mix the chicken, mushrooms, salt, pepper, parsley and the 
onion and lemon-juice. Make a white sauce with the fat, flour 
and milk or cream. Add the chickeoi, and cook for three 
minutes. Stir in two of the eggs beaten until light. Take from 
the fire immediately, pour into a greased, flat dish and set in a 
cold place for an hour or so. The colder the mixture becomes, 
the better it may be handled. Shape into cutlets, either in molds 
or with a knife, and sprinkle both sides of each cutlet with fine 
crumbs. Beat the other two eggs in a deep plate. Dip the cutlets 
in the egg, then in crumbs, put them in a frying-basket, not 
crowding them, and cook in deep fat (375°-390° F.) from two 
to five minutes. Serve with Bechamel or mushroom sauce. 


(See Index.) 


Follow recipe for lobster croquettes, using crab flakes in- 
stead of lobster meat. 



2 cups chopped, hard-cooked Yg teaspoon pepper 

eggs Dash of cayenne 

1 cup thick white sauce Egg and crumbs 
Yz teaspoon salt 

Chop the eggs fine, moisten with sauce as soft as can be 
handled, and season. Let chill thoroughly on flat dish, well 
greased, then divide evenly into portions, allowing two table- 
spoons for each croquette. Shape into any desired form. Roll 
in crumbs, dip in egg, again in crumbs, and fry in deep fat 
(375° -3 90° F.) from two to Ryq minutes. Drain on soft 
paper. Serve with a sauce. 


2 cups cooked fish Egg and crumbs 

Yz cup drawn-butter sauce 

Mince fish. Season to taste and moisten with drawn-butter 
sauce. Spread upon a greased platter, and when stiif mold 
into cutlets. Roll in fine crumbs, then in egg, and again in 
crumbs, leave in the refrigerator until firm, and fry in deep fat 
(375° -390° F.) from two to five minutes. 


2 cups mashed potatoes Cayenne 

1 tablespoon fat 1 cup cooked ham 

3 egg-yolks Egg and crumbs 

Mix potato, fat, yolks of two eggs and cayenne, beat until 
smooth, then set to cool. Chop the ham, mix with the other 
yolk, cook until the mixture thickens, and turn out to cool. 
When thoroughly cool^ take a tablespoon of the potato mix- 
ture, make a hole in it, put a large teaspoon of the chopped 
ham inside, close the hole and form a ball. Dip into flour, 
then into egg, roll in crumbs, and fry in deep fat (375°-390° 
F.) from two to £ve minutes. 



2 tablespoons fat 1 teaspoon lemon-juice 

Yi cup flour y^ teaspoon mustard 

1 cup milk Egg and crumbs 

2 cups cooked lobster meat 

Make a white sauce, using the fat, flour and milk. Add 
chopped lobster meat, which has been seasoned with lemon- 
juice and mustard. Cool, shape, dip in flour, then in egg\ roll 
in crumbs and fry in deep fat (375°-390° F.) from two to £nq 
minutes. Serve with tomato cream sauce. 


1 pint oysters 1 teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon fat 1 tablespoon parsley 

2 tablespoons flour IJ/2 tablespoons lemon-juice 

1 egg-yolk Egg and crumbs 

Cle,an the oysters (see Index). Heat in their own liquor 
until the edges begin to curl, stirring all the time. Strain the 
liquor and chop the oysters. Rub together fat and flour. Add 
the oyster liquor and cook until thick. Then add the chopped 
oysters and the well-beaten egg-yolk. After taking from the 
fire, add salt, minced parsley and the lemon-juice. When stiff, 
mold into desired shape. Dip in crumbs, beaten Qgg and crumbs 
again, then fry in deep fat (375° -390° F.) from two to five 
minutes. Serve with horseradish sauce. 


134 cups cooked salmon, fresh Salt and pepper 

or canned Cayenne 

2 tablespoons fat 1 teaspoon lemon-juice 
Yi cup flour Egg and crumbs 

1 cup milk 

Make a white sauce with the fat, flour and milk. Add salt, 
a little white pepper, and a few grains of cayenne,. To this 
cream foundation add cold flaked salmon and lemon-juice. 
Spread on a plate to cool. Shape; roll in fine crumbs, then in 
cg% and again in crumbs and fry in deep fat (375°-390° F.) 
from two to five minutes. 


No. 2. 

1 cup hot mashed potatoes Salt and pepper 

1 cup flaked salmon 1 teaspoon lemon-juice 

Eggs and crumbs 

Add potato to salmon. Season with salt, pepper and lemon- 
juice. Shape into cutlets, egg and crumb and fry in deep fat 
(375°-390° F.) from two to iive minutes. 


2 shad roe 1 tablespoon nutmeg, grated 

1 tablespoon salt Pepper 

1 tablespoon fat 1 tablespoon finely chopped 

2 tablespoons flour parsley 

1 cup milk or cream 1 teaspoon lemon-juice 

2 egg-yolks Egg and crumbs 

Wash the shad roe. Put them on the stove in a saucepan of 
boiling water; add the salt, cover and simmer slowly a few 
minutes; then remove the skin and mash them. Make a white 
sauce with the fat, flour and milk, add egg-yolks, remove from 
the stove, and add the seasonings and mashed roe. Mix 
thoroughly and turn into a dish to cool. When cold form into 
croquettes. Roll in fine crumbs, then in beaten egg, again in 
bread-crumbs and fry in deep fat (375° -390° F.) from two to 
£vQ minutes. 


2 cups mashed potatoes Salt and pepper 

4 tablespoons cream Cooked meat, cheese or vege- 

1 teaspoon onion-juice table 

2 egg-yolks Crumbs and flour 
1 egg-white 

To the mashed potato add cream or rich milk, onion-juice 
and salt and pepper to taste. Be^t over the fire until smooth 
and hot. Remove, slightly cool, and add the beaten egg-yolks. 
Form into cylinders, or cone shapes; make a depression in each, 
and into this put a teaspoon of creamed chicken, minced highly 
seasoned meat, grated cheese, or a vegetable in cream sauce. 
Press the potato around the filling. Beat the egg-white slightly, 
dilute with a tablespoon of water, roll the croquettes in flour, 


then in the beaten egg-white, and then in seasoned bread- 
crumbs, and fry in deep fat (375° -390° F.) from two to five 


2 pairs sweetbreads 2 tablespoons fat 

y4 cup mushrooms 4 tablespoons flour 

1 tablespoon lemon-juice 1 cup milk or cream 

Yz teaspoon parsley 2 eggs 

Salt and pepper Egg and crumbs 

Prepare sweetbreads (see Index). Separate from mem- 
branes, add chopped mushrooms and seasonings. Make a white 
sauce with the fat, flour and milk or cream, add sweetbread 
mixture and cook for three minutes. Remove from the fire 
and add two eggs, well beaten. Beat slowly. Pour this mix- 
ture on a platter and set it away to cool. Shape into cylinders, 
roll in beaten egg, then in bread or cracker-crumbs, and fry in 
hot fat (375°-390° F.) from two to five minutes, using the 
frying-basket. Serve with Bechamel sauce. 


2 tablespoons butter or other 1 egg 

fat 2 cups minced veal 

3 tablespoons flour J4 cup chopped ham 

1 cup milk ^ cup mushrooms, truffles 
1 teaspoon onion-juice or sweetbreads 

Salt and pepper Egg and crumbs 

Make a white sauce with the fat, flour and milk, and add 
onion-juice, a little salt, pepper and paprika. Stir in the beaten 
egg, cook one minute and remove from the fire. Add to this 
the minced veal, the chopped ham and the chopped mushrooms, 
sweetbread, or trufiles. When the mixture is cold, form into 
small cylinder or pyramid shapes, roll in flour, then in e,gg and 
then in crumbs and fry in deep fat (375°-390° F.) from two 
to £.yQ minutes. 



4 cups mashed potatoes or Onion-juice 

cooked hominy Nutmeg 

2 tablespoons cream or milk 2 egg-yolks 

Salt and pepper Egg and crumbs 
Chopped parsley 

To the mashed hot potatoes or hominy, add cream or milk, 
and seasonings. Mix well and beat until light, add the well- 
beaten yolks of eggs and let stand till cold. Shape into oblong 
or pear-shaped croquettes, roll in fine bread-crumbs, then in 
beaten egg, and again in crumbs. Fry at once, until brown, in 
hot fat (375°-390° F.). 

Potato croquettes may be made more, dainty by rubbing the 
potato mixture through a sieve before adding the eggs, ShoTtj 
leafless stalks of parsley thrust into pear-shaped croquettes after 
the manner of stems will make them very attractive. 


1 cup boiled rice Grated lemon-peel 

5^ cup milk 1 egg 

1 tablespoon sugar Egg and crumbs 

1 teaspoon salt 

Combine rice, milk, sugar, salt, grateid lemon-peel and the 
well-beaten egg, and when cold, shape in ovals, roll in egg, then 
in bread-crumbs or rolled crackers, and fry a rich brown in deep 
fat (375°-390° F.). 


Yz cup rice 1 egg 

2 cups milk 14 cup candied fruits 
Yz teaspoon salt Egg and crumbs 

2 tablespoons sugar Powdered sugar 

Cook rice in milk until very soft. Stir in salt, sugar and 
we^l-beaten egg, and remove at once from the fire. Mix in 
cut up candied fruits — cherries, apricots, pineapple, etc. — and 
turn into a shallow, well-oiled pan to cool. When firm, cut 
into strips about one and one-half inches wide and three inches 
long, dip into egg then into bread-crumbs and brown delicately 
on both sides in butter or other fat. Drain, dust with powdered 
sugar and serve hot. 






F*f- '^" 



Make mush according to directions given (Index). Turn 
it into a shallow greased pan, smoothing the surface. When 
it is cold, turn it from the pan, cut in slices or cubes, dip in 
fine bread or cracker-crumbs, then in beaten egg, adding three 
tablespoons of milk to each egg, and then again in the crumbs. 
Fry in deep fat (375°-390° F.). Drain on soft paper. Serve 
hot with jelly sauce or sirup. 

No. 2 — Cut cold mush into slices about one-fourth of an inch 
thick, and saute until brown and crisp in a very little fat; if pre- 
ferred, the slices may be sprinkled with flour, or dipped first 
in salted beaten egg and then in bread or cracker-crumbs, before 
sauteing. Hominy and other cereals may be fried in the same 


(For sweet fritters and fritter batter, see Index). 


24 soft clams 1 cup milk 

2 cups flour Yz cup clam liquor 

2 teaspoons baking-powder 2 eggs 

Yz teaspoon salt Salt and pepper 

Make a batter of flour, baking-powder, salt, milk, clam 
liquor and well-beaten eggs. Chop the clams, season with salt 
and pepper and add to the batter. Drop by tablespoonfuls 
into deep fat (3 60° -3 70° F.) and fry two to three minutes. 


2 cups corn, fresh or canned 1 teaspoon melted fat 

1 teaspoon salt Y2 cup milk 

Ys teaspoon pepper - 2 cups flour \ 

1 egg 2 teaspoons baking-powder J 

Chop the corn very fine and add salt, pepper, well-beaten 
egg, melted fat, milk, flour and baking-powder. Fry two to 
three minutes in deep fat (360°-370° F.). \ 



1/4 cups oysters 2 cups flour 

2 eggs 2 teaspoons baking-powder 

1 cup milk J/2 teaspoon salt 

Chop the oysters. Make a batter of the eggs, milk, flour, 
baking-powder and salt. Stir the oysters into the batter and 
drop by spoonfuls into deep hot fat (360°-370° F.). 


3 parsnips 1 cup milk 

2 eggs 1 teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon fat 3 tablespoons flour 

Boil the parsnips tender, grate fine or mash and pick out all 
the fibrous parts. Beat the eggs light, and stir into the parsnips, 
beating hard. Add the fat, milk, salt and flour. Drop by 
spoonfuls into deep fat (3 60° -3 70° F.) and fry two to three 


Soak two pairs of calves' brains in cold water one-half hour; 
then remove the thick membrane covering them and see that 
they are perfectly white and bloodless. Divide into servings 
for six. Put into enough boiling water to cover and simmer 
for fifteen minutes. Then take them up and plungei them into 
cold water. When they are cool, drain and season generously 
with salt, and pepper. Dip into flour, then into beaten egg, 
seasoned with salt and pepper, then into fine bread-crumbs; 
place in a frying-basket and cook in deep fat (375° -400° F.) 
five to eight minutes. Serve with ravigote or white sauce. 


1 flank steak, unscored ^2 onion, chopped 

y2 pound kidney suet or salt 2i/^ teaspoons salt 

pork 14 teaspoon pepper 

1/2 green pepper 8 metal skewers 
1 cup tomatoes, strained 

Cut suet or salt pork into one-inch strips. Place on steak and 
roll meat tightly around the fat, skewering it through the roll 


154 inches apart. Cut roll between skewers forming individual 
fillets of steak with small squares of fat in center. Flour; brown 
fillets on both sides, place in casserole or covered pan; add toma- 
toes, onion, pepper and seasoning. Other vegetables, fine cut, 
may also be added. Simmer 1 hour or until tender or finish in 
300° F. oven. ' 


The ring mold is one of the most satisfactory ways of serving 
entrees since it is decorative, permits endless variety in appear- 
ance but involves no additional labor. Any recipe baked in a 
loaf may be used in the ring mold. Grease the mold as any pan 
for baking and unmold on the plate to be used for serving. The 
center may be filled with another cooked vegetable, a stew, 
creamed fish or poultry, or a china, glass or silver bowl of the 
exact size may be slipped into the center and filled with the 
sauce or dressing to be served with the ring, 

Noodle Ring With Creamed Chicken 

1 pound noodles Dash of salt and pepper 

3 eggs 2 tablespoons catchup 

1 cup milk 1 cup grated Cheddar cheese 

1/^ tablespoon Worcestershire sauce 

Cook noodles and drain. Beat eggs well. Combine with other 
ingredients. Add to noodles and pour into buttered ring mold. 
Set in pan of hot water and bake in a moderate oven (350° F.) 
45 minutes. Unmold carefully onto a large platter and fill the 
center with creamed chicken (see page 286). Spaghetti, maca- 
roni or rice can be used instead of noodles. 


1 beef kidney Bit of bay-leaf 

Flour ^ Salt and pepper 

Fat ^ inch slice of lemon 

Soak a beef kidney in cold water for one hour, changing the 
water two or three times as it colors; then place on the fire in 
cold water and gently heat to the boiling-point. Drain off this 


water and put on fresh cold water for a second heating. Again 
heat and again change the water. 

In the third water simmer the kidney for ten minutes. Then 
remove it from the fire, and when cool enough to handle,, cut 
out the cords and most of the center fat. Slice thin^ dip each 
piece in flour and saute in fat until brown. 

Remove the meat from the pan, add flour to the fat, stir 
well, and brown thoroughly. Add boiling- water, stirring until 
a smooth sauce is formed. Return the meat to the pan, add 
bay-leaf, salt, pepper and slice of lemon from which the peel 
has been removed. Simmer for one hour with the pan covered, 
adding more water if it reduces too much. There should be 
only enough water to form a rich sauce. Remove the bay-leaf, 
and serve on a heated platter. 


Split the kidneys, put over the fire in cold water and bring 
to the boiling-point rapidly. Drain, wipe and slice each half. 
Arrange these slices on small metal skewers, alternating with 
slices of fat bacon the same size. Broil quickly and serve on 
toast, leaving the skewer in. 



Prepare the sweetbreads (See Index), cut into pieces about 
one inch square and one-half inch thick, season, dip into melted 
fat and then into flour and string on small skewers alternately 
with thin squares of bacon. Broil, or lay the skewers across 
a narrow pan and cook in a hot oven (400° -450° F.). 


3 pairs sweetbreads 1 teaspoon beef extract 

1 teaspoon minced carrot 1 bay-leaf 

2 teaspoons minced onion 1 sprig parsley 

2 tablespoons fat 1 teaspoon lemon-juice 

1 tablespoon flour Salt and pepper 

1 cup water 

I Prepare sweetbreads according to directions (See Index) 
and arrange in deep baking-dish. Cook vegetables in fat for 
fifteen minutes. Add flour and stir until the mixture becomes 
frothy. Add the water gradually, stirring all the time. When 


this liquid boils, stir in the meat extract and seasonings. Cook 
for five minutes and strain over the sweetbreads. Cover the 
pan and cook in a moderate oven (350° F.) for one hour, bast- 
ing every fifteen minutes with the gravy in the pan. Arrange 
the sweetbreads on pieces of toast on a warm dish^ and pour 
mushroom sauce around them. 

Vegetable Entrees 

Preparing Peppers For Stuffing — Cut off the tops of the 
peppers or cut them in two lengthwise, and remove the inner 
fibers and seeds. Drop into boiling water, remove from the 
fire, let stand ten to twelve, minutes, then drain. 

Meat Stuffing — No. 1. 

6 green peppers Yz cup bread- or cracker- 

1 cup cooked meat, chopped crumbs 

fine and seasoned Milk or cream 

Prepare peppers as directed. Mix the meat with the bread 
or cracker-crumbs and moisten with a little milk or cream. 
Be sure that it is rather highly seasoned. (The potted meats 
that come in cans are excellent for this purpose.) Fill the 
peppers with the mixture and serve at once or cover with 
buttered crumbs and set in the oven (400° F.) for ten minutes 
to brown. Use small vegetables: Lima beans, corn or diced car- 
rots, instead of meat. 

No. 2. 

6 green peppers 1 cup water or stock 

Yz onion 1J4 cups moistened bread- 

1 Y4 cups cooked meat crumbs 

(veal, chicken or ham) Salt and pepper 

1 tablespoon fat 

Cut a slice from the stem end of each pepper. Remove seeds 
and parboil peppers ten minutes. Mix minced cooked meat 
with moistened bread-crumbs, add salt, pepper, melted fat and 
the onion, grated. Stuff the peppers with this mixture and 
stand them in a dripping-pan. Add watc;r or stock. Bake in 


a moderate oven (350°-375° F.) thirty minutes, basting fre- 
quently. Cooked rice may be used instead of the bread-crumbs. 

Cheese Stuffing — 

6 green peppers 1 tablespoon melted butter 

1 cup crumbs or other fat 
14 cup chopped cheese Salt 

Prepare peppers as directed. Mix the crumbs with the cheese. 
Then add the butter or other fat and salt to taste. Fill the 
peppers with the mixture and serve with the meat course. 

Shrimp Stuffing — 

2 cups cooked shrimps, fresh Nutmeg 
or canned Celery seed 

1 tablespoon butter or other 1 egg 

fat ^ cup bread-crumbs 

Yz teaspoon mustard 6 green peppers 

Prepare shrimps as directed (See Index). Cut off the stem 
ends or tops of the peppers, and remove the seeds and veins, and 
soak the peppers in cold water for one-half hour. Cream the 
fat by beating and then also beat into it the seasonings and egg. 
Add the crumbs, mixing the ingredients well, and finally stir- 
ring in the shrimps. Drain the peppers and fill with the pre- 
pared stuflfing. Set them in a pan, open side up and bake in a 
moderate oven (350°-375° F.) for thirty minutes. 

Sweetbread Stuffing — 

1 cup cooked sweetbreads Yz cup brown or white stock 
6 peppers (preferably chicken) 

2 tablespoons butter or other 2 tablespoons cream 

fat Y2 cup button mushrooms 

2 tablespoons flour Worcestershire sauce 

Crumbs Salt, pepper and paprika 

Prepare the sweetbreads (See Index) . Melt fat, add flour, salt 
and pepper. Mix smooth, add stock and cream. Cook until 
thick. Stir in the sweetbreads and mushrooms, cut into small 
pieces, and the> seasoning. Fill prepared peppers, cover with 
buttered crumbs and bake for thirty minutes in a moderate 


oven (350°-375° F.). Mushroom sauce may be poured around 
the peppers. 


1 bunch asparagus 54 teaspoon salt 

1 cup bread-crumbs Few grains of cayenne 

y^ cup hot milk 1 Yz tablespoons melted fat 

2 eggsi Yz tablespoon onion-juice 
1 tablespoon parsley 

Wash the asparagus thoroughly; cut the tender parts into 
bits one-half inch long, and put into boiling salted water. Boil 
rapidly for ten minutes and drain thoroughly. In the mean- 
time, cover the bread-crumbs with the hot milk. When the 
crumbs are soft, add the eggs, and mix well together. Stir in 
salt, cayenne, melted fat and onion- juice; then stir in asparagus 
tips, carefully. Grease small timbale, molds, sprinkle them with 
minced parsley and fill two-thirds full. Set in a baking-pan 
that contains boiling water, but do not allow the water to 
reach the top of the molds. Cover with a sheet of greased 
paper and cook in a slow oven (250°-325° F.) for thirty-five 
to forty-five minutes. Invert on a heated platter, garnish with 
parsley and serve with a white sauce. 


2 pounds beef Salt and pepper 

Yz pound ham or bacon 1 egg-white 

Sweet herbs 2 tablespoons lemon-juice 

Put the beef into the pot and, if desired, veal or beef bones 
also, though they require longer boiling to dissolve the gelatin. 
Add the ham or bacon and all the sweet herbs, such as thyme, 
basil, parsley and marjoram, and salt and pepper to taste. Boil 
for three or four hours; strain and put away to cool. When 
cc^d, take off all the fat and sediment. Throw into it the 
slightly beaten egg-white, and the lemon-juice, place again 
on the fire, boil for a few minutes and strain through a jelly- 

This is used for molding cold meat. 



1 cup boiled ham 54 cup celery 

3 hard-cooked eggs 2 tablespoons gelatin 

J/2 teaspoon salt 2 cups cider 

Pepper Yz cup sugar 

54 teaspoon cayenne pepper Yz cup cold water 

3 tablespoons lemon-juice 1 cup whipped cream 

Soak gelatin in cold water, and pour over it boiling cider to 
which the sugar and lemon have bee^i added. Strain into border 
molds. When firm, remove from the molds and fill with the 
mixture made of the other ingredients and serve immediately. 


1 beef tongue 1 blade of mace 

2 onions 1 bunch thyme 
1 stalk celery « 1 bunch parsley 

4 cloves 1 box gelatin 
Salt and pepper 1 cup cold water 

1 teaspoon sugar 

"Wash and scrub the tongue well in salt water and simmer 
(180° -2 10° F.) it until tender. Remove thej skin, and place 
the tongue in a stew-pan with onion, celery, cloves, salt and 
pepper. Cover it with the liquor in which it was boiled and 
add sugar, mace, thyme and parsley. Simmer for two hours. 
Take out the tongue. Add to the liquor gelatin, soaked in the 
cold water, boil for two minutes, stirring constantly, strain and 
pour over the tongue. Serve cold. 


6 hard-cooked eggs Paprika 

2 tablespoons butter 2 tablespoons chopped olives 
Chaud-froid sauce or pickles 

Salt and pepper 

Cook eggs hard and cut in halves lengthwise. Remove yolks 
and mash to a paste with the melted butter, pepper, salt, pap- 
rika, and chopped olives or pickles. Refill whites and mask 
with chaud-froid sauce. Garnish each with a star cut from a 
truffle or from a gree;i or red pepper. Let stand in a cold place 
till firm. These may be served at luncheon or supper. 



2 cups ground cooked chick- % cup heavy cream, 

en whipped 

14 cup salad dressing Salt, pepper 

2 tablespoons lemon juice 1^ tablespoons gelatin 

% teaspoon ground celery Lettuce 

seed Brussels sprouts, carrots and 
1^ cup cold chicken stock parsley 

Blend the chicken, salad dressing, lemon juice and celery 
seed. Fold in the whipped cream. Season to taste. Fold in the 
gelatin which has been softened in the cold chicken stock, dis- 
solved over hot water, then cooled. Pour into a ring mold and 
chill until firm. Unmold, fill the center with Brussels sprouts 
and garnish the platter with carrots and parsley. 


Follow the directions for chicken mousse, substituting cooked 
ham for the cooked chicken. Chopped mushrooms are a deli- 
cious addition to this dish, and mushrooms may be mixed with 
the sauce when ready to serve, and also may be used as 


1 tablespoon gelatin % cup milk 

% cup cold water ly^ tablespoons melted 
11/2 teaspoons salt butter 

iy2 teaspoons mustard 4 tablespoons lemon juice 

Dash cayenne 1 cup flaked salmon 

2 egg yolks, slightly beaten Lettuce 

Soften gelatin in cold water 5 minutes. Combine seasonings, 
egg yolks and milk in top of double boiler, and cook over hot 
water 6 to 8 minutes or until thickened, stirring constantly. 
Add butter, lemon juice and gelatin, stirring until gelatin is 
dissolved. Remove from fire and fold in salmon. Turn into fish 
mold; chill until firm. Unmold on bed of crisp lettuce and 
serve with cucumber cream dressing. 


VEGETARIAN dishes make agreeable variations in the diet, 
and frequently reduce the food bill. They are welcome 
in any household where the program of using meat only once 
a day is being followed. Dishes containing a large percentage 
of milk, eggs or cheese, together with dried legumes, nuts or 
gelatin, are nutritious and typical vegetarian dishes. 

People not accustomed to meatless menus may experience 
an unsatisfied feeling at the end of a meal that is entirely 
vegetarian. This is largely due to the fact that meat is a highly 
flavored food. The housewife will do well, therefore, to offer 
some well-seasoned dish in a vegetarian menu. 

A ring mold is a decorative way of serving vegetarian dishes 
with no extra labor. The following recipes calling for a loaf 
form may be used for the ring mold. See page 344. 


2 cups hot mashed chestnuts Few drops of onion-juice or 
4 tablespoons fat 2 tablespoons minced onion 

2 eggs Egg and crumbs 
Salt and pepper 

Mix the chestnuts, fat, slightly beaten eggs and seasonings. 
Shape into croquettes. Roll in crumbs, then in beaten tgg and 
again in crumbs. Fry in deep hot fat (375° -3 90° F.) until 
crumbs are brown (2-5 minutes). 

This dish offers adequate protein and iron and a compara- 
tively highly seasoned dish. The croquettes may be served 
with brown sauce or tomato sauce. 


1 tablespoon fat Pepper 

2 tablespoons flour 2 cups cooked rice 

Yz cup milk 54 c^P ground peanuts 

Yz teaspoon salt 1 egg 

Make white sauce from fat, flour, milk and seasoning. Mix 
rice, peanuts, white sauce and beaten egg, and shape into small 



balls. Saute in a greased frying-pan turning frequently so that 
the balls are browned all over. Or, roll in beaten Qgg, then in 
crumbs and fry in deep fat (375°-390° F.). 

This dish is low in both iron and protein, therefore milk, 
eggs or cheese should appear elsewhere in the menu. These 
balls are good served with cheese sauce. 


1 cup hot milk 1 ^4 teaspoons salt 

1 quart boiling water Yg teaspoon paprika 

1 cup yellow corn-meal 1 Yz cups chopped peanuts 

^ cup hominy grits ^ to 1 cup grated cheese 

Combine hot milk and boiling water, bring to boiling-point 
and add corn-meal, hominy grits and seasoning. Stir constantly 
until the liquid is thickened by the cere;al. Place in a double 
boiler and cook one hour. Ten minutes before taking up, add 
the peanuts and cheese. 

Place in a deep rectangular bread-pan and allow it to cool. 
When ready to use, cut in small slices (roll in egg and crumbs 
if desired) and fry in deep fat (375° -3 90° F.) until brown 
(2-5 minutes) ; or place in a greased baking-pan, sprinkle with 
grated cheese mixed with bread-crumbs and bake in a moderate 
oven (3 50° -400° F.) until brown. 

This makes an excellent luncheon or supper dish. 


1 Yz cups peanut butter Pepper 

1 /4 cups hot milk 6 half -inch slices of bread 

1 teaspoon salt 

Mix peanut butter with hot milk and seasoning, mixing to- 
gether thoroughly. Dip slices of bread into the peanut-butter 
mixture. Saute in hot fat. Garnish with pickles and olives. 

This dish offers both adequate protein and iron. 


4 cups shelled raw peanuts 4 tablespoons salad oil 

Cover peanuts with cold water and soak over night. In the 
morning, place them over the fire, and boil ten minutes. Re- 


move from water and dry. Add oil and mix well. Place the 
mixture in a greased baking-dish and bake (400° F.) until the 
peanuts are soft and well browned. 

If extra seasoning is desired, a small quantity of catchup, 
salt, molasses and mustard may be added during the baking, 
as for baked beans. 


1 tablespoon fat Few drops lemon-juice 

6 tablespoons flour 1 ^ cups scalded mlik 

^ cup peanut butter 4 eggs 
lYz teaspoons salt 

Melt the fat and add the flour, peanut butter and seasoning. 
Cook for three minutes, stirring constantly. Add scalded milk, 
and continue cooking until the mixture reaches the boiling- 
point. Remove from the fire, pour the, hot mixture over the 
well-beaten egg-yolks, mixing thoroughly. Cool, and fold in 
the egg-whites that have been beaten until stiff and dry. When 
the ingredients are thoroughly combined, place in a ring mold, 
set in a pan of water in a slow oven (375° F.) and bake thirty 
minutes. Serve immediately. 

This is a hearty main dish, but, because of its texture, should 
have something crisp or solid served with it. 


1 cup dried Lima beans or 3 eggs 

3 cups cooked beans of 2 tablespoons fat 

any kind Yz teaspoon sage 

Yi cup bread-crumbs Salt and pepper 

Pick over and wash beans, cover with water and let soak over 
night. Drain, cook in boiling salted water until tender, then 
force through a strainer. Add remaining ingredients, shape 
into the form of sausages, roll in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again. 
Saute until brown. Serve with tomato sauce. 

This recipe makes six to eight sausages, three inches long and 
thre^e-fourths of an inch thick. It should be accompanied by 
some milk, egg or cheese dish. 



6 half -inch slices rye bread Yz teaspoon salt 

1 cup peanut butter Yg teaspoon paprika 
^ cup top milk Cracker-crumbs 

2 eggs 

Cut crust from bread and divide in lengthwise strips. Spread 
peanut butter on both sides of each strip. Add milk and season- 
ing to the eggs and beat thoroughly. Dip strips of bread into 
the mixture, remove and dip into sifted cracker-crumbs. Put 
into a greased bread -pan and bake in a hot oven (400° -450° 
F.) imtil golden brown. This is a good main dish. 


2 cups cooked cow peas 1 chopped onion 

or split peas Yz cup bread-crumbs 

2 cups boiled rice Salt, pepper, and butter 
2 cups stewed tomatoes 

Put the cooked peas, rice,, tomatoes and onion in layers in a 
greased baking-dish. Season well, cover with bread-crumbs and 
bake (400°) until brown. Serve with brown sauce. 

This needs eggs, milk or cheese to accompany it, but it has 
excellent flavor. 


1 cup roasted shelled peanuts Y4 cup milk 

2 cups seasoned mashed 1 egg 
potatoes 1 teaspoon salt 

2 cups cooked Lima beans, Ys teaspoon paprika 

fresh or canned 1 teaspoon onion-juice 

Grind the peanuts, using the finest blade of the food-chopper. 
In a greased baking-dish place a layer of potatoes, a layer of 
beans and a layer of peanuts. Continue making layers until all 
the ingredients are used. Blend milk with well-beaten egg and 
se,asoning and pour over the t(>p. Bake in a moderate oven 
(3 50° -400° F.) until brown. Serve with brown sauce or 
tomato sauce. 



1 poxind kidney beans 2 cups cooked tomatoes, fresh 

1 cup diced carrot or canned 

1 green pepper, chopped Vz cup rice 

1 large onion Yi dozen large mushrooms 

Soak the beans in cold water overnight; drain and cook in 
boiling water slowly for about four hours. A ham-bone or a 
piece of bacon cooked with them adds to the flavor. Drain, add 
carrot, pepper, tomatoes, and thin slices of onion. Simmer until 
tender. Boil rice separately in salted water, drain and add to 
the vegetables. (The rice water should be used in soups or 
gravies.) Garnish with sauteed green peppers and mushrooms. 


2 large stalks celery 1 e^^ 

y^. cup chopped nuts 1 teaspoon salt 

3 cups mashed potatoes Y^ teaspoon paprika 

3 tablespoons fat 2 teaspoons grated onion 

Wash, cut in small pieces and cook the celery until tender 
in a small amount of boiling salted water. Drain off liquid. 
(This may be used for soup stock later.) Then add the other 
ingredients to the celery in the order in which they are given. 
Combine them carefully, pack in a loaf in a greased bread- 
pan, and bake in a moderate oven (3 50° -400° F.) for thirty- 
five minutes. Serve with tomato sauce. 


2 cups ground carrot 2 cups strained tomatoes 

2 cups bread-crumbs 1 teaspoon salt 

y^ cup chopped nuts Y& teaspoon pepper 

3 eggs 2 teaspoons minced onion 

Mix the. ingredients in the order given. Shape the mixture 
into a loaf and put into a greased baking-pan. Steam the loaf 
for one hour and then brown it in the oven (400° F.) . Or pour 
into greased ring mold, set in pan of hot water and bake ia 
moderate oven (350° F.) until firm — about 40 minutes. Un- 
mold on a hot plate; fill center with hot cooked peas. 



1 cup chopped carrots 1 Yz tablespoons fat 

1 cup coarse ground peanuts 4 eggs, slightly beaten 

1 cup strained tomatoes 1 teaspoon chopped parsley 

1 cup crumbs Salt 

Chop separately the carrots and peanuts, or put them through 
the food-chopper, using the coarse knife. Add the other in- 
gredients and form in a loaf. Place in a greased pan and bake 
one hour and a quarter in a moderate oven (3 50°-400° F.). 


2 cups soft bread-crumbs 2 eggs 

1 cup milk 1 teaspoon salt 

2 cups chopped nut-meats 1 teaspoon paprika 

Soak bread-crumbs in milk, add nuts, slightly beaten eggs and 
seasonings. Turn into greased bread-pan, set into pan of water 
and bake (350° F.) forty minutes. Serve with tomato sauce. 
The loaf may be steamed instead of baked. 


1 tablespoon chopped onion 1 cup bread-crumbs 

1 tablespoon chopped celery 1 cup green pea pulp, fresh or 

2 tablespoons fat canned 

Yz cup hot water Juice of half a lemon 

1 Y2 cups chopped peanuts 1 teaspoon salt 

1 t^^ Dash of pepper 

Cook onion and cejery in fat until golden brown. Add hot 
water and simmer until vegetables are tender. Mix other in- 
gredients, adding the t^g last. Combine the mixture with the 
cele^ry and onion mixture. Pack into greased baking-dish and 
bake (350° F.) until golden brown. Serve with cream sauce. 


154 cups dry kidney beans 2 tablespoons chopped onion 

3 tablespoons salt 1 cup bread-crumbs 
1 to 2 cups grated cheese Y2 cup milk 

Soak beans twenty-four hours. Cook until soft in water in 
which the salt has been dissolved. Drain; chop; add onion. 


cheese, crumbs, more salt if needed, and enough milk to moisten. 
Form into a loaf . Bake in a moderate oven (3 50° -400° F.) for 
forty minutes. Baste occasionally with hot water and fat. 


2 tablespoons minced peppers 2 cups crumbs 

2 tablespoons minced onion 1 cup tomatoes 

4 tablespoons fat Salt and pepper 

4 cups mashed baked beans Yz teaspoon paprika 
2 eggs, slightly beaten 

Cook pepper and onion in fat. Add other ingredients in the 
order given. Bake (350° F. ) in greased baking-dish for thirty 
minutes. Serve with brown sauce or tomato sauce. 

A cheese or milk dish should be added to this meal. 


2 cups Lima beans 1 tablespoon poultry seasoning 

1 cup dry bread-crumbs 2 tablespoons grated onion 

4 tablespoons peanut butter 1 tablespoon bacon fat 

Yz teaspoon pepper 1 cup milk (more, if needed) 

"Wash and soak the beans overnight, then cook in boiling 
water until soft (about forty-five minutCis). Drain, cool, then 
chop coarsely. Add crumbs mixed with peanut butter and 
seasoning, then fat, and milk to moisten. Put into a greased 
bread-pan and bake in a moderate oven (350°-400° F.) thirty 
minutes. Serve with brown sauce, cream sauce or tomato 


Yz cup peanuts Y2 teaspoon salt 

1 cup cottage cheese Dash of pepper 

1 cup cold, cooked rolled oats 1 teaspoon poultry seasoning 

1 cup milk Few drops "Worcestershire 

1 egg^ slightly beaten sauce 

1 tablespoon fat 1 tablespoon chopped onion 

Chop peanuts and add other ingredients in order given. 
"When thoroughly combined, place in a greased bread-tin. Bake 
in a moderate oven (3 50° -400° F.) until brown. Serve hot 
with tomato sauce. 



1 tablespoon chopped onion 1 teaspoon sugar 

1 tablespoon fat ^ teaspoon paprika 

1 cup grated cheese lYz tablespoons lemon-juice 

1 cup chopped nuts Yz teaspoon Worcestershire 

^ cup milk sauce 

1 cup cooked cereal Buttered crumbs 

1 teaspoon salt 

Cook onion in fat until delicately brown. Mix with all the 
other ingredients and moisten with milk. Cover with buttered 
crumbs and brown in oven (400° F.). Serve hot with tomato 

Serve with some crispy food such as celery. 


^ cup macaroni ^ cup grated cheese 

1 teaspoon parsley 1 Yz cups milk 

2 teaspoons chopped onion 1 egg 

1 tablespoon green pepper 1 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons fat Yz cup buttered crumbs 

Cook macaroni in boiling salted water until tender. Saute 
the parsley, onion and pepper in the fat until tender. Drain 
water from macaroni. Place a layer of this in a buttered bak- 
ing-dish, then a layer of peppers, onions and cheese. Repeat 
until dish is full. Pour over it the milk mixed with the egg. 
Cover with buttered crumbs, and brown in oven (400° F.). 
Serve with tomato sauce. 


Yz cup cooked green peas 1 cup soft bread-crumbs 

Yz cup cooked green string Yz teaspoon salt 

beans Ys teaspoon pepper 

Yz cup chopped boiled carrots Yz teaspoon paprika 

1 Yz cups milk 1 egg 

Press peas through a sieve, cut beans in small pieces, then 
combine all vegetables. Add to them the milk, slightly beaten 
egg, crumbs and seasoning. Turn into a greased baking-dish 
and bake in a moderate oven (3 50° -400° F.) until firm. 



1 1/2 cups pea pulp 3 eggs, well beaten 

2 tablespoons melted butter Salt and pepper 

Blend the ingredients well together, pour into greased molds; 
set the molds into a pan containing hot water and bake (250*- 
325° F.). Serve with medium white sauce. 


y^ cup olive oil 2 cloves garlic 

2 pounds lean beef (cut in 1 tablespoon paprika 
%-inch cubes) 2 teaspoons oregano 

y^ pound beef suet (cut in Salt and pepper 

%-inch cubes) 1 or 2 cups hot water 

1 cup minced onions 2 tablespoons chili powder 

Heat the olive oil, add the meat and suet and cook until meat 
is brown. Add onions and garlic and cook about 5 minutes, 
stirring constantly; then stir in the chili powder, paprika, 
oregano, salt and pepper. Add 1 cup water and simmer until 
meat is tender. Add more water if necessary. 

With Beans — Serve chili with baked beans, rice or Lima 
beans; or add 4 cups red kidney beans to the meat before sim- 


3 cups cooked red beans % teaspoon mustard 
114 cups canned tomatoes Dash pepper 

1 pimiento minced y ^e^spoon curry powder 

y^ cup deviled ham . 7 , lA 1 

1/4 cup onion, minced l'/2 tablespoons molasses 

6 strips Canadian bacon or '^Vi tablespoons sugar 

corned beef 54 teaspoon salt 

Mix all ingredients except meat; turn into greased casserole, 
arrange meat on top and bake in 350° F. oven about 30 minutes, 
or until smoked meat is crisp. 


TO test an egg for freshness, place it in a glass of water. If 
the egg falls to the bottom of the glass and lies on its side, 
it is a fresh egg; if the large end rises slightly, the egg is 
somewhat stale; if it stands on end or floats, it is very stale. 
The shell of a fresh egg has a bloom; that of a stale egg is usually 
shiny. If the contents of an egg rattle when it is shaken, it is 
not fresh. 


Hard-cooked (Coddled) — Place the eggs in a saucepan of 
cold water and heat slowly until the boiling-point is reached. 
Set the container on the back of the stove or reduce the heat so 
that the water will not boil again and let stand twenty to thirty 
minutes before removing the eggs. Another method of regulat- 
ing the 'temperature is to cook them in the double boiler. 

Soft-cooked (Coddled) — Use one pint water for each egg 
up to six eggs, one-half pint for each additional egg, and use a 
small deep saucepan so that the water will cover the eggs. Bring 
the water to the boiling-point in a vessel that can be covered 
closely. Put the eggs in at once, cover, set off the fire and let 
stand in a warm place for four to six minutes, depending on con- 
sistency desired. In this way, the eggs will be cooked equally 
well in every part. 


No. 1 — Heat salted water to the boiling-point in a frying-pan 
or other shallow pan. Break an egg into a saucer, then slip it 
gently into the water. Repeat until all the eggs are in. Re- 
move the pan from the fire, cover and keep hot until the eggs 
are set to the desired degree. If the yolk is not entirely covered, 
dip the water over it carefully until it is coated with white. Re- 
move with a skimmer or perforated ladle and slip on to a thin 
piece of buttered toast. Buttered muffin rings may be placed 
in thei water and each egg slipped into a muflSn ring for cookingj^ 
or an egg-poacher may be used. 



Poached eggs are often placed in clear soup, one egg being 
prepared for each person to be served. They are served also on 
thin slices of boiled ham, on mounds of corned-beef hash, on 
Welsh rabbit or on cooked spinach. 

No. 2 — Separate the yolk and white. Beat the white until 
stiff and put it in a glass ramekin. Drop the yolk in the center 
of the beaten white. Set the ramekin in hot water until the 
egg sets. Garnish with a bit of butter and sprinkle with salt 
and pepper. Serve in the ramekin. 


No. 1 — Heat cooking-fat in a frying-pan and slip in the 
eggs. Cook as many eggs at one time as will fill the pan with- 
out touching one another. Baste with some of the fat, to cook 
the yolk. Cook slowly, for if the fat becomes very hot the eggs 
will be tough and hard to digest but if the temperature of the 
fat is kept down, the egg may be made as delicate as if poached 
in water. 

Eggs may be fried very successfully by covering the pan as 
soon as the eggs have been added, and then placing it in the 
oven or over a very slow fire, so that the eggs will cook very 

No. 2 — ^With Brown Butter — 

6 eggs Salt and pepper 

3 tablespoons butter 1 teaspoon vinegar 

Saute the eggs in one tablespoon butter until set, season with 
salt and pepper, and place on a platter. Brown two tablespoons 
butter in the pan, add one teaspoon vinegar, and when hot, pour 
over the eggs. 


No. 1 — Use individual baking-dishes and melt one teaspoon 
of butter in each dish. Break thei eggs into the dishes, allow- 
ing one or two eggs to a dish. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, 
and place a tiny piece of butter on each. Bake in a slow oven 
(250°-350° F.) until the eggs are set but not hard. Serve in 
the baking-dishes. 

No. 2 — Shirred — ^Use small ramekins or egg-shirrers. Grease 
each dish, put in a layer of buttered crumbs, break an egg over 
the crumbs, season with salt and pepper and cover with buttered 


crumbs. Bake in a slow oven (250°-350° F.) until the eggs 
are set and the crumbs brown. Serve in the ramekins. 

No. 3 — On Toast — Moisten the edges of the toast with hot 
water and spread with butter. Separate the yolks and whites 
of the eggs. Poach the yolks in salted water until soft cooked, 
and place one on each slice of toast, being careful not to break 
it. Beat the whites very stiff, spread around the yolks, season 
with salt and pepper, and brown in the oven (350° F.). 

No. 4 — In Tomato Sauce — Grease, small ramekins and place 
two tablespoons thick tomato sauce in each. Slip a poached egg 
into each dish, cover with grated cheese, season with salt and 
pepper, and bake in a very hot ovejn (450°-500° F.) two or 
three minutes, to brown the cheese. 

No. 5 — In Bacon Rings — Curl long slices of bacon around 
the inside of muflfin-cups or small ramekins. Break an egg in- 
side each bacon-ring, season with salt and pepper and bake 
(350° F. ) until set, but not hard. Remove carefully from the 
dish so that the egg will remain fastened to the bacon. Ar- 
range on a platter and garnish with parsley. 

No. 6 — ^WiTH Bacon Strips — ^Fry the bacon very crisp, but 
not hard, then arrange the slices in groups of two on a large 
plate or in individual baking-dishes. Break one egg over each 
two slices of bacon, season with salt and pepper and bake slowly 
(300° F.) until set, but not hard. 


No. 1 — In a frying-pan, place one teaspoon of butter for each 
egg. Beat the eggs until the whites and yolks are well mixed. 
Season with salt and pepper and add one to three tablespoons 
of milk or cream for each egg. Pour into the hot fat and 
cook slowly, stirring constantly until the eggs are of the de- 
sired consistency. Serve at once. A little onion -juice or 
chopped parsley may be added to the eggs, if desired. 

No. 2 — With Green Peppers — 

8 eggs 2 sweet peppers 

3 tablespoons cream 3 tablespoons fat 

Salt and pepper 

Beat the eggs slightly, adding the cream, salt and pepper. 
Heat the fat and add the eggs. As the eggs begin to cook, add 


the) chopped pepper, from which the seeds have been removed. 
Cook slowly, stirring constantly, until the mass is creamy. Serve 
with toast points. 

One-fourth cup of chopped canned pimientos may be sub- 
stituted for the pepper. It is often desirable to soften fresh 
peppers by placing in hot water for five minutes. 

Eggs scrambled in the top of a double boiler will be more 
creamy than those cooked in a frying-pan. 


Puffy — 

4 eggs Salt and pepper 

4 tablespoons hot water Butter or other fat 

Beat the egg-whites until stiflf. Beat the yolks until thick 
and lemon-colored, beat into them the hot water and add salt 
and pepper. Cut and fold together the; yolks and stiffly beaten 
whites. Melt enough fat in an omelet-pan to grease the bottom 
and sides of the pan. Turn the egg mixture into the pan and 
cook ove,r a slow fire until it is puflFy and a light brown under- 
neath, then place in the oven until the top is dry. Touch the 
top of the omelet lightly with the finger and if the egg does 
not stick to the finger the omelet is done. Do not overcook 
it or it will shrink or be tough. 

Loosen the edges of the omelet, cut through the center, slip 
a spatula or flexible knife under the side next to the handle of 
the pan, fold one-half over the other and press slightly to make 
it stay in place, slip on to a hot plate and serve at once. 

French — 

6 eggs 2 tablespoons fat 

Salt and pepper 

Beat the eggs just enough to mix the whites and yolks, and 
add salt and pepper. Heat the fat in an omelet-pan, pour a 
little of it into the beaten eggs and allow the remainder to get 
hot. Turn the eggs into the pan and as the mixture cooks on 
the bottom and sides, prick it with a fork so that the egg on 
top will pene.trate the cooked surface, and run under the sides. 
The work must be done quickly and carefully so that the eggs 
are not all stirred up like scrambled eggs. While the eggs are 
still soft, but slightly thickened, fold ove;r, let stand a few 
minutes to brown, and turn on to a hot dish. 




—Institute Amerlcai*^ 
Poultry Industries I 



,TWEEN RACKS •:.; I %ii^,. ^ .;:!%i' 



Variations of the plain puffy omelet or the plain French 
omelet may be made by adding any of the following ingredients 
to the omelet before it is put into the pan to cook, or by 
spreading one of them on top just before the omelet is folded. 
Allow one tablespoon of mixture to each two eggs used. 

Aux Fines Herbes — ^This favorite French omelet is made 
by adding a mixture of parsley, thyme and sweet marjoram 
to a plain omelet. 

Cheese — Scatter grated or ground cheese over the center of 
the omelet while it is cooking. 

Fish — Use any cooked fish. Chop it fine, season with salt 
and pepper and moisten with a little cream. Spread on the 
omelet before folding. 

Ham or Other Meat — Scatter minced cooked meat over the 
center of the omelet while it is cooking. The meat may be 
browned in a small amount of fat before it is added. 

Jardiniere — Stir into the beaten eggs, before cooking, a 
mixture of chopped parsley, onion, chives, shallots, and a few 
leaves each of sorrel and chervil, minced. 

Jelly — Spread any jelly or jam over the omelet just before 

Onion — ^Mix one tablespoon chopped onion and one teaspoon 
choppe,d parsley. Add to the omelet mixture before cooking. 

Parsley — Scatter minced parsley over the center of the 
omelet while it is cooking. 

Vegetable — ^Use cooked left-over vegetables, onq vegetable 
alone or two in combination. Mash the vegetable through a 
sieve, moisten with a little milk, cream or gravy, and season 
with salt and pepper. Lightly spread the mixture over the 
omelet before folding. 


1 cup chicken or tongue 1 cup cream or milk 

2 tablespoons fat Salt and pepper 
2 tablespoons flour Plain omelet 

Chop the meat until it is very fine. Make a sauce of the 
fat, flour, and milk or cream. Add salt and pepper and chopped 
meat. Make a plain omelet and spread the meat mixture on it 
jutt before folding. 



1 cup mushrooms ^ teaspoon pepper 

1 tablespoon fat 1 tablespoon flour 

Yz cup milk or cream Plain omelet 
1 teaspoon salt 

Use fresh or canned mushrooms cut into bits. Melt the fat 
in a saucepan, add the mushrooms, the milk or cream, salt, 
pepper and flour which has been mixed to a paste with a little 
cold milk. Cook for five minutes, then set aside until the 
omelet is made. Spread the mushroom mixture over the omelet 
just before folding. 


3 cups tomatoes Salt and pepper 

1 cup mushrooms 6 eggs 

2 tablespoons chopped onion Yz cup milk 
2 teaspoons sugar 

Strain the tomato, add the onion, sugar, salt and pepper and 
cook several minutes, then add the mushrooms, sliced very thin. 
Make a plain omelet of the eggs and milk. Pour part of the 
sauce over the omelet just before folding; fold; place on a hot 
plate; pour the remainder of the sauce around it and serve. 


12 oysters 1 cup cream 

Yz tablespoon flour 6 eggs 

2 tablespoons fat Salt and pepper 

Chop the oysters. Make a sauce of the flour, fat, and cream. 
Add the well beaten eggs, season with salt and pepper, stir in 
the oysters and cook as a plain omelet. 


4 cold boiled potatoes Y& teaspoon pepper 

3 tablespoons bacon fat 2 eggs 

Yz tablespoon salt 2 tablespoons milk 

Cut thei potatoes into tiny cubes and cook in the bacon fat 
with the seasonings for five minutes. Beat the eggs slightly 
and add the milk, then pour over the potatoes. Cook slowly 
until set, fold, and turn on to a hot plate. 



2 slices bread Salt and pepper 

1 cup milk Chopped onion 

6 eggs 

Crumble the bread and allow it to soak in the milk while the 
eggs are being prepared. Beat the eggs until light, add season- 
ings and then the bread and milk mixture. Bake quickly 
(360° F.) in a well-greased shallow pan and when done roll as 
you would a jelly-roll. 


6 eggs 1/4 teaspoon pepper 

Yz teaspoon salt 1 cup milk 

The following is an excellent method of making an omelet 
when different members of the family come irregularly to 
breakfast, as the mixture^ will be perfectly satisfactory after it 
has stood for some time, provided it is again beaten thoroughly 
just before cooking. 

Beat the eggs until light and foamy, then add the other in- 
gredients. Fry a small amount at a time on a hot frying-pan 
or pancake-griddle that has been well greased. When done^ 
roll each omelet quickly, like a French pancake, and serve. 


1 medium-sized tomato Olives 

1 small green pepper Mushrooms 

y2 onion Salt and pepper 

2 sprigs parsley 4 eggs 
1 stalk celery 

Peel the tomato, add the pepper, onion, parsley, celery, olives, 
mushrooms, and chop all together in a chopping-bowl. Place 
the mixture in a saucepan, add seasonings and stew for two or 
three minutes. Beat the eggs, put them in the omelet-pan andy 
as soon as they begin to cook, add the chopped vegetables. 
Finish as for plain omelet. 



3 tomatoes 4 to 6 eggs 

2 tablespoons fat Seasoning 

Peel tomatoes, remove the seeds and cut into dice. Saute in 
the fat until tender. Make the omelet in the usual way, first 
stirring the tomato into the beaten egg, 


6 eggs Yz teaspoon salt 

^ cup sausage meat Pepper 

1 teaspoon chopped onion 

Cook the meat and onion together for £.Ye minutes. Beat the 
eggs until light, add the seasonings, and pour into the pan with 
the meat. Cook slowly, stirring constantly, until the eggs are 
thick and creamy. Serve with buttered toast or poured over 
slices of toast. 


1 tablespoon fat Salt and pepper 

^ pound dried beef 4 eggs 

1 tablespocm grated cheese Onion-juice 

1 cup tomatoes 

Melt the fat in a frying-pan and, when hot, add the dried 
beef and cheese. Toss lightly until the beef is slightly frizzled, 
add the tomatoes, the seasonings, and the eggs beaten until 
light. Stir and cook gently until of a creamy consistency. 


6 eggs 1 cup cream 

2 tablespoons butter or other Salt 

fat Cayenne 

J/2 to 1 cup grated cheese 

Spread the bottom of a baking-dish with fat. Sprinkle a 
layer of grated cheese over it and break the eggs on the cheese, 
being careful not to break the yolks. Pour a little cream over 
the eggs, then more grated cheese. Season with salt and cayenne, 
and bake in a slow oven (250°-350° F.) until the eggs are 
set, but not hard. Serve in the baking-dish. 



6 eggs 4 tablespoons fat 

3 tablespoons chopped onion ^ cup bread-crumbs 

3 tablespoons chopped green Yz cup grated cheese 

Fry onion and pepper in the fat until slightly brown, then 
pour into a baking-dish. Break the eggs into the dish, being 
careful not to break the yolks. Mix the crumbs with the cheese 
and sprinkle over the eggs. Bake in a slow oven (250°-350° 
F.) until the eggs are set, but not hard. Serve in the dish in 
which they were baked. 


1 cup minced cooked ham or 6 poached eggs 

corned beef Garnish of tomato sKces 

1 cup crumbs Green-pepper rings 

Cream 1 quart mashed potato 

Mix the meat with the crumbs and enough cream to make a 
paste. Spread the mixture on a heated plank of suitable size. 
Around the edge of the plank make a narrow border of mashed 
potato and inside the border make six nests of the potato. Slip 
a poached egg into each nest and set in the oven until the potato 
turns a delicate brown. Garnish with alternate slices of tomato 
and green-pepper rings. 


1 cup salt codfish 2 uncooked eggs 

4 tablespoons fat Chopped parsley 

2 tablespoons flour 3 hard-cooked eggs 
2 cups milk 

Cover the fish with cold water and soak overnight. Drain, 
flake, and saute with the fat for a few minutes; sprinkle with 
the flour; add the milk, and cook until smooth. Stir in the 
uncooked eggs, slightly beaten, and cook three minutes more. 
Serve on a platter garnished with the chopped parsley and the 
hard-cooked eggs cut in quarters. 

Two additional tablespoons of flour may be substituted for 
the uncooked eggs, if desired. For creamed codfish, omit the 
hard-cooked eggs. 



1 small onion Y^ teaspoon pepper 

2 cups tomatoes 6 eggs 
1 teaspoon salt Toast 

Cut the onion into small pieces and place with the tomato in 
a shallow pan. Stew very slowly for ten minutes. Add salt 
and pepper, then reduce the heat until the tomato stops bub- 
bling. Break the eggs and slip them on top of the tomato, being 
careful not to break the yolks. Cook slowly until the whites 
of the eggs are set, then prick the yolks and let them mingle 
with the tomato and the whites. The mixture should be quite 
soft, but the red tomatoes should be quite distinct. Serve at 
once on buttered toast. 


1 slice onion 6 eggs 

1 tomato 1 teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon fat J4 teaspoon pepper 

Rub the onion over the inside of a frying-pan. Pare the 
tomato and cut it into small pieces. Melt the fat in the fry- 
ing-pan, add the tomato and cook for ^yq minutes, stirring it 
now and then. Beat the eggs well and add to the tomato, then 
add salt and pepper and cook slowly, stirring constantly, until 
the eggs thicken like scramble4 eggs. Pour into a hot dish 
and serve at once. 


5 tart apples Cinnamon or other spice 

Yz tablespoon fat 2 eggs 

Y2 cup sugar 

This is a very delicate dish to serve with broiled spareribs or 
roast pork. Cook the apples until very soft, then mash them 
and add fat, sugar, eggs and spice. Bake (250^-350° F.) in a 
shallow pudding-dish or pie-tin until brown. 


Cold (Picnic Eggs) — Cut hard-cooked eggs in half, either 
lengthwise or crosswise. Mash the yolks, season with salt, 
pepper, butter, a little mustard and vinegar. Minced potted 


ham may be added, or the yolks may be mixed with mayonnaise 
dressing. Refill the whites with the mixture; press two halves 
together, and wrap each egg in a square of waxed paper. 

Hot — Omit vinegar, add nuts to the egg mixture, moisten 
with evaporated milk and refill whites. Cap with large sauteed 
mushrooms. Pack into greased baking dish, caps up, cover with 
rich white sauce, then buttered crumbs and brown in 350° oven. 


1 tablespoon fat 3 eggs 

1 tablespoon flour Salt and pepper 

34 cup scalded milk Cayenne 

1 tablespoon chopped parsley Celery salt 

Make a white sauce of the fat, flour, and milk, and add the 
egg-yolks, slightly beaten. Add all the se;asonings, then fold 
in the stiffly beaten egg-whites. Fill greased baking-dishes two- 
thirds full of the mixture. Set dishes in a pan of hot water and 
poach in a slow oven (250°-350° F.) until firm. Arrange 
on a platter and serve with tomato cream sauce. 


6 hot hard-cooked eggs Chopped parsley 

Salt and pepper Anchovy paste 

^ cup hot cream 6 slices hot buttered toast 

1 cup hot thin white sauce 

Cut the eggs in two lengthwise and remove the yolks. Mash 
the yolks, add seasonings, cream, parsley, anchovy or any de- 
sired relish, and refill the whites. Place on slices of toast and 
pour the white sauce over them. 


6 hot hard-cooked eggs 54 teaspoon pepper 

Yz teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon butter 

lYi cups white, Bechamel, 4 tablespoons milk 

curry or tomato sauce Onion-juice 

Remove the shells from the eggs and cut them in half cross- 
wise, then cut an even slice from the end of each half so that 
it will stand up in a pan. Remove the yolks, mash, and add the 
salt, pepper, butter, milk and a few drops of onion-juice. Mix 
thoroughly and heap into the hollow of the whites. Set in a 


shallow pan and bake in a slow oven (2 50° -3 50° F.) for about 
six minutes, then arrange on a hot dish, and pour over them 
any preferred sauce. 


6 hard-cooked eggs Salt and pepper 

2 cups thin white sauce Paprika 

8 slices toast 

Separate the yolks from the whites of the eggs; chop the 
whites very fine, and add to the white sauce, with salt, pepper, 
paprika. Arrange six slices of toast on a platter and pour over 
them the white sauce mixture. Press the egg-yolks through a 
sieve and scatter over the top. Cut the two extra slices of toast 
into small triangles, or points, arrange on the platter and garnish 
with parsley. 


6 hard-cooked eggs 2 tablespoons flour 

2 tablespoons fat 2 cups milk 

Yz onion 1 teaspoon salt 

6 slices hot buttered toast ^ teaspoon pepper 

Remove the shells from the eggs and cut each Qgg into six 
pieces. Heat the fat in a frying-pan, and cook the chopped 
onion with it for a few minutes until yellow, but not brown. 
Remove the onion, make a sauce of the fat, flour, liquid and 
seasonings. When it thickens, add the eggs, and when they 
are well heated, turn the mixture out on to the buttered toast 
and serve at once. 


Butter Salt and pepper 

6 hard-cooked eggs Milk or cream 


Grease a baking-dish and place in it a layer of crumbs, then a 
layer of slices of hard-cooked eggs. Dot with bits of butter, 
sprinkle with salt and pepper, and add another layer of crumbs. 
Repeat in this order until the dish is full, having a layer of 
buttered crumbs on top. Pour cream or milk over the whole 
until it comes about halfway to the top of the dish, and brown 
in a moderate oven (3 50° -400° F.). 



6* hard-cooked eggs 3 tablespoons fat 

3 cups stock 3 tablespoons flour 

Minced parsley ^ cup cream 

Chopped onion Salt and pepper 

Cut the eggs in slices. Make a sauce of the stock, fat, flour 
and seasonings. Add the sliced eggs, the cream and salt and 
pepper. Mix well and serve very hot. 


6 hard-cooked eggs 2 cups medium white sauce, 
Salt and pepper or tomato sauce or yellow- 
Grated cheese sauce 
Buttered crumbs 

Remove the shells from the eggs and slice them. Arrange 
the slices in a greased baking-dish. Season with salt and pepper 
and pour the sauce over the top. Sprinkle with grated cheese 
and cover with buttered crumbs. Bake in a moderate oven 
(350 F.) until the sauce bubbles and the crumbs brown. 


1 onion 2 teaspoons chopped parsley 

Fat 4 tablespoons grated cheese 

1 cup milk Paprika 

6 hard-cooked eggs Salt and pepper 

2 uncooked egg-yolks lYz tablespoons lemon-juice 

Slice the onion and cook it in a very little fat until brown, 
then add to it the milk and the eggs cut in halves. Stir over 
the fire for three or four minutes, then add the slightly beaten 
egg-yolks, the parsley, cheese and seasonings. Stir over hot 
water for about eight minutes, add the lemon- juice and serve 
very hot. 


24 cloves Yz teaspoon salt 

6 hard-cooked eggs Yz teaspoon pepper 

2 cups vinegar J/2 teaspoon groimd mustard 

Shell the eggs and stick four cloves into each egg. Heat the 
vinegar and when boiling add the salt, pepper and mustard 



mixed with a little cold vinegar. Put the eggs in a glass fruit- 
jar and pour the boiling vinegar over them. Cover and let 
stand two weeks before using. Serve with broiled steak. 


12-18 strips bacon 1/^ teaspoon salt 

6 eggs Yg teaspoon pepper 

6 slices toast, square or round 1 cup grated cheese 
Butter Paprika 

Spread toast with butter and part of grated cheese. Separate 
eggs, place whites in mixing bowl and leave each separate yolk 
in shell till needed. Season whites and beat until stiff and fluffy. 
Heap onto toast and make a dent in center of each. Slip yolk 
into center of white, season and sprinkle liberally with cheese. 
Bake at 3 50° F. until cheese is browned and eggs are set. Garnish 
with paprika; serve with bacon. 


Cut a small section from the pointed end of a hard-cooked 
egg. Remove yolk, fill with caviar, and replace the cap. Place 
on a slice of tomato on shredded lettuce and surround witli 
pieces of cold boiled lobster. Serve with Russian dressing, page 
449, or Cucumber Cream dressing (below). 


Split and toast English muffins. Saute circular pieces of boiled 
ham and place them on the halves of muffins with slices of 
broiled tomato. Arrange on each a poached egg and cover with 
cheese sauce. 

Cucumber Cream Dressing — 

2 tablespoons vinegar 1 cup diced cucumber 

2 tablespoons sugar 1 cup heavy cream, whipped 

Add vinegar and sugar to cucumbers, fold into cream. 


CHEESE has an important place in the dietary, for it keeps 
well, it is a concentrated food, and ordinarily it is an 
economical one, at least when compared with other animal foods. 

One pound of cheese represents the fat and protein of a gallon 
of milk. It is one form in which a surplus of milk may be 
stored satisfactorily and cheaply. 

In spite of this, many persons do not use cheese as frequently 
as they should. In large measure, this is because the following 
facts about cheese are not generally known: 

That cheese is a very concentrated food and therefore should 
be eaten in small amounts and should be associated at the same 
meal with bulky foods such as fruits and vegetables. 

That whole-milk cheese is very rich in fat and therefore other 
fats at the meal should be limited in amount. 

That cheese is soft in texture and should be associated with 
something having tough, "chewy" or crisp texture. 

That cheese should take the place of meat or eggs and not be 
used merely as an addition to a meal already he^vy with protein 
and fat. 

Varieties of Cheese 

There is a cheese for every taste. The housekeeper should 
know the ways in which various kinds of cheese are used and 
choose the variety best suited to the need of the moment. The 
intensity of flavor desirable in a cheese depends, among other 
things, on the food with which it will be served. Roque- 
fort, Gorgonzola, Limburger and related types will satisfy many 
people better than the milder cheeses. Strong, old Cheddar 
cheese may be served with ginger snaps. From the chemist's 
standpoint, there is no basis for the statement often made that 
the highly flavored cheeses of strong odor have undergone 
putrefactive decomposition. 

Cheddar, American, or Standard Factory Cheese is the most 
common cheese in use. It is a hard cheese and varies greatly in flavor 
and texture. It may be white or yellow, old or fresh. A mild cheese 
is green and not cured; a strong cheese is old and cured. A Cheddar 
cheese should have a smooth texture and be plastic enough to slice 



well. Mold on the outside is no indication of the quality of the 
cheese. Cheddar cheese is useful in general cooking. Unless made 
into special dishes like cheese wafers, it is not so good to serve with 
salads as some cheese of more distinaive flavor. In recipes which 
call for cheese, without specifying the kind, Cheddar cheese is the 
variety meant. 

Long Horn, Young America, Daisy and Flat are Cheddar 
cheeses of varying shapes and sizes. 

California Jack is the Cheddar cheese of CaUfornia. 

Brie is a soft cheese, ripened by molds from the outside. The 
cheeses have a red coloration on the surface and vary in size from six 
to fifteen inches in diameter and from two to three inches in height. 
The largest weighs from five to six pounds. The interior varies in 
consistency from waxy to semi-liquid and has a very pronounced odor 
and a sharp characteristic taste. The cheese is dipped out of the 
container with a spoon. It is used as a dessert with coffee and wafers 
or it may be added to salad dressing. 

Caciocavallo is a hard Italian cheese shaped something like a 
gourd and weighing three to five pounds. It is white in color and 
is so hard that it is necessary to grate it. It is served in small dishes 
to be sprinkled in soup, spaghetti, etc. It is also added to these 
dishes, during the cooking. 

Camembert is a soft cheese, ripened by molds from the outside, so 
it belongs to the same group as Brie. It has a felt-like rind, one- 
sixteenth to one-eighth inch in thickness, composed of molds and 
dried cheese. A typical cheese is about four and one-quarter inches 
in diameter and three-quarters to one inch in thickness. It is sold 
wrapped in paper and enclosed in a wooden box of the same shape. 
Well-ripened cheeses vary from nearly fluid to the consistency of 
moderately soft butter. It is dipped out of the container with a 
spoon. It has a strong odor and flavor and is used in the same way as 
Brie. The entire cheese is eaten by those who like a moldy cheese. 

Cheshire Is the English Cheddar cheese. It is yellow, grainy, 
highly colored and highly salted and often more highly flavored than 
American Cheddar. It is used practically in the same ways as Ameri- 
can Cheddar cheese. 

Cream Cheese. See Neufchatel. 

Club Cheese is usually made from strong, well-ripened Cheddar 
cheese which is ground and mixed with butter and condiments. It 
spreads easily, and therefore is often used in sandwiches. 

Edam is a hard cheese. It is put on the market in the form of 
red balls, weighing from three to four-and-one-half pounds, wrapped 
in tin-foil. Its texture is solid, close and free from pores. It is 
rather dry and crumbly. It is mild in flavor and pleasantly saline. 

It is usual in this country to cut off a section of the top to serve 



as a lid, and to scoop out the inside as it is needed. It is served with 
salads, with crackers, with pie, etc. The cheese may be set in a silver 
holder or wrapped in a folded napkin on a plate. It is seldom cooked 
but often thrifty housewives, after the greater part of the cheese has 
been removed, stuff the hollow shell with cooked and seasoned maca- 
roni, rice, or something similar and bake it. Edam cheese may be used 
in rarebit. 

GoRGONZOLA is a semi-hard cheese, resembling Roquefort in that it 
is streaked throughout with a blue-green mold. The surface is 
heavily coated with a substance resembling clay. The cheeses are 
cylindrical in shape, about twelve inches in diameter and six inches 
in height. It may be crumbly or waxy in texture, and has a flavor 
resembling that of Roquefort. It is usually served uncooked as des- 
sert, with wafers and coffee, or in salads, or it may be added to the 
salad dressing. 

LiEDERKRANZ is a Small Limburger cheese. 

LiMBURGER is a hard cheese. It is wrapped in waxed paper and then 
in tin-foil. Each cheese weighs about two pounds. It has a very 
strong and characteristic odor and taste. The odor, which is disagree- 
able to some people, may be decreased by removing the rind and ex- 
posing the cheese to the air before bringing it to the table. Because of 
its strong flavor, it is always served uncooked, in sandwiches, with pie, 
or with wafers and coffee. 

Neufchatel and cream cheese are very similar, Neufchatei being 
made from milk containing four per cent, fat and cream cheese from 
milk containing six per cent. fat. Neufchatel cheese has a clean, 
sour-milk or lactic-acid flavor. In texture, it is smooth and free from 
holes. It is served with crackers or in salads and in sandwiches. 

Parmesan is a hard cheese, known in Italy as "Grana" because of 
its granular appearance when broken. The hardness of the cheese 
makes cutting it practically impossible. It has small holes or eyes. 
It is used in cooking, principally. It is grated and added to soup, 
macaroni, spaghetti and similar dishes. 

PiMiENTO Cheese is a cream, Neufchatel or ground Cheddar 
cheese to which pimientos have been added. It is used chiefly for 

Pineapple Cheese is an old, very hard Cheddar cheese. It gets 
its name from its shape. It is bright yellow and vanished on 
the surface. It is so hard that it is necessary to grate it. It has a 
stronger flavor than ordinary Cheddar cheese but is used in practically 
the same way. 

Provolona is a very hard Italian cheese resembling Caclocavallo, 
the main difference being in the shape. It is used in the same way. 

Roquefort is a semi-hard cheese made from goat's milk. It is 
ripened by a green mold which gives it a mottled appearance through- 


out. It is found on the market In cylindrical form about seven and 
one-quarter Inches in diameter and three and one-quarter inches thick, 
also In rectangular form and In small wedge-shaped portions. The 
pieces are without a definite rind and are wrapped in tin-foil. They 
must be kept cold. Roquefort has a strong odor and taste and is best 
served with highly flavored foods. It may be served in salads or with 
wafers and coffee. 

RicoTTE Is a very hard Italian cheese. It is similar to Caclocavallo 
and Provolona, except in shape and in being made from albumen whey 
instead of milk, and Is served the same way. 

Stilton Is a semi-hard cheese having a very characteristic wrinkled 
or ridged skin or ring. When cut, It shows blue or green portions of 
mold which give it its characteristic piquant flavor. It belongs to the 
Roquefort group. It is served as Roquefort Is, In salads or as dessert 
with wafers and coffee, or with pie. 

Swiss Cheese Is variously known as Gruyere, Emmenthal, Sweitzer 
and true Switzerland. The peculiar Swiss-cheese flavor is often called 
a hazel-nut taste. It is a trifle sweet and very tempting. The typical 
Switzerland cheese has evenly distributed eyes or holes about the size 
of a cherry, with a dull shine on the Inner lining, but the cheese is now 
packed In small cakes without rind and without holes. The imported 
Switzerland Is yellow In color; the American Swiss is white. Switzer- 
land cheese may be cooked, but is often served in sandwiches or as 
dessert with pie or with wafers and coffee. 


1 tablespoon fat '^ teaspoon mustard 

1 tablespoon flour ^ to 1 pound of cheese 
1 cup milk (according to richness de- 

Yi teaspoon salt sired) shaved or cut fine 

Few grains pepper 6 slices buttered toast 

Make a white sauce, in the top of a double boiler, of the first 
six Ingredients, mixing the mustard with the other dry in- 
gredients. Set the top part of the boiler over hot but not boil- 
ing water. Add the cheese, cook and stir until it is melted. 
Serve on hot toasted bread or on saltines. One-half cup chopped 
olives may be added. This dish may be varied by adding one 
or two slightly beaten eggs just after the cheese has melted 
and continuing the cooking until the egg has thickened the 



Yz tablespoon fat Y^ teaspoon salt 

Yz green pepper Y2 cup canned tomatoes 

2 cups grated cheese Y2 cup bread-crumbs 

1 egg 6 slices buttered toast 
1 cup canned corn 

Melt the fat in the top of the double boiler over direct 
heat. Add the chopped pepper and cook until slightly softened, 
but not browned. Set over hot water, add the cheese and stir 
constantly until the cheese is melted. Mix beaten egg, salt 
and corn and stir into the cheese mixture; then add the chopped 
tomatoes and crumbs. Allow the mixture to heat through and 
serve on toasted bread. 


2 cups tomatoes 1 cup grated cheese 

Y4 teaspoon soda 6 eggs 

1 teaspoon salt 6 slices toast 

Y4 teaspoon pepper Y4 teaspoon paprika 

2 tablespoons flour Parsley 

Mix tomatoes, soda and seasonings and stew for about ^ve 
minutes; then strain and thicken with the flour, mixed to a 
paste with a little cold water. Add the cheese and stir until 
smooth. Poach the eggs and place on the toast on a platter. 
Pour the sauce around the eggs. Sprinkle with the paprika 
and garnish with parsley. 


On Toast — 

1 cup grated cheese Paprika 

3 tablespoons melted fat 6 eggs 

Yz teaspoon salt 6 slices toasted bread 

Mix the grated cheese with the fat and add salt and paprika. 
Beat the eggs until light, add to the cheese mixture, pour into 
a saucepan, set the pan in another pan of boiling water and 
cook, stirring constantly, until the cheese is smooth and creamy. 
Lay the toast on a hot plate, pour the fondue over it and serve 
at once. 


t i'^fe-i 





Baked — 

1 cup grated cheese ^3 teaspoon salt 

2 teaspoons fat 3 eggs 

1 cup milk Cayenne 

1 cup soft bread-crumbs 

or 1 cup cooked rice or 

other cereal 

Scald the milk and pour it over the crumbs or cereal, then add 
the fat, the cheese and seasonings. Beat the egg-yolks slightly 
and add to the mixture, then fold in the stiffly beaten whites 
and turn the mixture into a greased baking-dish. Set in a pan 
of water and bake in a moderate oven (375° F.) until firm 
on top. 


1 cup cheese 3 tablespoons fat 

3 eggs J/2 teaspoon salt 
1 cup milk Pepper 

3 tablespoons flour 

Make a white sauce of milk, flour, fat and seasonings. Add 
the cheese and beaten egg-yolks and stir until the cheese has 
melted and the yolks are set. Fold in stiffly beaten egg-whites. 
Pour into a greased dish, or individual molds, and set in a pan 
of hot water. Bake in a moderate oven (350° F.) 45 to 50 
minutes, or until the egg white is set. Serve at once. It begins 
to fall as soon as removed from oven. 

The cheese souffle may be baked in ramekin dishes and served 
as a cheese course for dinner. 


^ ^^B^ 1 tablespoon chopped green 

1 cup milk (warmed) pepper 

Yz cup grated cheese Yg teaspoon paprika 

Yi teaspoon salt 

Beat the eggs very light and add to them the warm milk, the 
grated cheese, pepper, paprika and salt. Grease small timbale- 
molds, fill with the mixture, set in a baking-pan of boiling 
water and bake in a slow oven (250° -3 25° F.) until the egg is 
set. Turn out carefully on a hot platter. Serve at once, as they 
soon fall. They may be served with tomato or pimiento sauce. 



1 cup cream 2 tablespoons grated cheese 

6 eggs Salt and pepper 

Put the cream into a frying-pan and let it heat to the boiling- 
point, then break in, carefully, the eggs. Lower the heat under 
the eggs and cook until they are set, as in poaching, spooning 
the cream over the top of the eggs while they are cooking. Put 
them on a hot platter. To the cream left in the frying-pan, 
add the grated cheese and seasonings. Stir until melted and pour 
the mixture over the eggs. 


1 cup corn-meal 1 teaspoon salt 

4 cups boiling water Yz cup grated cheese 

Pour one cup of boiling water over the corn-meal and let it 
stand imtil it swells, then add the remainder of the water, with 
the salt, and cook over the direct flame for five minutes, stirring 
constantly. Turn it into a double boiler or fireless cooker and 
cook two hours; or into a greased baking-dish and bake in a 
slow oven (250°-350° F.) for two hours. Just before taking 
it from the fire, add the cheese and cook until it melts. 


Yz cup soft cheese 1 egg-white 

2 tablespoons fat i^ teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons flour ^ teaspoon paprika 

Yz cup milk Crumbs 
2 egg-yolks 

Make a white sauce, using the fat, flour and milk. Add tHe 
slightly beaten egg-yolks^ the cheese cut in small bits, and the 
seasonings. Stir until the cheese is melted. Allow the mix- 
ture to coolj then shape, roll in crumbs, then in the egg- white^ 
which has been diluted with one tablespoon of water, then in 
crumbs again and fry in deep fat (375 ""-390° F.). 



% cup grated cheese 1 cup cooked Lima or navy 

2 cups mashed potatoes beans, ground 
4 tablespoons minced pimlento 1 teaspoon salt 

Combine ingredients and shape the mixture into cutlets about 
one-half inch thick. Saute them in a small amount of hot fat 
and serve with horseradish sauce. 


3 egg-whites Salt 

1 tablespoon flour Cayenne 
V/z cups grated cheese Crumbs 

Beat the egg-whites until very stiff, fold in carefully the 
flour, cheese and seasonings. Shape the mixture into small balls, 
roll in fine crumbs and fry in deep fat (375° -390° F.). Serve 
with soup or salad. 


3 cups cooked rice 1 cup milk 

2 cups cheese 2 tablespoons butter 
Yz teaspoon salt Crumbs 


Put a layer of cooked rice in a greased baking-dish, cover 
with a layer of grated cheese, season with salt and cayenne. 
Continue adding layers until the dish is almost full. Add 
enough milk to come half-way to the top of the rice. Cover 
with crumbs, dot with butter and bake in a moderate oven 
(3 50°-400° F.) fifteen to thirty minutes. 


Spread grated cheese on thin crackers, season witli a bit of 
paprika and heat in a quick oven until the cheese is melted. 
Serve with soup or salad. Thin slices of toasted bread may be 
used instead of the crackers. 


Use any left-over plain or puff paste. Roll out to one-quarter 
inch in thickness, sprinkle one-half of it with grated cheese. 


Fold over the other half and roll out again. Sprinkle with 
cheese and proceed as before; repeat three times. Cut into 
very narrow strips and bake for ten minutes on the top shelf 
of a very hot oven (500° F.). 


% cup grated cheese Cayenne 

% cup flour 1 egg-yolk 

1/^ cup shortening 

Mix the cheese and flour, then cut the shortening into this 
mixture; add a little cayenne pepper and moisten with the yolk 
of the egg. Roll out to one-fourth inch thick, cut into long, 
narrow strips and bake in a very hot oven (500° F.) five to 
seven minutes. 

If you prefer use the ordinary recipe for baking-powder 
biscuits, making the biscuits in two layers and sprinkling grated 
cheese between the layers. 


2 cups fine zwieback ll/^ teaspoons grated 
crumbs lemon rind 

11/2 cups sugar 1 cup cream 

1 teaspoon cinnamon ly^ pounds cottage 

y2 cup melted butter cheese 

or margarine 4 tablespoons flour 

4 eggs y^ cup chopped nut 

% teaspoon salt meats 

11/2 teaspoons lemon juice 

Mix zwieback with Yz cup sugar, cinnamon and butter or 
margarine. Set aside % cup to sprinkle over top, press remain- 
der of crumbs into a 9 -inch spring form pan, lining bottom 
and sides. Beat eggs with remaining 1 cup sugar, until light; 
add salt, lemon juice and rind, cream, cheese and flour, beat 
thoroughly and strain through a fine sieve. Pour into lined 
pan, sprinkle with remaining crumbs and nut meats. Bake in 
a moderate oven (350° F.) about 1 hour or until center is 
"set". Turn off heat, open oven door, let stand in oven 1 hour 
or until cooled. Serves 10 to 12. 


ROOTS, stems, leaves, buds, seeds and fruits of plants used 
' as food are called vegetables. They classify as follows: 

Roots — Beets, carrots, parsnips, turnips, salsify, radishes, 
horseradish, rutabagas, celeriac, sweet potatoes, yams, cassava. 

Stems — Enlarged underground stems called tubers: Irish 
potatoes and Jerusalem artichokes, dasheen or taro, yautia, 
kohlrabi, fennel. 

Stem and Bud — Asparagus. 

Bulbs — Onions (green, called scallions), leek, garlic, shallot. 

Leaf Stalks — Celery, rhubarb. 

Leaves — ^Lettuce, endive, spinach, romaine, watercress, 
chard, chives, chicory, tops of beets, turnips, dandelion, fennel, 
mustard, dill, and parsley, escarole, Chinese cabbage, collards, 

Buds — Cabbage (terminal), Brussels sprouts (axillary). 

Flowering Heads — Cauliflower, French artichoke, broccoli. 

Fruit — Cucumbers, squash, eggplant, peppers, okra, pump- 
kin, tomatoes, string beans, green peas, green corn, vegetable 
marrow, zucchini, chayote, Lima beans. 

Seeds — Peas, beans, lentils, corn, rice, Lima beans, soybeans, 
grains, cereals. 

Fungi — Mushrooms, truffles. 

Selection of Vegetables 

Buy vegetables in their season. Many vegetables are in the 
market the year round, and modern agriculture has greatly 
extended the season for many others but some, when out of 
season, lack flavor and freshness. 

Vegetables should be fresh, firm (not hard), and ripe. Do 
not buy vegetables that are old, withered, moldy or bruised, 
underripe or overripe; there is no saving in cost from purchas- 
ing such vegetables. Head vegetables should be solid, with 
few waste leaves. Cauliflower should be white and firm, with 
no blemishes. Leafy vegetables should not be wilted. Peas and 
beans should have crisp pods. Buy vegetables of medium size 
and regular shape. 



Buy only the amount of summer vegetables you can use 
immediately, because they deteriorate in quality very quickly 
and are best when cooked soon after gathering. 

Winter vegetables may be bought in larger amounts If there 
is a suitable dry, cool place for storage. 

Get acquainted with vegetables that you or your family have 
never eaten. For the first time buy only enough for your own 
lunch and cook them after your favorite method. If that is 
successful, try them on the family. If not, try again with an- 
other recipe, until you find one you think they will like. 

Care of Vegetables 

Summer Vegetables — If these are not to be cooked at once, 
they should be put in the refrigerator or some other cool dry 
place. Peas and corn, especially, should be cooked soon after 
they are gathered, because they lose their sweetness on standing. 
Lettuce should be sprinkled and wrapped in a heavy cloth or 
paper, and put into the refrigerator until it is used. Salad 
greens keep a week or more in mechanically cooled refrigerators 
if they are washed and placed in closely covered enamel or 
porcelain containers after being well drained. Cloths or paper 
wrappings dry out too quickly in mechanically cooled 

Cut the stems of wilted vegetables and plunge into cold water 
to freshen. 

Winter Vegetables — ^These should be in good condition, 
firm and uninjured and stored in a dry, cool, well ventilated 
place. Most of them keep better if they are piled up so that 
the air is excluded. Squash, however, keep better if they are 
spread out so that they do not touch one another. Squash and 
sweet potatoes require a warmer place than other vegetables. 
Vegetables cannot be kept successfully in an unpartitioned cellar 
containing a furnace. Vegetables should not be overripe when 
stored, but should be nearly mature. Parsnips improve in 
flavor if they are allowed to freeze before they are stored. They 
should be watched carefully and if they show signs of spoiling, 
should be used at once or removed from the other vegetables. 



Preparation of Vegetables for Cooking 

Wash all vegetables before cooking, even though they look 
clean. A vegetable brush is almost a necessity. Soak wilted 
vegetables before peeling them. Vegetables that are soaked 
after they are peeled lose some soluble food materials. Dry 
winter vegetables may be improved by soaking them for several 
hours. Scrape thin-skinned vegetables; pare thick-skinned 
vegetables or remove the skin after cooking. Make thin par- 
ings except in the case of turnips, from which a thick layer of 
corky material should be removed. Discard decayed vegetables. 

Many vegetables, particularly of the bud, head and fruit 
groups, need to be immersed for a period in cold salt water. 
This freshens the fiber and drives out any insects that have 
taken refuge in crevices. Leaf vegetables need to be washed 
in several waters, the first of which should be salted for the 
same reason. The leaves should be lifted out of the water rather 
than the water poured off. This permits any sand to sink to 
the bottom of the pan. A tablespoon of liquid ammonia added 
to the last gallon of wash water will remove the last film that 
carries an earthy flavor. 

What Vegetables Provide 

The appreciation of vegetables as food has greatly increased 
in recent years with an extended understanding of their 
peculiar values. The modern woman realizes that these values, 
having been paid for at the market, must be retained in the 
preparation, if her family is to benefit by her intelligent pur- 
chases. Vegetables are one of the three groups of food that 
protect growth and vitality and preserve the characteristics 
of youth, the others being milk and fruits. The importance of 
these protective foods may be realized by the fact that scientists 
have found an astonishing relation between the early onset of 
old age and the food habits of persons involved. The modern 
woman knows that vegetables provide not only starches and 
sugars for energy, as well as several forms of protein, but what 
is most important they provide impressive amounts of Vitamins 
A, B, C, E, and G, in addition to mineral salts. (See pages 39 

to 44.) These mineral salts are especially Calcium, Phosphorus, 
Iron, Copper, Manganese, and Sulphur, as well as Iodine, in 
vegetables grown along the seashore. Besides all this, she knows 
that the generous use of many vegetables helps to keep up the 
body's normal alkaline balance which contributes so very largely 
to sound health and vitality. 

Cooking to Retain These Values 

Many vegetables can be and are eaten uncooked with all 
their values intact. But many more need to be cooked before 
they can be served. Preparation by cooking should result in 
the least possible loss while it enhances values not otherwise 
available. For this reason cooking should: 

1. Swell and burst the starch cell so that the center is softened and made 

2. Sterilize the vegetable thoroughly. 

3. Break up tough fiber so it is edible and digestible. 

4. Release food proteins and minerals from their fiber cells. 

5. Provide hot food. 

6. Inaease many flavors and some colors. 

Baking is the best method to secure all these results and still 
preserve Vitamins and minerals. Dry baking in their skins, 
generally used for potatoes, sweet potatoes, squash, turnips, 
carrots, onions, and parsnips, is a simple method whereby the 
vegetable is packed in a pan or laid on the rack of a hot oven 
to remain until just tender when pierced with a sharp fork. 
Baking, however, also includes the roasting of whole vegetables 
with meat, gravy, or fat, especially when potatoes or sweet 
potatoes are scraped, thus preserving mineral values just under 
the skin. 

Au Gratin and Scalloping are other forms of baking, 
especially when fresh vegetables are used. In the latter method, 
layers of the vegetable are alternated in a baking dish or ring 
mold with white sauce, cream or milk, and seasonings, and in 
the former method a covering of buttered bread crumbs or 
buttered crumbs and cheese is added. Leftover cooked 
vegetables may be prepared by these methods also, but the 
Vitamin and mineral value will be determined by the first cook- 
ing. Only baking in the jacket will insure the preservation of 
the Vitamins. 


Broiling is the exposure to direct heat and can be used for 
some vegetables. The minerals will be less injured than the 
Vitamins, for the high heat destroys most of the latter. 

Deep Fat Frying, next to baking, is another satisfactory 
way to retain most of the food values. The vegetable is sliced 
or cut into convenient form, dipped in egg and crumbs or 
batter, and immersed in enough very hot fat to cover well. 
This permits quick cooking with little loss. 

In Sauteing, the shredded or broken vegetable is turned 
into a shallow pan or skillet in which a small amount of fat 
has been heated. Cooking takes longer and more fat is absorbed 
by the food, hence, for many persons the process is not 

Boiling does the most damage to fresh vegetables, yet it is 
used most frequently by the largest number of homemakers. 
Although there are methods that reduce the losses to a minimum, 
the modern woman will remember that boiling is to be used 
least often, and always to be overbalanced by the better methods. 
Most of the mineral salts occurring in vegetables are easily dis- 
solved in water and the loss of Vitamins during boiling takes 
place in several ways. They may be destroyed by overheating, 
by prolonged exposure to the air, and by dissolving out in the 
cooking water. When this is drained off and discarded, the 
principal food values gained by the intelligent buying of 
vegetables has been thrown away. In every case only the small- 
est possible amount of water should be used and it should be 
boiling rapidly when the vegetables are dropped in. They 
should be cooked only until just tender, and by this time 
most of the water has been evaporated. Greens such as spinach, 
chard, and dandelions need only the water that clings to the 
leaves. They go into a cold pot with the heat turned on after 
the vegetable is in the kettle. 

To Boil Vegetables the Proper Way, four methods must 
be taken into account: 

1. The green vegetables are best cooked in water that is slightly alkaline. 
If there is any doubt, add a bit of baking soda the size of a pinhead. 
No drinking water would be acid enough to need more. Use an un- 
covered kettle and cook only until tender to the fork. If overcooked, 
green vegetables turn brownish because of chemical changes in the 
coloring matter, the fine flavor is ruined, while food values are lost. 

2. White fresh vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower, and onion are 


Strong flavored, due to their special oils. Hard water changes these oils 
so that the white color turns to yellow or brown. To prevent this, add 
1 teaspoon of lemon juice or white vinegar. Drop the vegetable into 
enough rapidly boiling water to cover and cook with the kettle uncovered 
until just tender to the fork. Add the drained water, if any, to your 
soup stock. 

3. The red color in vegetables is produced by acid and needs to be kept 
that way. Tomatoes usually have enough acid of their own to keep the 
color, but beets and red cabbage need a teaspoon of lemon juice or 
white vinegar. Cook in a small amount of water in a covered kettle. 

4. Yellow vegetables are among the most valuable and stable. That rich 
yellow color is not only beauty but actually the foundation of Vitamin 
A. Not much damage can be done to it although the minerals and other 
Vitamins can still be destroyed if the vegetable is carelessly handled. 

Li general, the destruction of Vitamins is reduced when 
vegetables are boiled at high temperatures for the shortest pos- 
sible time, in the smallest possible amount of water. Then the 
minerals, too, will be saved. 

Steaming as a method of cooking vegetables is valuable for 
those that can stand a high temperature for a long period, or 
those that are cooked in the meat pot so that the extracted 
minerals and Vitamins are used in the gravy. It is particularly 
good for dried and starchy ones. The long, slow process gives 
the starch cell time to swell and gelatinize. It is most valuable 
at high altitudes, because the extra pressure keeps the steam at 
212° F. or more, while in the open-air cooking the high altitude 
reduces the boiling point below 212° F. 

"Waterless Cooking of fresh vegetables is any process in 
which no water is added. The water in the vegetable itself does 
the cooking. A thick-walled kettle with a tight-fitting lid isi 
the necessary equipment. Very low heat is used, and the 
vegetable is tender in a very short time because neither heat nor 
steam escapes. No minerals are lost and the loss of Vitamins is 
almost as low as in baking. 

All cooking of vegetables reduces the Vitamin C content, 
although tomatoes and the baked potato manage to retain 
most of theirs. To insure an adequate daily supply of Vitamin 
C, the modern woman never loses sight of the fact that some 
fresh fruits and vegetables must be served every day. 


The French artichoke is boiled in salted water, served hot 
with brown butter or Hollandaise sauce, or cold with mayon- 


naise. The spiny choke below the leaves and above the heart 
must be discarded. The Jerusalem artichoke is washed, pared, 
I boiled like a potato and dressed with seasoning, melted butter 
and minced parsley. 


Trim off hard stalks and scales to the head. Tie in bunches, 
stand upright in boiling salted water. After 10 minutes turn 
^ into loaf pan and continue with heat under the stems. Serve 
\ with browned butter or Hollandaise. 


No. 1. 

1 pint pea beans 1^ teaspoon salt 

1 small onion 14 teaspoon dry mustard 

Yq pound salt pork, part fat 2 tablespoons molasses 

Soak beans in cold water overnight. In the morning drain 
and turn into a bean-pot; or simmer until skins begin to burst, 
but not long enough to be mushy, then turn into the bean-pot. 
Pour boiling water over salt pork. Scrape the rind until white, 
score in half-inch strips, and bury meat in beans, leaving only 
the rind exposed. Mix salt, mustard and molasses in a cup, fill 
with hot water, stir until well mixed, and pour over the pork 
and beans. Add water to cover, and bake in a 250°-350° F, 
oven six to eight hours, adding more water to cover until the 
last hour, when pot cover is removed and pork raised to the 
surface to crisp. 

Use corned beef instead of pork, or omit meat and use more 
salt, with one-third cup of fat. 

No. 2 — Quick Method — ^Use same ingredients as in pre- 
vious recipe. Do not soak the beans overnight. Place them 
over the fire, cover them with cold water, and slowly bring 
the water to a boil, then set the kettle where the beans will 
simmer, but will at no time boil vigorously. When they have 
cooked in this way for fifteen minutes, drain and add fresh 
boiling water. Add salt pork to the kettle and simmer until 
the beans may be pierced with a straw. Turn the beans into 
a colander to drain; put into bean-pot, season and bake as di- 
rected above. 



Of the many varieties of soy-beans grown in this country, 
the yellow variety is the most popular for cooking purposes, 
though the black and green beans are used, and are particularly 
good in soup. Soy-beans require longer cooking than white 
beans, but the length of time required is lessened if the beans 
are soaked for twelve hours before cooking. 


2 cups yellow soy-beans 2 tablespoons molasses 

1 tablespoon salt 1 teaspoon mustard 

1 small onion ^ pound fat salt pork 

Soak the beans for twelve hours, then heat to boiling and 
simmer until tender. Unless the beans are tender before they 
are baked, they will not be good. Prepare as directed for 
"Baked Beans." Eight to ten hours will be required to bake 


1 quart green Lima beans or 1 tablespoon fat 

2 cups dried Lima beans 1 cup milk or cream if 

Salt and pepper desired 

If the green beans are used, put them into just enough boil- 
ing water to cover, and boil slowly until tender. Salt the water 
just before cooking is completed. Add fat and salt and pepper 
to taste. If desired, a cup of milk or cream may be added and 
the beans allowed to simmer in it for a moment. 

If dried beans are used they may be soaked twelve hours 
in plenty of cold water, and boiled in the same water with one- 
eighth teaspoon of soda added for each quart of water; or 
the process may be hastened by soaking them for one hour and 
simmering them for two hours. If they are not soaked at all, 
they can be made tender by simmering for two and one-half 
hours. The water should be drained off before the milk or 
cream is added. 


1 quart string beans Salt and pepper Butter 

Wash beans, string and snap or cut into short pieces. Cover 
with least possible amount of boiling water and cook gently 







until tender. Salt the water just before cooking is completed. 
"When done, drain and season with butter, salt and pepper. 

If the flavor of salt pork is liked cut slice of salt pork into 
small pieces and fry until brown, then add one tablespoon flour, 
one cup hot water, and the beans. Simmer for a few minutes 
and serve hot. 


Wash the beets thoroughly and remove the leaves, being very 
careful not to break off the little fibers and rootlets which re- 
tain the juices and coloring matter. Use plenty of water in 
cooking. If the beets are tough and withered, soak them for 
twenty- four hours in plenty of cold water before beginning to 
cook them. 

Try with a fork, and when they are tender drop them into 
a pan of cold water and slip off the skins with the hands. If 
small, serve whole. I'f large, slice those to be used immediately, 
place in a dish and season with salt, pepper, and butter or savory 
fat. A teaspoon of sugar may be added also if the beets are not 
naturally sweet enough. Set them over boiling water to heat 
thoroughly and serve hot, with or without vinegar. Cold beets 
left over may be covered with vinegar and used as pickles. 


Carefully wash and clean young beets, leaving roots and tops 
together. Put them into a kettle with very little boiling water 
and allow them to cook until just tender. Salt the water just 
before cooking is completed. Drain as dry as possible, in a col- 
ander. Chop, if desired. Serve hot with vinegar or with butter, 
salt and pepper. 


Broccoli is a variety of cauliflower that is green instead 
of white. It was very popular in Colonial gardens and con- 
tinued to be grown and sold along the east coast but gained 
popularity very slowly among native Americans. Within the last 
ten years growers on the west coast have promoted it and it is 
now as popular and often more abundant and lower priced than 
cauliflower. Shipped in ice from early cuttings, even the largest 
stalks are often tender. Choose heads and leaves that are bright 
green and crisp. Cut off only such portions of the stalk as are 


too hard and tough to admit the knife. Wash under running 
water and refrigerate, if not to be used at once. When ready 
to cook, use a deep kettle just large enough for the head or heads 
and bring salted water to a rapid boil. Insert carefully, stem 
end down, leave uncovered and when the water stops boiling 
add soda the size of a small pea to the water around the stems. 
The heads should not be submerged. When water boils up 
again they will cook more slowly than the stems and both will 
be tender in 15-25 minutes. If the heads are under water, they 
cook so much more rapidly that they will be mushy before the 
stems are tender. Broccoli heads, stems and leaves are valuable 
sources of vitamins A and G, as well as iron and calcium. 

Serve with brown butter sauce, brown butter and crumbs, 
HoUandaise sauce or au gratin. Broccoli can be used instead 
of spinach for cream soup, especially when the green color 
is wanted. 


Pick off the dead leaves from the sprouts, soak the sprouts 
in cold salted water for one-half hour, wash them and put 
them on the fire in plenty of boiling water. Boil in an un- 
covered saucepan until tender. Just before they are done, 
salt the water. Drain in a colander. Reheat; season with salt 
and pepper, and serve with cream sauce or melted butter. 


Cut the cabbage into desired shapes. Place it in a kettle with 
a generous amount of water. Cook uncovered until just tender. 
Add salt to the water just before cooking is completed. Drain, 
add butter or bacon fat, salt and pepper. 

A little milk or cream may be added or it may be creamed or 
scalloped or served au gratin. 


i small head cabbage 1 ^ cups medium white sauce 

2 cups grated cheese Vz to Y^ cup bread-crumbs 

Cook the cabbage as directed for boiled cabbage. Into a 
greased baking-dish^ put a layer of cabbage, then a layer of 
cheese, then a layer of white sauce, and continue to add layers 


until the ingredients are all used. Cover the top of the mixture 
with the crumbs, which may be mixed with a little melted but- 
ter, and bake in a moderate oven (3 50° -400° F.) for about 
twenty minutes, or until the crumbs are brown. 


To serve carrots as a separate vegetable, scrape and wash; 
leave young carrots whole and cut old carrots in slices length- 
wise or crosswise. Boil them until tender (15-30 minutes) in 
water containing one teaspoon sugar. Just before cooking is 
completed, salt the water. Drain, add butter, and seasoning or 
roll in butter, then in corn flakes and brown in oven at 3 50° F. 


No. 1. 

2 cups cubed, cooked carrots 3 tablespoons butter or other 

1 cup cooked peas, fresh or fat or 

canned Medium white sauce 

Combine the carrots and peas, reheat and serve with melted 
butter or any savory fat such as bacon fat; or combine with a 
white sauce. Season to taste with salt and pepper. 

No. 2 — ^WiTH Green Mint — Combine the carrots and peas, 
as directed above, add one-half cup mint leaves and a little boil- 
ing water and boil for five minutes. Drain, add salt and pepper, 
a generous amount of butter and a sprinkle of sugar. Set in 
the oven until the sugar melts. Serve with a garnish of fresh 
mint leaves. 


2 cups grated raw carrot 1 teaspoon salt 

yz cup bread-crumbs 2 tablespoons melted fat 

2 eggs Yz cup milk 

Wash, scrape and grate the carrots and mix with the crumbs. 
Beat the eggs and add to them the salt, fat and milk. Add this 
mixture to the carrot and crumb mixture. Fill a greased ring 
mold or popover cups, set in a pan of hot water and bake in a 
slow oven (250°-325° F.) until firm. 


Remove the green leaves from the cauliflower and cut off 
any bruised or dirty spots. Place it, top downward, in a deep 


bowl of cold, salted water and allow it to stay there about half 
an hoiir to draw out dust and other impurities. Cook it, whole 
or broken into flowerets, in boiling water, uncovered. Just 
before cooking is completed (15-30 minutes) salt the water. 
Lift out the cauliflower carefully and allow it to drain in a 
warm place. Pour medium white sauce over it or send the 
sauce to the table in a sauce-boat, or serve it with melted butter 
and paprika. 

Sometimes hot boiled cauliflower is sprinkled with grated 
cheese and then with buttered crumbs and baked to a light 
brown in a moderate oven (400° F.), or it may be sprinkled 
with the grated cheese and served without baking. 


1 medium cauliflower 1 Yz cups medium white sauce 

2 hard-cooked eggs or Bread-crumbs 
4 tablespoons grated cheese 

Break the cauliflower into flowerets before boiling. Drain. 
Place a layer of the cooked cauliflower in a greased baking- 
dish, then a layer of eg^ slices or of grated cheese, then a layer 
of white sauce. Repeat until all the cauliflower is used. Put 
a layer of crumbs over the top and bake in a moderate oven 
(3 50° -400° F.) from fifteen to thirty minutes. A bit of 
cayenne pepper or paprika may be added for additional season- 


2 cups celery cut into inch 2 tablespoons flour 

long pieces 2 tablespoons fat 

Yz cup milk Salt and pepper 

"Wash the stalks clean and cut them into pieces. Place the 
celery in a stew-pan, cover with boiling water and boil until 
tender (about half an hour), by which time the water should 
be reduced to about one-half cup. Make a sauce with the 
celery water, milk, flour and butter. Add the cooked celery 
and season with salt and pepper. 


Stew celery, as directed in the preceding recipe, using all milk 
in the sauce instead of part celery water. Turn the creamed 


celery into a greased ramekin, sprinkle with grated cheese and 
buttered crumbs and bake in a moderate oven (3 50° -400° F.) 
until it is a golden brown (15-30 minutes). 


Not every housewife knows celeriac, but it is well worth 
adding to her list of vegetable acquaintances. It is a variety of 
celery grown for its turnip -like root instead of for the blanched 
stalks. The flavor is similar to that of celery. 

To prepare celeriac, trim off the tops, wash and pare the bulb^ 
drop it into boiling water and cook about one-half hour, or 
until tender. Add the salt just before cooking is completed. 
It may then be prepared in the same way as creamed or scalloped 
celery, or may be used, cold, in salads. 


To have this vegetable in perfection, the husks should be left 
on until just before it is to be boiled. Plunge the husked ears 
into boiling water and cook from seven to twelve minutes, 
according to the size of the corn. Do not salt the cooking water, 
as this toughens the corn. 

Lay a napkin on the serving-plate. Pile the corn upon this 
in a pyramid, cover it with the corners of the napkin and send 
It to the table. 


1 tablespoon fat Pepper 

1 tablespoon flour 1 boiled pimiento 

54 cup milk 2 cups corn pulp 

1 teaspoon salt 2 eggs 

y4 teaspoon paprika 

Make a white sauce, using the fat, flour, milk and seasoning. 
Rub the pimiento through a sieve and add it to the sauce. 
Add the corn to the mixture. Cool slightly, then add the well- 
beaten egg-yolks and fold in the stiffly beaten egg-whites. Turn 
into a greased baking-dish, set the dish in a pan of hot water, 
and bake in a moderate oven (375° F.) until the egg is set, 
about thirty minutes. 



2 cups corn pulp 2 tablespoons fat 

2 eggs Salt and pepper 

2 tablespoons flour 

If fresh corn is used, grate it from the cob with a coarse 
grater. If canned corn is used, select one of the sieved varieties. 
Beat the egg-yolks and whites separately and add to the grated 
corn, with flour and fat, salt and pepper. Drop the batter 
from a spoon into hot fat (3 60° -370° F.) and fry light brown 
(2-3 minutes). Drain on soft paper. Serve hot. 


2 tablespoons fat 2 cups corn pulp 

2 tablespoons flour 1 egg 

lYz cups milk 1 tablespoon Worcestershire 

1 teaspoon salt sauce 

1/4 teaspoon mustard Buttered crumbs 


Make a sauce of fat, flour, milk, and seasonings, add corn, egg 
slightly beaten, and "Worcestershire sauce. Pour into a baking- 
dish, cover with buttered crumbs and bake in a moderate oven 
(350°-400° F.) fifteen to thirty minutes. 


2 cups cooked corn 1 teaspoon sugar 

2 cups tomatoes 1 cup fresh bread-crumbs 

1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons fat 


Mix seasonings with the corn and tomatoes and pour all into 
a greased baking-dish. Spread the crumbs over the top, dot 
them with the fat, and bake in a moderate oven (3 50° -400° 
F.) for one-half hour. This is a satisfactory way of utilizing 
left-over corn or tomatoes. 


This makes a dainty dish for luncheon. Cut the unpared 
vegetables into sections two inches long and cook until tender 
in water salted just before cooking is completed. Scoop out the 

—National Dairy Council 




GARNISH . - - "* 



center of each section, leaving one -half -inch thickness all 
around the sides, as well as on the bottom, thus making green 
cups of the vegetable. These cups may be filled with creamed 
chicken, sweetbreads, mushrooms or any other filling held to- 
gether with white sauce. 


3 cucumbers 1 cup boiling water 
6 slices toast Yz teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons fat Pepper 

2 tablespoons flour 1^ tablespoons lemon- juice 

Peel medium-sized cucumbers and cut them into quarters 
lengthwise. Place in a shallow pan, cover with the boiling 
water and stew gently for ten to twenty minutes. Add salt 
just before cooking is completed. When done, lay them care- 
fully on toasted bread, make a sauce of the flour, fat, water 
in which cucumbers were cooked, and seasonings, cook until 
smooth, and pour the sauce over the stewed cucumbers. 


4 cucumbers! Salt and pepper 

Butter Minced parsley or chives 


Pare and quarter the cucumbers and boil them, without any 
water, for three minutes. Drain; season with salt and pepper; 
roll in flour and saute in a little butter until tender. Sprinkle 
with parsley or chives just before the cooking is completed. 


2 pounds dandelion greens 1 tablespoon butter 

Salt and pepper 

Dandelions should be used before they blossom, as they be- 
come bitter after that time. Cut off the roots, pick the greens 
over carefully, and wash them well in several waters. Place 
them in a kettle, add a little boiling water, and boil until tender. 
Salt the water just before cooking is completed. "When done, 
lift them into a colander, press them to drain off all the water, 
and chop. Add butter, salt and pepper. 



1 eggplant Cracker-dust or bread-crumbs 

Salt Egg 

Cut the eggplant into one-half -inch slices, pare and sprinkle 
each slice with salt. Lay slice upon slice and place a plate upon 
the top. Let stand two hours. The salt will draw out the dis- 
agreeably bitter flavor. Half an hour before serving, wipe each 
sHce dry, dip in beaten egg, then in cracker dust or fine bread- 
crumbs, and saute in hot fat. Put a pan in the oven or in some 
other place where it can be kept hot; lay a piece of absorbent 
paper in the pan, and upon it place the slices as they come crisp 
and brown from the frying-pan. Serve on a hot platter with 
the slices overlapping. 


1 eggplant Yz cup water 

2 tablespoons butter 2 cups crumbs 
Salt and pepper 

Cut the eggplant in half lengthwise and scoop out the center 
pulp, leaving the rind about one-half inch thick so that the 
shape may be firm. Cover the shells with cold water. Chop 
the pulp fine, season it with salt, pepper, and butter, and cook 
in a frying-pan for ten minutes, stirring well, then add water 
and one cup of bread-crumbs. Drain the shells, sprinkle the 
interior of each with salt and pepper and fill them with the 
mixture. Spread the remaining crumbs over the tops. Place 
the halves in a baking-dish or deep pan, and pour enough hot 
water into the pan to come one-third up the sides of the plant. 
Bake in a moderate oven (350°-375° F.) one-half hour, and 
serve hot. 


Wash the plant carefully and pick off the outer green leaves, 
leaving only the white part. Boil until tender, drain well, 
return it to the kettle, and nearly cover with medium white 
sauce, which should be well seasoned. 



Kale may be cooked and served in the same way as spinach, 
or tied in a bundle like asparagus and served on toast with a 
generous allowance of butter or white sauce. 


6 kohlrabi Paprika 

2 tablespoons fat 2 cups milk 

2 tablespoons flour 1 egg-yolk 

Wash and pare the kohlrabi. Cut into half -inch cubes, drop 
into boiling water to cover and cook until tender. Just before 
cooking is completed, add salt, then drain and shake over the 
fire to dry slightly. Make a white sauce from the flour, fat, 
milk and seasonings, adding the egg-yolk last, and pour it over 
the vegetable. 


1 pint lentils Salt and pepper 
Ys teaspoon soda 2 tablespoons fat 

"Wash the lentils and soak over night. In the morning, drain 
them, cover with warm water in which the soda has been dis- 
solved, and bring them quickly to the boiling-point. Boil 
gently for one hour, drain, cover them again with fresh boil- 
ing water, and boil gently until tender; this generally requires 
from two to three hours longer. Test by mashing a lentil 
between the fingers. If it crushes quickly, they are done. 
Drain in a colander. 

Melt fat in a frying-pan ; add the lentils, with salt and pepper 
to season; stir them over the fire for fifteen minutes. Two 
minced onions may be added, if desired. 


2 cups mixed cooked vege- Yz cup water 
tables Salt and pepper 

1 teaspoon beef extract or 2 tablespoons butter or other 

Yz cup stock fat 

1 teaspoon sugar 

Mix all the ingredients together and cook eight or ten minutes 
over a hot fire, shaking the pan now and then. Serve hot. 



Break the macaroni or spaghetti into short lengths. Cover 
Vith plenty of boiling water and boil until soft, twenty-five to 
thirty-five minutes generally being required. If a cooker with 
perforated inner container is not available, stir occasionally 
w^ith a fork to prevent sticking to the kettle. Turn into a sieve 
and drain thoroughly. Place in the serving-dish and cover with 
tomato sauce. Serve grated cheese with it or mix the cheese 
with the tomato sauce. Some people prefer spaghetti cooked 
in long pieces. To do this place the ends in boiling water and 
coil it as it softens. 


2 cups macaroni or spaghetti 2 tablespoons butter or other 

broken into short lengths fat 

^ pound grated cheese lYz cups milk 
Salt and pepper 

Boil and drain the macaroni or spaghetti as directed in the 
preceding recipe. Arrange a layer in the bottom of a pudding- 
dish. Over it sprinkle some of the cheese and scatter over this 
bits of butter or other fat. Add a sprinkling of salt and pepper. 
Fill the dish in this order, having macaroni on top, well oiled 
with fat but without cheese. Add just enough milk to cover 
well and bake in a moderate oven (3 50°-400° F.), about one- 
half hour. Serve in the dish in which it was baked. 


To Prepare Mushrooms for cooking by any method, cut 
off the stalks, pare the caps, or brush well if they are fresh and 
tender, and drop them into a bowl of water which contains 
the juice of half a lemon or a tablespoon of vinegar if you wish 
to keep them from darkening. If the stalks are solid and tender, 
they may be peeled, cooked and served with the caps, otherwise 
cook them with the peelings in a small amount of water, for 
mushroom stock. 

Too much cooking toughens mushrooms. Three or four 
minutes will heat canned mushrooms, and five or six minutes 
will cook fresh ones, usually. 



No. 1. 

2 tablespoons fat 1 teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon flour Yz cup boiling water 

J/2 cup cream 2 cups mushrooms, fresh or 

y^ teaspoon pepper canned 

Make a sauce of the fat, flour, cream and seasoning. Pre- 
pare mushrooms and stew them in boiling water until tender. 
Add, without draining, to cream sauce. Serve very hot. 

No. 2. 

IJ^ tablespoons fat Salt and pepper 

1 V2, tablespoons flour 1 Yz cups cooked mushrooms 

1 egg-yolk fresh or canned 

1 cup milk 

Prepare a white sauce of the fat, flour, milk and seasonings. 
Add the cooked mushrooms to the sauce and cook gently for 
several minutes. Just before serving, add the beaten egg-yolk 
and reheat. 


2 tablespoons butter 1 slice toast 

Yz tablespoon lemon- juice 6 mushroom caps 

Salt and pepper J4 cup heavy cream 

Yz teaspoon minced parsley 

The quantities given allow for service of only one person. 

Baking dishes with bell-shaped glass covers are obtainable at 
most house-furnishing stores. The mushrooms should be served 
with the covers on. 

Cream butter and add lemon -juice, drop by drop, salt, pepper 
and minced parsley. Cover the bottom of an individual bak- 
ing-dish with a circular piece of toast three-eighths of an inch 
thick, wetting the under side with half the sauce already made. 
Pile mushroom caps, cleaned and peeled, on the toast and pour 
over them the remainder of the sauce and the heavy cream. 
Cover with glass and bake in a quick oven (400° -4 50° F.) 
about twenty-five minutes. Save the stalks, if tender, or stew 
with skins in a little water to make stock for seasoning sauces 
and gravies. 



36 mushroom caps Butter 

Salt and pepper 6 slices toast 

Select mushrooms that are plump and are truly little cups. 
Prepare caps as directed. Place them upside down in a baking- 
dish, sprinkle with salt and pepper and place a bit of butter in 
each cup. Set the pan in a quick oven (400° -450° F.) and 
cook for fifteen minutes. The cups will be filled with their 
own liquor. Serve on toast, very hot. 


No. 1. 

1 quart tender okra pods 3 tablespoons butter 
Salt and pepper 1 tablespoon vinegar 

Test the okra by breaking off the tips of the pods. If there 
are tough strings that will not break easily the pod is too old to 
be served as a vegetable and should be kept for a soup or sauce 
which is to be strained. The pods of okra are so sticky that 
special care is needed to avoid breaking them during the clean- 
ing. "Wash them well, and remove the stems, place in sufficient 
boiling water to cover them and boil until tender (20-40 min- 
utes) . Add salt just before cooking is completed. Okra should 
boil very slowly, as rapid boiling will break it in pieces. When 
it is tender, turn into a colander to drain, then lay it in a serv- 
ing dish. Melt the butter, add the vinegar and a little salt and 
pepper; mix well, and pour the sauce over the okra. 

No. 2. 

2 cups okra Salt and pepper 

2 tomatoes 1 tablespoon butter 

Test and wash the okra as above; remove stems and cut the 
pods into slices, crosswise. Place in a granite stew-pan, just 
cover with boiling water and simmer until tender (20-40 min- 
utes). Add the tomatoes, peeled and chopped, and stew for 
ten minutes longer. Add butter, salt and pepper, and serve. 


Peel the onions. If they are very large cut them in quarters. 
Cook in boiling water, uncovered, until tender (30-60 min- 


utes). Just before cooking is completed, add salt to taste. 
When cooked, drain well, season with butter and pepper and 
serve hot. 


In peeling the onions remove all of the green leaves, for they 
should be as white as milk when served. Drop them into boil- 
ing water and boil uncovered for ten minutes. Drain, add 
freshly boiling water and continue cooking until tender (30- 
60 minutes) . Just before cooking is completed, add salt. Drain 
thoroughly, place in a serving-dish and pour medium white 
sauce over them. If the onions are large they may be quartered 
before they are cooked. 


6 medium to large onions Yz cup milk 

Yz cup chopped ham or Pepper 

chopped green pepper Y2 teaspoon salt 

Yz cup soft bread-crumbs 1 tablespoon fat 
Fine dry bread-crumbs 

Remove a slice from the top of each onion and parboil the 
onions until almost tender. Drain and remove the centers, leav- 
ing six little cups. Chop the onion that was scooped out and 
combine with it the ham and soft crumbs. Add seasoning and 
refill the onion cups. Place them in a baking-dish, cover with 
crumbs, add the milk, and bake in a quick oven (400° -450° 
F.) until tender. 


12 medium-sized parsnips 2 tablespoons flour 

1 cup milk 2 tablespoons fat 

Salt and pepper 

Young parsnips are most desirable, but old ones may be used 
if the woody center is removed. 

Wash and scrape the parsnips, and boil them until tender. 
Drain and cut them into small pieces. Make a sauce of the 
fat, flour, milk and seasonings. Add the cooked parsnips and 



12 medium-sized parsnips Salt and pepper 

Flour or fine crumbs 

Scrape and boil the parsnips until tender. If old, remove the 
woody centers. Drain, and when cold, cut them in long, thin 
slices about one-third of an inch thick, and season each slice 
with salt and pepper. Dip the slices in flour or fine crumbs and 
saute in fat or oil until both sides are thoroughly browned. 
Drain well and serve very hot. 


2 quarts peas in the shell 2 tablespoons butter 

Salt and pepper 

Fresh peas should not be shelled until just before they are 
needed for cooking. Look them over carefully after shelling, 
taking out any tendrils that may be mixed with them. Wash 
and cook until tender in a covered pan in just enough boiling 
water to prevent scorching. Add salt just before cooking is 
completed. Young peas will cook in ten to twenty minutes 
but those that are more mature require a longer time. Most 
of the water should have cooked away. If any remains, drain 
carefully. Let the peas stand in the drainer over hot water. 
Melt the butter, add salt and pepper and the drained peas. 
Mix well, reheat, and serve. 


2 cups cooked peas 1 cup medium white sauce 

Mix peas with white sauce. Reheat and serve. 


2 cups peas 2 tablespoons oil or melted fat 

4 medium potatoes Salt 

Chopped green peppers 

This is a popular dish in India and is usually served with the 
dinner roast. Boil the peas and potatoes separately. When the 
potatoes are thoroughly done, drain and let them cool enough 


to be easily handled. Drain the peas. Heat the oil in a frying- 
pan. Slice the potatoes and saute potatoes and peas together 
in the oil. Season with salt and sprinkle with chopped green 


1 cup rice 2 onions 2 cups green peas 

Boil the rice and peas separately. Chop the onions fine and 
fry them in oil until tender. Add the cooked rice and peas. 


Select potatoes of uniform size. Wash, pare, if you wish, 
and drop into cold water. Cook in boiling water until tender 
when pierced with a fork. Just before cooking is completed, 
add the salt. The water should be kept boiling constantly. 
When done, drain and shake the pan over the fire to dry the 
potatoes. Serve in an uncovered dish or cover with a folded 
napkin. Old potatoes should be soaked in cold water for an 
hour or so before boiling. When they are pared, potatoes lose 
much vitamin and mineral content in boiling. It is better, 
therefore, from the nutritional standpoint, to wash them 
thoroughly, scrubbing with a brush, and boil them with the 
skins on. They may be peeled quickly before they are served, 
or served with the skins on. 


Force hot, freshly boiled potatoes through a ricer or coarse 
strainer. Sprinkle with salt and pile lightly into the serving- 
dish. Serve at once in an uncovered dish. 


Select smooth, medium-sized potatoes, scrub, remove the eyes 
and any blemishes, place in a baking-pan or on the rack in a 
very hot oven (450°-500° F.) and bake until tender (30-60 
minutes). Be sure to have the oven hot before the potatoes 
are put in. To test the potatoes, do not pierce them with a fork, 
but squeeze them with the hand wrapped in a towel. When 
soft, break the skin to keep them from being soggy, and serve. 



Select medium-sized or large potatoes; scrub and bake. Re- 
move a piece of skin from the side of each potato to make it 
boat-shaped, or cut large potatoes in two lengthwise. Scoop 
out the inside, being careful not to break the shell. Mash very 
thoroughly — ^it is advisable to put them through the ricer — 
add butter, salt and milk, and beat well. Pile the mixture 
lightly back in the shells. Do not smooth down the top. Stand 
the filled shells in a shallow pan, return to the oven (400° F.)j 
and brown lightly on top. Tuck in small wieners before serv- 
ing if desired. 


Follow directions for potatoes on the half-shell, adding one- 
half cup peanut butter and two egg-whites to the potato mix- 


6 medium-sized potatoes 6 tablespoons buttered crumbs 

Yz cup hot milk 1 tablespoon grated cheese 

2 tablespoons melted fat Salt and pepper 
6 eggs 

Prepare as for potatoes on the half shell. Refill the shell al- 
most to the top, break an egg into each opening, season with 
pepper and salt and sprinkle with buttered crumbs that have 
been mixed with grated cheese and bake in a slow oven (250°- 
350° F.) long enough to set the egg and brown lightly (about 
six minutes). 


6 medium-sized potatoes Milk 

2 tablespoons flour Salt and pepper 

4 tablespoons butter 

Pare raw potatoes and cut them into thin slices. Place in a 
baking-dish a layer of the potato one inch deep, season with 
salt and pepper, sprinkle a portion of the flour over each layer, 
add a part of the butter in bits. Then add another layer of 
the potato and seasoning, as before, and continue until the re- 
quired amount is used. It is advisable not to have more than 


two or three layers because of difficulty in cooking. Add milk 
until it can be seen between the slices of potato, cover and bake 
(350^-400° F.) until potatoes are tender when pierced with a 
fork (1-1/4 hours). Remove the cover during the last fifteen 
minutes to brown the top. Serve from the baking-dish. 


Select medium-sized potatoes, pare and place them in the 
baking-pan with the roast, allowing an hour and a quarter for 
their cooking. Turn them often and baste with the gravy from 
the roast. Serve them arranged about the meat on the platter. 
If you wish to shorten the cooking time, parboil them for fifteen 
minutes before putting them into the roasting-pan, and allow 
forty-five minutes for the roasting. 


6 potatoes 6 slices fat salt pork or bacon 

6 frankfurter sausages Pepper 

Scrub medium-sized potatoes; pare or leave the skins on as 
preferred. With an apple-corer cut a tunnel through the center 
of each, lengthwise. Draw through each cavity one of the 
frankfurters. Place in a dripping-pan and lay a blanket of 
fat salt pork or a thick slice of bacon on each potato. Pepper 
lightly and bake in a very hot oven (450°-500° F.) until the 
potatoes are tender, basting occasionally with the drippings and 
a little hot water. 


2 cups hot mashed potatoes 2 tablespoons butter or other 

2 eggs fat 

1 cup milk 

To the mashed potatoes add the fat, the egg-yolks which have 
been beaten until very light, and the milk. Stir until well 
blended and then fold in the stiffly beaten egg-,Whites. Mix 
lightly and pile the mass in a well-greased baking-dish. Set in 
a pan containing hot water and bake in a moderate oven (375° 
F.) twenty to thirty minutes. Serve at once. 







i4s J 



2 cups, hot riced potatoes y^ teaspoon paprika 

1 ^^g Sifted bread-crumbs 

2 tablespoons butter or other 2 tablespoons chopped mint 
fat leaves 

Yz teaspoon salt 

Add the egg-yolk, fat and seasonings to the potatoes. Shape 
into cakes, dip into the slightly beaten egg-white, which has 
been diluted with two tablespoons water, roll in crumbs and fry 
in deep fat (375°-390° F.) until brown. 


2 cups potato cut in strings 1 cup milk 

1 small onion 1 teaspoon salt 

1 teaspoon mixed herbs Pepper 

2 tablespoons fat Grated cheese 
2 tablespoons flour 

Cut the raw, pared potatoes into long match-like strips. Cook 
them in boiling water until tender. Drain and turn into a 
warm dish. Brown the chopped onion and the herbs in the 
fat. Add the flour, stirring thoroughly, add the milk, salt and 
pepper and cook in a double boiler twenty minutes. Strain and 
pour over the cooked potato. Sprinkle with grated cheese and 


6 medium-sized potatoes 2 tablespoons butter 

Hot milk or cream Salt and white pepper 

Pare and boil the potatoes. Drain, and set the saucepan in a 
warm place with the cover off for a minute or two to dry the 
potatoes thoroughly. Mash the potatoes in the saucepan in 
which they were boiled, or turn them out into a warm dish 
and put through the ricer into the same saucepan. Work 
quickly so that they will not get cold. Add the butter, season 
to taste, and beat, adding milk or cream a little at a time until 
the potatoes are light and moist. 

For Potato Cups — Pile into a large teacup and make a hol- 
low with the bottom of a smaller tumbler or bottle. Slip out 
carefully onto the serving plate. Keep hot until filled and 



6 potatoes riced 2 eggs 

3 tablespoons fat ^ cup grated cheese 

Yz teaspoon salt Yz cup buttered crumbs 
Yz teaspoon paprika 

Add fat, seasoning and eggs to the hot riced potatoes. Beat 
until light and mound on a baking-dish. Cover with grated 
cheese and then with buttered crumbs. Bake (400° F.) ten 
minutes, or until the crumbs are brown. 


2 cups riced potatoes 2 egg-yolks 

2 tablespoons fat Salt and paprika 

Mix riced potato, fat and beaten yolks of eggs, reserving a 
little of the yolk for brushing the cakes. Add a little salt and 
paprika. Shape by means of a pastry-bag and tube into leaves, 
crowns, pyramids, etc. Brush over with beaten egg-yolk to 
which one teaspoon of water has been added. Brown in a hot 
oven (400°-450° F.). 


No. 1 — ^Wash and pare potatoes and cut into eighths length- 
wise. Dry between towels and fry in deep fat (395° F.). 
Drain on soft paper, sprinkle with salt and serve in an un- 
covered dish. 

No. 2 — Cut uncooked potatoes into blocks measuring about 
three-fourths of an inch each way, and place them in boiling 
water. Cook until almost done, ten or eleven minutes being 
usually required. Then drain off all the water and allow Rye 
minutes for the escape of steam. Fry them a few at a time in 
deep fat (395° F. ) . Drain on soft paper placed on a hot plate. 
Sprinkle with salt and pepper. 


Prepare potatoes as for French fried. Dip them in melted fat 
and lay them in a shallow pan, being sure that the pieces do not 
overlap. Bake in a quick oven (400° -450° F.) until brown on 
top, turn carefully and continue baking until they resemble 


French fried potatoes. Baste them with more fat during bak- 
ing, if necessary. When done, sprinkle with salt and serve 
piping hot. 


Wash and pare potatoes and shave into very thin slices. Soak 
them for one hour in cold water, then drain and dry on a towel. 
Fry in deep fat (395° F.) a few slices at a time until light 
brown, keeping them in motion with a skimmer. Lay them on 
soft paper to drain. Sprinkle lightly with salt, and serve. 

In cool weather, enough potato chips may be cooked at one 
time to last a week or ten days. They should be kept in a cool 
dry place and should always be reheated in the oven until 
crisp, before serving. 


No. 1 — Cut boiled potatoes into slices one-fourth of an inch 
thick. Heat a very little fat in a frying-pan and saute the 
slices, browning on both sides. Season with salt and pepper. 

No. 2 — Chop the potatoes in a chopping-bowl until the pieces 
measure one-half inch or less, and add them to the hot fat in the 
frying-pan. Season with salt and pepper and saute, stirring 
constantly, until the potatoes look yellow and are cooking 
well. Then cover the pan, set it in a slow heat for five minutes, 
and serve in a heated dish. 


2 tablespoons oil or drip- 6 boiled potatoes 

pings Salt and pepper 

Chop the potatoes, adding salt, and a dash of pepper. Heat 
the fat in a frying-pan, and add the chopped potatoes to the 
depth of one inch. Press the potatoes down in the pan, packing 
them firmly. Cook slowly, without stirring, until the potato is 
brown. Then begin at one side of the pan and fold the pota- 
toes over on the other like an omelet, packing closely together. 
Turn out on to a hot serving platter and serve. 



No. 1. 

2 cups cold boiled or baked lYz cups medium white sauce 

potatoes Salt and pepper 

Cut potatoes into small pieces and mix with the white sauce. 
Cook together gently until the potatoes are thoroughly heated 
through. Season to taste. 

No. 2 — Slice boiled potatoes very thin. Turn them into a 
frying-pan with two tablespoons melted butter and pour in 
milk until it almost covers them. Stew, uncovered, over a low 
heat, without stirring, for twenty or twenty-five minutes. Tip 
the pan a little every five minutes and baste the potatoes with 
the milk. If the potatoes are sliced thin enough, the starch in 
them will thicken the milk and the result will be creamy and 
delicious, with all the milk stewed down so that no liquid re- 
mains. Add salt and pepper to taste. If part cream is used^ 
the dish is even more delicious. 

No. 3 — (New Potatoes) 

1 dozen small potatoes 2 tablespoons fat 

2 tablespoons flour Salt Pepper 

1 cup milk Paprika or parsley 

Small new potatoes are delicious when served with a cream 
sauce. Scrape the potatoes until no speck of the skin remains, 
boil until tender and drain. Add salt just before cooking is 

Make a sauce of the fat, flour, milk and seasonings. Place 
potatoes in the serving-dish, pour the sauce over them, dust 
with a sprinkling of paprika or chopped parsley and serve at 
once. This makes a particularly nice dish for luncheon. 


2 cups cooked potatoes, diced Salt and pepper 
2 cups medium white sauce Buttered crumbs 

Mix potatoes and sauce, add salt and pepper, and pour into a 
buttered baking dish; cover with crumbs and bake ten minutes 
in a hot oven (400° F.). 



Creamed potatoes No. 1 2 to 4 tablespoons grated 

1 teaspoon minced parsley cheese 

1 cup buttered crumbs 

Follow" directions for creamed potatoes No. 1 adding the 
parsley. Turn into greased baking-dish, sprinkle with cheese, 
cover with buttered crumbs and bake in a hot oven (400° F.) 
until crumbs are brown. 


2 cups mashed potatoes 2 eggs 

(without any milk) Salt and pepper 

Mix the mashed, seasoned potato and the beaten eggs. Drop 
the mixture from a spoon into the hot fat (375° -3 90° F.) and 
fry until a golden brown, (2-3 minutes) then drain on brown 
paper and serve with a garnish of parsley. If the spoon is 
dipped into boiling water after every using, each drop will re- 
tain the shape of the spoon. 


6 medium-sized potatoes Chopped pimientos 

Salt Onion-juice 

Wash, pare and cut potatoes into half-inch dice. Dry be- 
tween towels. Fry in hot fat (395° F.) until a delicate brown. 
Drain on soft paper, sprinkle with salt, then saute them in just 
enough fat to keep them from burning, adding minced pi- 
mientos and a few drops of onion-juice. They should be tossed 
frequently during cooking, and not pressed close to the pan. 


12 small new potatoes or Butter 

6 medium-sized old pota- Juice of one-half lemon 

toes ^ cup minced parsley 

These are dependent upon parsley, not only for their name 
but for their attractive appearance. Scrape new potatoes. Pare 
old potatoes and cut the size of a small egg or with a vegetable 
scoop cut them into balls. Boil until tender. Add salt just 


before cooking is completed. Drain, place in a saucepan with 
suflScient butter to coat all the potatoes, add the lemon-juice 
and sprinkle with minced parsley. The potatoes should be well 
coated with parsley when served. These are excellent with 
boiled fish. 


2 cups boiled potatoes, diced 2 tablespoons fat 

1 tablespoon minced onion 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 

The potatoes should be rather underdone to produce the best 
results. Season with salt and pepper. Saute the onion in fat 
until yellow, add the diced potato and stir with a fork until 
all sides are brown, being careful not to break the potatoes. 
Add more fat if necessary. When done, turn the potatoes out 
upon a hot dish, sprinkle parsley over the top, and serve hot. 


1 tablespoon minced onion 2 cups cold boiled potatoes, 

2 tablespoons chopped green diced 

pepper J/2 cup cold cooked ham, 

2 tablespoons chopped chopped 

pimiento 1 teaspoon salt 

4 tablespoons oil or cooking J/2 teaspoon paprika 


Saute the onion, pepper and pimiento in the fat until light 
brown, add the diced potatoes, the chopped ham and seasonings 
and cook until thoroughly heated through. 


2 cups cold mashed potatoes Butter 

1 egg-yolk Salt and pepper 

Mix cold mashed potato with the beaten egg-yolk and shape 
the mixture into balls. Place the balls in a greased pan and 
make a depression on the top of each, put a bit of butter in each 
depression and brown in the oven (400° -450° F.). 


2 cups cold mashed potatoes Melted fat 

If the potato is cold and firm, cut into strips two inches long, 
one inch wide and one-half inch thick, otherwise shape into 


flat cakes one-half inch thick. Dip the strips or cakes first into 
the melted fat and then into the egg, which has been slightly- 
beaten, and lay them carefully on a greased pan. Cook in a hot 
oven (400''-450° F.) until brown. 


Follow directions for boiled white potatoes (See Index). 


Follow directions for baked white potatoes (See Index). 


No. 1. 

6 sweet potatoes 1 cup brown or maple sugar 

Salt and pepper y^ cup water 


Boil the potatoes without paring them, and when tender 
drain and strip off the skins. Make a sirup by boiling to- 
gether the sugar and water. Cut each potato in half or in 
thick slices, dip each piece into the sirup and lay it in a greased 
baking-dish. Season with salt and pepper and bits of butter. 
When all the potato is in the dish, pour over it any sirup that 
remains and bake in a quick oven (400° -4 50° F.) until the 
potatoes are brown. They will brown quickly. 

No. 2 — ^Use the same quantities as for No. 1. Pare the po- 
tatoes and boil until about half done. Drain, cut in lengthwise 
slices, and lay in a shallow greased pan. Spread generously with 
butter and pour over all the sirup. Bake in a moderate oven 
(350°-400° F.) basting frequently with the sirup until the 
potatoes are transparent. It may be necessary to add more 
sirup during the baking. An hour or more is usually required 
for these potatoes. 


2 cups mashed sweet potato Salt and pepper 

2 tablespoons fat - y^ cup milk or cream 

To the mashed sweet potatoes add the melted fat, seasonings 
and milk. Beat the egg-yolk and white separately, add the 


yolk to the potato mixture, and then fold in the white. Put 
into a baking-dish or individual molds, set in a pan containing 
I hot water and bake (375° F.) until puffy and brown. 


6 small sweet potatoes Y^ cup honey 

y^ as much pineapple as J/^ cup water 


Boil the potatoes with the skins on. When cool, peel and cut 
them in pieces one-quarter of an inch thick. Mix honey and 
hot water. Just cover the bottom of a baking-dish with the 
mixture, add the sweet potatoes and sHced pineapple. Pour the 
remaining honey mixture over them and bake for ten minutes 
in the oven (400° R). 


6 large sweet potatoes Grated nutmeg 

Salt 1 cup rich brown stock 

Celery salt Few drops of caramel 
White pepper 

Prepare potatoes by parboiling them for twenty minutes. 
Remove skins and cut potatoes in halves. Place the pieces in a 
shallow baking-pan, sprinkle with salt, celery salt, white pepper 
and grated nutmeg. Pour into the pan the stock, to which a 
few drops of caramel have been added, and bake in a quick 
oven (400° -4 50° F.) until tender and slightly browned. Baste 
frequently with the stock. These may be served as a border 
around planked fish. 


2 cups mashed sweet potato Yz cup maple sirup 

Milk 54 cup butter 

Pepper and salt 

Left-over sweet potatoes, either baked or boiled, may Be iise3 
for this dish. Mash potatoes and add sufficient milk or cream 
to make a smooth, soft paste. Season with pepper and salt. Put 
into a well-greased casserole or baking-dish, suitable for serving 
at table, and pour in thick maple sirup which has been boiled 
with butter. Bake (400° F.) until the top begins to caramel- 



4 tablespoons fat 1 cup mashed sweet potato 

1 tablespoon sugar 2 teaspoons baking-powder 

Yx cup flour Salt 

1 egg Cayenne 

1 cup milk Nutmeg 

Mix the fat and sugar to a cream, stir in the well-beaten egg- 
yolk, the potato, milk and seasonings, and beat well until 
smooth. Fold in the stiffly beaten egg-white. Bake in a heated 
waffle-iron until golden brown. Serve, dusted with sugar and 
cinnamon^ as an accompaniment to roast duck or turkey. 


lYz cups large, strongly 1 cup milk 

flavored radishes 2 tablespoons fat 

2 tablespoons flour Salt and pepper 

"Wash, pare and slice the radishes. Boil until tender. Make a 
white sauce of the flour, fat, milk and seasonings. Combine 
radishes and sauce and serve. The flavor is not unlike spicy 
turnips and they make a pleasant novelty served with steak or 


1 cup rice 3 quarts water or more 1 tablespoon salt 

Wash the rice; drop it into the salted boiling water; and boil 
rapidly, uncovered, for fifteen or twenty minutes, or until the 
kernels are soft when pressed between the thumb and finger. 
Place in a colander (saving the water for soup) and pour boil- 
ing water over the rice to remove the loose starch and separate 
the grains. Drain and place in the oven with the door open 
for a few minutes, to allow the cereal to dry out. The grains 
should be separate and distinct. 


1 cup rice 1 to 2 tablespoons curry- 

2 tablespoons fat powder 

1 teaspoon chopped onion 2 teaspoons salt 

lYz cups boiling water 54 teaspoon pepper 

Wash the rice well. Place fat and onion in a stew-pan and 
cook them until the onion is yellow, add the rice and stir the 


whole over a hot fire for five minutes. Draw the pan out of 
the heat, season with the curry-powder, salt and pepper, stir 
well and pour in the boiling water. Cover the stew-pan and 
boil rapidly for ten minutes, then cook very slowly for forty 

Curry of rice is appropriate with any kind of meat dish that 
has been prepared with a sauce. 


1 onion 2 cups cooked tomatoes 

1 slice cooked ham Salt 

1 tablespoon fat Paprika 

1 cup boiled rice Bread-crumbs 

Chop onion and ham very fine. Add fat, boiled rice, and 
tomatoes seasoned with salt and paprika. Mix thoroughly, put 
into a baking-dish, cover with bread-crumbs and bake (400° 
F.) for fifteen minutes. 


Wash and scrape the salsify, throwing it immediately into 
cold water to which a little vinegar or lemon- juice has been 
added, to prevent discoloration. Cut in inch slices and cook 
in boiling water until tender, adding salt just before cooking 
is completed. When tender, drain and combine with medium 
white sauce. Serve with tiny fried sausage balls. 


Follow directions for fried parsnips (See Index) . 


Cut the squash into pieces of medium size, and remove the 
seeds and the soft mesh surrounding them. Steam or bake until 
tender. Serve in the shell or scrape from shell, mash, and 
place, uncovered, for ten minutes in a good heat to dry, stirring 
frequently. Season with butter, salt and pepper. 


2 white squash Egg and crumbs Salt and pepper 

The white "button" squash, about four inches in diameter^ 
are best when fried. Pare and cut the squash into thin slices. 


dip in seasoned crumbs, then in beaten egg^ then in more crumbs, 
and fry in deep fat (395 ° F.) from four to five minutes. "When 
the slices are brown, drain on soft paper. Serve on a platter or 
other flat dish. Fried squash makes an excellent luncheon dish. 


1 squash Egg 
3 tablespoons butter Milk 
Salt and pepper 

Cut oflF the top of a small squash, remove the seeds and 
stringy portion, place in a pan and boil, steam or bake about 
two hours, until tender. Remove the pulp from the shell, being 
careful to keep the large shell intact. Mash the pulp and season 
it with salt, pepper and butter. 

Return the mixture to the shell, smooth the surface to a dome 
shape, score with a knife, brush over with milk and beaten egg, 
add bits of butter and place in a quick oven (400° F.) for a 
few minutes to brown. Or leave the pulp in the squash, season 
well and fill center with ham a la king, chicken a la king, 
creamed salmon or sausage mixtures. 


No. 1 — ^American Style 

2 pounds spinach 3 tablespoons butter 
Salt and pepper 

Remove roots and wilted leaves of the spinach. Wash in 
several waters, until all trace of sand has disappeared. Place in 
a large kettle without additional water; the water which clings 
to the leaves is sufficient. Cover the kettle and cook with low 
heat until the spinach is tender. The time of cooking depends 
on the age of the spinach. Long cooking darkens it. Salt the 
water just before cooking is completed. When done, drain, 
chop, season with salt, pepper and butter and one tablespoon 
lemon-juice, if desired. 

Spinach Mold — 

1 peck spinach, cooked and 1^ ^^P butter 

chopped iy2 cups bread crumbs 

3 unbeaten eggs 34 teaspoon pepper 
y^ cup milk 1 teaspoon salt 


Combine all ingredients, turn into a buttered ring mold and 
steam 2 hours. Unmold and garnish with hard-cooked eggs and 
carrots. Fill center of mold with mashed potatoes or creamed 


2 pounds spinach Salt and pepper 

1 tablespoon butter 2 tablespoons cream 

2 hard-cooked egg-yolks 

Cook spinach according to directions for boiled spinach No. 1, 
drain well, and chop fine. Return to fire, add butter, salt 
and pepper, and stir until the butter is melted, then add cream 
and chopped yolks and mix well. 


2 cups cooked spinach, fresh or canned 2 eggs 

This is a satisfactory way to dispose of left-over cooked 
spinach. To the spinach add egg-yolks beaten, place in a 
granite saucepan, heat and stir over the fire until the eg§ setS| 
then remove from the heat and when cold add the beaten egg- 
whites. Fill individual baking-dishes one-half full of this mix- 
ture. Set the dishes in a pan of hot water and bake in a moder- 
ate oven (375° F.) from twenty to thirty minutes. Serve at 
once to prevent falling. 


2 cups boiled spinach Mustard 

6 eggs Butter 

Salt Vinegar 
Red pepper 

"While the spinach is cooking, cook the eggs hard. Cut eggs 
in halves crosswise and remove the yolks. Cut a slice from the 
bottom of each cooked egg-white so that it will stand on a 
platter. Season the yolks with red pepper, mustard, butter and 
salt. Mix thoroughly with vinegar to taste. Fill the egg-cups 
with the spinach, mounding it high, and put the rest around 
the eg§. Put the prepared yolks in a ricer and squeeze over all. 



2 cups green corn or Salt and pepper 

1 cup dried corn 1 cup milk 

2 cups fresh Lima, string or 4 tablespoons butter 

butter beans or 1 cup dried 

Lima beans 

If fresh vegetables are used, cut the corn from the cob. Cover 
the beans with the least possible amount of boiling water, to 
prevent scorching, and cook until tender. Drain off the water, 
add the corn and the milk and cook slowly until the corn is 
tender. Add the butter and other seasoning. 

"When dried corn and beans are used, soak both separately- 
over night. In the morning, cover the beans with fresh water, 
and boil them very gently until tender. Do not drain the water 
from the corn, but reduce heat so it will cook slowly. When 
the beans are tender, drain and add them to the corn, allowing 
only water enough to cover. Cook slowly until tender and drain 
off water to save for soup. Add the milk and seasoning. 


6 tomatoes, fresh or canned Salt and pepper 

2 tablespoons butter Crumbs or flour 

Pour boiling water on fresh tomatoes, and after they have 
remained covered one minute drain them and plunge them into 
cold water. Slip off the skins, remove the hard stem ends, and 
cut the tomatoes in pieces. Stew them in their own juice in a 
graniteware or porcelain-lined kettle until tender, add butter, 
salt, and pepper. Bread-crumbs or cracker-crumbs, or a little 
flour blended with the butter, may be added for thickening. 


6 tomatoes Crumbs Salt and pepper 

Select firm, ripe tomatoes, wash them and cut in half-inch 
slices without removing the skins. Season fine crumbs with salt 
and pepper, dip each slice of tomato in the crumbs, and saute in 
hot fat. Serve hot. 



6 tomatoes 1 cup bread-crumbs 

4 tablespoons fat 1 teaspoon sugar 

Salt and pepper 

Peel the tomatoes and cut them in slices one-fourth inch 
thick. Place a layer of tomatoes in a pudding-dish, and sprinkle 
over them a little salt and pepper. Rub the fat into the crumbs 
"with the sugar. Spread the mixture thickly upon the tomatoes, 
using all of it, and add another layer of tomatoes. Add bits 
of butter or other fat, sprinkle with dry crumbs, and bake 
(350''-400° F.) twenty minutes. 


6 tomatoes Melted butter 

Salt and pepper 

Choose firm, round tomatoes, cut them into slices, three- 
quarters inch thick, dust each slice with salt and pepper, place 
in a greased broiler and broil tender. Turn once carefully. 
Add melted butter and serve at once. 


6 large fresh tomatoes or Bread-crumbs 

1 quart cooked tomatoes, Butter or other fat 

fresh or canned Grated cheese, if desired 

Salt and pepper 

Skin fresh tomatoes and cut them into slices. If using cooked 
tomatoes, drain off the juice, using only the pulp. Place a layer 
of tomato in a greased baking-dish, add a seasoning of salt and 
pepper then a thin layer of bread-crumbs. Cut the fat into 
tiny pieces and lay on the crumbs. Then add another layer of 
tomato and proceed until the materials are used, having crumbs 
for the top layer. Add bits of fat and bake for thirty minutes 
in a moderate oven (3 50° -400° F.). Serve in the baking-dish. 
Grated cheese may be added to each layer, or to the top one 



No. 1. 

6 tomatoes 2 tablespoons fat 

1 Yz cups soft bread-crumbs 1 teaspoon salt 

% teaspoon pepper 

Tbe tomatoes should be very firm, smooth, and of equal size. 
Cut a piece from the stem end of each tomato, and remove the 
centers without breaking the walls. Make a stufiing of the 
centers of the tomatoes, crumbs, seasonings, and melted fat and 
mix well. Sprinkle each tomato well with salt and pepper and. 
fill with the stufiing, packing it in quite solidly. 

Place a small piece of butter on the top of each, arrange the 
tomatoes in a baking-dish and bake in a moderate oven (350°- 
400° F.) until tender. Serve hot in the baking-dish. 

No. 2 — Indian Style. 

6 tomatoes J/g teaspoon pepper 

3 tablespoons rice 54 teaspoon garlic clove 

1 tablespoon fat 1 teaspoon chopped celery 

1 slice bread A little chopped parsley 

2 tablespoons milk Thyme 

2 hard-cooked egg-yolks 54 teaspoon curry-powder 

Yz teaspoon salt 

Cut the tops from the tomatoes and remove the pulp. "Wa^ 
the rice carefully, put it into a saucepan with one-half cup 
salted boiling water and the tomato pulp and cook until the 
rice is soft. Add the fat, the bread soaked in the milk, the 
mashed egg-yolk and seasonings. Stuff the tomato shells with 
this mixture, replace the tops and place in a baking-dish. 

Bake in a moderate oven (3 50° -400° F.) until the tomatoes 
are soft (about twenty minutes). The curry-powder gives an 
unusual flavor to the tomatoes, but may be omitted. 


1 pound white or yellow 3 tablespoons butter 

turnips Salt and pepper 

Wash, pare and slice the turnips and cook in boiling water 
until soft, adding salt just before the cooking is completed. 
Drain and mash the turnips in the stew-pan and stand the pan, 


uncovered, over a low fire for ten minutes to dry the turnips 
well, stirring them frequently. Add butter and pepper and 
more salt if needed. 


1 pound white or yellow 4 tablespoons flour 
turnips 4 tablespoons fat 

2 cups milk Salt and pepper 

Pare the turnips, cut them in cubes; cook until tender. 
Make a white sauce of the flour, fat, milk and seasonings. Pour 
sauce over turnip cubes and serve. 


Pare the turnip and remove the center, leaving a shell one- 
half inch in thickness. Cook shell in boiling water until tender. 
Just before cooking is completed, add the salt. Cook the center 
in the same way and use for stuffing cup or serve as mashed 

The turnip cups may be used as cases for creamed or buttered 
peas, carrots, beets, or any suitable vegetable or meat. 


"Wash and pare a vegetable marrow, and scoop out the in- 
side. Cook in boiling water for about fifteen minutes^ and 
then drain and slice in inch slices, or cut in pieces of any desired 
size. Roll in flour, dip in beaten egg which has been diluted 
with water, roll in fine crumbs and fry in deep fat (395° F.). 
After frying, drain the pieces on absorbent paper^ sprinkle widi 
salt and pepper and serve hot. 

To Bake Vegetable Marrow, cut in half between the ends; 
peel each half, scoop out seeds and loose pulp. Fill each half with 
seasoned fresh Hamburg, diced onion and bread crumbs (beef 
loaf p. 246) or chopped leftover meats, chopped onion, green 
or red peppers and cooked rice. Fit halves together and truss 
with string or use skewers in opposite directions. Bake or simmer 
in deep pot or baking dish, covered with heavy seasoned tomato 
sauce, until marrow is transparent but not too well done. Serve 
by slicing through so each service is a complete circle. 


FRUITS, nuts, uncooked and cooked vegetables and some 
cooked meats, fish and fowl, served cold and dressed with 
condiments, oils and acids, are known as salads. 

Utensils Needed for Salad Making 

A chilled earthenware bowl is excellent for mixing salad in- 
gredients. Two forks or a fork and a spoon are better to use 
in folding together the ingredients than a spoon alone, because 
they do not crush the materals so much as a single utensil. 

A sharp-edged knife or vegetable cutter is necessary for slic- 
ing vegetables or fruits. Where fruit pulp is to be removed 
from the thin white membrane enclosing it, a thin narrow 
knife slightly curved at the tip is useful. A pair of shears can 
be used for many of the processes of salad making, such as 
shredding lettuce, clipping oflf wilted or discolored edges, etc. 

Various fancy shapes for molding individual salads may be 
bought, or tea-cups or small bowls may be used as molds. 
Gelatin salads may be put into pans and cut in square or fancy 
shapes after they have hardened. The cube trays of mechanical 
refrigerators are excellent for molding gelatin. 

Materials for Salads 

Vegetables — Leaf vegetables, such as head lettuce, curly 
lettuce, endive, chicory, romaine, water cress, celery and cab- 
bage, make very attractive salads served alone with a dressing 
or in combination with other materials. 

Tomatoes, cucumbers, celery, cabbage and ground carrots are 
excellent uncooked materials for salad, as are also Bermuda or 
Spanish onions in thin wafer-like slices or young spring onions 
marinated in French dressing. 

Many cooked vegetables, such as peas, carrots, beans, beets, 
cauliflower, spinach, asparagus and potatoes, are used in salad 
making, alone or in combination. 

Fruits — ^The fruits most commonly used in the preparation 
of salads are oranges, bananas, apples, cherries, grapefruit, 



grapes, peacRes, pears and pineapple. "Watermelon or cantaloupe 
adds a delicious flavor to a fruit salad. 

Dried Fruits — ^Dates, figs and raisins give variety to fruit 

Meats — Chicken always makes a delicious salad. Veal and 
pork may be combined with chicken and it is difficult to detect 
their use. They may be used alone in salads, also. 

Crab, lobster, shrimp, oysters, salmon, tuna fish and sardines 
are most commonly used in fish salads. Any firm-fleshed cooked 
fish may be diced and combined with other materials. 

Cheese — Cream cheese or cottage cheese, served in mounds 
on lettuce leaves, makes an attractive salad, with bar-le-duc 
or other jelly or jam as a garnish. It can also be mixed with 
green peppers or pimientoes, rolled in nuts, served with pine- 
apple or molded in a loaf and sliced. 

Eggs — ^The most common egg salad is the "deviled egg," or 
salad egg. Hard-cooked eggs can be cut in slices or quarters 
or fancy shapes and served on a bed of lettuce leaves with a 
dressing or used with other ingredients in a vegetable or fish 

Herbs — Such herbs as chervil, mint, parsley, peppergrass, 
sorrel and tarragon may be added to salad to give a pungent 

Fennel (finochio) tops, or root and stem of anise flavor, dande- 
lion, chard, escarole, celery cabbage or cooked zucchini are used 
both as body of the salad and as flavoring. Those who have a 
garden will find dill, nasturtium leaves and seeds, catnip and 
rose geranium leaves usable. 

Important Points in Salad Making 

Washing Ingredients — ^Wash salad greens and examine to 
insure the removal of all aphids. Then soak in cold water for 
half an hour to crisp, and dry on a towel or by shaking in a wire 

Chilling Ingredients — ^All ingredients, fruits, vegetables, 
and dressing, should be chilled (see directions on next page for 
keeping materials) before being folded together. The bowl 
used should be chilled; also the plates upon which the salad is 

Frozen Salads — ^This name may seem misleading because 
pieces of fruit or vegetable in salads should never be actually 
frozen. Combined with whipped cream and mayonnaise, the 


mixture is frozen like mousse, but it should not be frozen long 
enough to harden the fruit or vegetable. Salads made of vege- 
table or fruit pulp may be frozen. The freezing can be done 
by packing in ice and salt or by placing the mixture in the 
drawers of a mechanically cooled refrigerator. 

Keeping Materials — ^Lettuce, most vegetables and many 
fruits may be kept for days by wrapping in a damp cloth or 
paper bag and placing on ice. In a mechanically cooled refrig- 
erator, lettuce and other salad greens keep best if they are 
washed and placed in closely covered enamel or porcelain con- 
tainers with a very little water. 

Cutting Materials — Salad materials should be cut in uni- 
form, well-defined pieces small enough so that they will not 
lose their shape in the folding process. If part of the celery to 
be used is tough, cut it in fine pieces and cut the tender parts 
in larger pieces. In this way the toughness will not be detected. 

"When both the dark and light meat of chicken are used, dice 
the dark in small cubes and the light in larger cubes. This gives 
a more pleasing appearance to the salad. If veal or pork is 
used to extend the chicken, dice it finer than the chicken and 
its presence will not be detected. 

Marinating Salads — A marinade is used to give flavor to 
salad materials and is made by mixing oil, salt, and lemon-juice 
or vinegar (sometimes onion-juice) . The vegetables, fish or 
meat may stand an hour or so in the marinade before using. 
"When several vegetables are to be used, each one should be 
marinated separately. For serving, these vegetables may be 
combined, or placed on lettuce leaves in small individual 
mounds, as preferred. 

Addition of Salad Dressing — ^The dressing should never 
be folded into the salad until time for serving, except in the 
case of a salad like potato salad, when it is preferable for the 
dressing to soak in. 

Arrangement of Salad — ^The lettuce leaf should have the 
stem end cut off so that this ragged part does not hang over the 
edge of the plate. Care should be taken that the garnish is 
carefully placed. 

Place the salad o© the lettuce leaf carefully so that it will 
not fall apart and spread ungracefully over the plate. No part 
of the salad should extend beyond the edge of the plate. 


Garnishes for Salads 

Chives, mint, chervil, parsley and similar small greens may be 
minced and sprinkled over a green salad. 

Strips of pimiento and green pepper, or a dash of paprika 
may be used to give life to a colorless salad. 

A chapon is a small piece of bread rubbed with garlic. When 
placed in a salad-bowl it gives a delicious flavor to the salad. 

The outside leaves of a head of lettuce may be used as garnish 
for a salad, reserving the heart for heart-of-lettuce salad. 


Among the most decorative ways to serve jellied salad are the 
form mold and the ring mold. The latter lends itself to many 
additional touches since the center may be used for decorative 
vegetables, a pile of cut jelly of contrasting color or the bowl 
of salad dressing. Of exact size to fit, the bowl may be of glass, 
china or silver. Be sure the plate onto which the ring is un- 
molded is large enough for all the decoration planned. See page 


3 tablespoons oil 1 teaspoon salt 

6 tablespoons lemon- juice or Yz teaspoon pepper 

vinegar |/2 teaspoon onion-juice 

For fish, use three tablespoons vinegar and three tablespoons 
lemon-juice. Mix the ingredients thoroughly in the order 
given. The onion-juice may be omitted. 

For hot marinade, see Index. 

Vegetable Salads 

€ rings cut from green pepper Lettuce leaves 

or lemon French dressing 

24 stalks cold boiled aspara- Yz tablespoon tomato 
gus, fresh or canned catchup 

Cut rings about one-third inch wide. If lemon is used, re- 
move the pulp, leaving only the peel. Slip four stalks of cold 











^^» fp^ii^^^^R ' ,*- 


* M:^i'~ ^^* 

ll^r *•* 

Hh^v ** 

ING 1- 









asparagus through each ring and arrange on crisp lettuce leaves. 
Place each serving on a salad plate or arrange all attractively 
on a platter with serving spoon and fork. Serve with French 
dressing to which tomato catchup has been added. 


Select a small firm head. Cut it in half and with a sharp knife 
or a slaw cutter slice it very thin. Cover with cold water and let 
stand one-half hour. Drain, wrap in a cloth and place on ice or 
in a cold place until ready to use. Combine with any salad dress- 
ing, or fold into one package of gelatin prepared according to 
directions, and mold. 

Cole Slaw — No. 1 — 

J/2 head cabbage 
6 eggs 

Yz cup sugar 
1 teaspoon salt 

1 teaspoon mustard 

2 teaspoons melted butter 
^ cup vinegar 

Cut the cabbage in several parts, and wash it well. Remove 
the core and any wilted or tough leaves and chop the remainder 
with a sharp knife. Cook the eggs hard, chop five of them, 
place the chopped cabbage in a salad bowl, add the chopped 
eggs, and toss and fold lightly together. Mix the sugar, salt, 
mustard, melted butter and vinegar and pour this liquid over 
the cabbage and eggs. Toss again lightly with a fork held in 
each hand, arrange in a dish, and garnish with the remaining 
egg cut in slices. 

Cole Slaw — ^No. 2 — 

^ cup vinegar 
1 Yz teaspoons salt 
Y4 teaspoon pepper 
1 tablespoon sugar 
3 eggs 

1 tablespoon butter or other 

2 tablespoons cream 

3 cups cabbage 

Heat vinegar and seasonings (including the sugar and fat) 
to boiling, beat eggs and add hot vinegar mixture to them very 
slowly. Cook in double boiler until the mixture thickens and 
then add cream. Remove the dressing from the fire and pour 
it while hot over the cabbage. Garnish with rings of hard- 
cooked eggs and serve when cold. 



2 large beets Mayonnaise made with vine- 

2 tablespoons vinegar gar from beets 

Yz cup wax beans Lettuce 

J/2 cup peas Radishes for a garnish 

J/2 cup asparagus tips 

Boil beets until tender, slice, cover with vinegar and let stand 
until the following day. Drain off the vinegar and use it in 
making the mayonnaise. Arrange beans, peas, asparagus tips 
and mayonnaise in little rose-like nests of lettuce leaves, and 
garnish with radishes. 


1 cup grated raw carrot 1 tablespoon lemon-juice 

1 cup chopped raw cabbage J4 teaspoon salt 

or celery, or cabbage and Mayonnaise or boiled dressing 

celery combined Lettuce leaves 

Mix the ingredients well and serve on crisp lettuce leaves. 
The grated carrot may be served alone on lettuce or may be 
combined with cold boiled peas, with chopped nuts and apples, 
or with onions and radishes. 


1 cauliflower Lettuce 
Mayonnaise dressing Cooked shrimps 

Cook the cauliflower in boiling water, drain, and put it, head 
down, into a bowl. When cold, place it, stem down, on a shal- 
low dish and cover with mayonnaise. Garnish with lettuce ar- 
ranged to resemble the leaves of the cauliflower, and add little 
clusters of shrimps, 


2 cups celery Strips of pimiento or green 
Yz cup mayonnaise pepper and celery curls 

After thoroughly washing the celery allow it to crisp in cold 
water. Then wipe it dry, cut it into inch lengths and these 
into lengthwise strips. Place them in a salad-bowl, and add 
sufficient mayonnaise dressing to moisten the whole. Garnish 


with the pimiento or pepper and the celery curls. Serve at once. 
Celery salad admits of a wide range of additions, any cold meat, 
fish or fowl left from a previous meal being palatable served 
in it. 

Celery Curls — ^These are made from the tender inner 
stalks. Cut in lengths of two or three inches and slit in nar- 
row strips almost to the end. Place in water with plenty of 
ice. As the slit stalks chill, the ends curl. 


1 pint water cress 1 onion French dressing 

Pick over the leaves of the cress carefully, removing all 
bruised or wilted ones, wash and drain, and with the fingers 
break the stems into two-inch lengths. Lay the cress in a salad 
bowl, chop the onion very fine, strew it over the cress, add 
French dressing and serve. 


1 cup water cress 6 thin slices raw onion 

1 cup dandelion greens French dressing 

The dandelion should be fresh and young. Wash the leaves 
carefully and drain well. Arrange them in a salad bowl with 
the cress. Add the slices of onion and pour the French dressing 
over all. 


Yz cup walnut meats 1 pint -water cress 

1 lemon French dressing 

Crack walnuts and remove their meats as nearly as possible 
in halves. Squeeze over them the juice of the lemon and let 
them stand for a short time. Pick over the water cress and 
wash it carefully. Drain it on a napkin and at the last moment 
drench it with French dressing. Spread the nuts over it and 
give them also a generous sprinkling of the dressing. 


3 cucumbers Salt French dressing 

Cut about an inch off the point of each cucumber, and pare 
carefully. Slice very thin, sprinkle with a little salt, and let 
stand ten minutes. Serve with French dressing. 



1 pint grated cucumber 2 teaspoons cold water 
Salt and paprika 6 halves of walnut-meats 

2 tablespoons vinegar Mayonnaise 

1 tablespoon oil Lettuce leaves 

1 teaspoon gelatin 

Peel cucumbers, removing most of the white as well as the 
green skin. Grate enough to give one pint and season with salt, 
paprika, vinegar and oil. Add gelatin mixed with cold water. 
Place over the fire until warm and well mixed. Do not boil. 
In the bottom of an individual mold put a half kernel of wal- 
nut, then pour in the cucumber mixture and when it has cooled, 
chill. When ready to serve, turn each mold on to a nest of 
young lettuce leaves, and add a spoonful of mayonnaise. 


Choose for this the crisp center of the lettuce. "Wash it, dry 
it well, pull to pieces or cut it into four or six sections, and 
arrange it in a salad bowl. Pour over the center of the dish 
any dressing preferred. Mayonnaise is frequently used, and 
Russian dressing is used even more frequently, perhaps, but 
with a heavy dinner the French dressing is to be preferred to 
any other. 

The following vegetables may be used instead of or with let- 
tuce: endive, peppergrass, water cress, nasturtiuni leaves, spin- 
ach, chicory, sorrel, dandelion, escarole, and romaine. 


2 lettuce hearts French dressing 1 Spanish onion 

Strip off, and set aside for some other purpose, the green 
leaves of lettuce. Wash the hearts, pull them to pieces or cut 
into sections, and drop into ice-water to crisp them. Peel 
the Spanish onion and cut it into thin shavings. Shake the 
lettuce in a colander or wire basket to free it from water or dry 
on a towel. Fill the salad bowl with alternate layers of the 
lettuce and onion slices, sprinkling on each layer a little French 



No. 1. 

1 quart potatoes 2 tablespoons grated onion 

2 tablespoons chopped parsley French dressing to moisten 

Boil the potatoes with skins on and allow them to cool before 
peeling, as it is considered a good thing to have potatoes waxy 
rather than mealy for salad. Peel potatoes, cut into small pieces 
or thin slices, and mix with parsley, onion, and French dressing. 
Set in a cool place for two hours before serving. 

No. 2. 

1 quart new potatoes 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 

1 tablespoon oil Salt and pepper 

2 tablespoons vinegar Thin mayonnaise or boiled 

1 onion dressing 

2 stalks celery Cut beets 

1 tablespoon capers Lettuce, lemon 

Boil potatoes until done, but not too soft, slice them when 
cookd and add oil and vinegar. Chop onion and celery very 
fine, and add, with capers, parsley, and salt and pepper to taste. 
Pour a thin mayonnaise over all, mixing thoroughly with a 
wooden spoon and fork. Garnish with lettuce, a few pieces of 
lemon and cut beets. 


2 cups boiled potatoes, diced Yz cup French dressing 
1 cup boiled peas Lettuce, mayonnaise 

Pour two-thirds of the French dressing over the diced pota- 
toes, and the other third over the cold peas, and set where they 
will be chilled. After an hour, combine them and arrange on 
lettuce leaves. Garnish with mayonnaise. 


1 pint spinach 2 hard-cooked eggs French dressing 

Wash spinach carefully. Select only thick, tender leaves (save 
others and stems for cooking) . If too large, tear to size. Shake 
off excess water. Chop whites and yolks of eggs separately and 
turn into bowl with leaves. Moisten with tart French dressing. 
Add any mild-flavored vegetable. 



No. 1. 

3 tomatoes Lettuce leaves 6 tablespoons French dressing 

Scald the tomatoes, remove the skins and chill the tomatoes. 
Just before serving time, cut them in halves, crosswise, and 
place one piece, with the outside upward, on each serving-plate 
with one or two leaves of white, crisp lettuce underneath. Pour 
over each portion a tablespoon of French dressing. 

No. 2. 

3 tomatoes /4 to ^ cup French dressing 

Lettuce 1 tablespoon capers 

Select smooth tomatoes about two inches in diameter. Scald, 
peel and chill. Cut in quarters or in slices and arrange on a 
plate with lettuce leaves or sections of lettuce hearts. Add 
the capers to the dressing. 


6 tomatoes ^ to ^ cup mayonnaise 

2 cups celery, diced Lettuce leaves 

Select firm tomatoes of a good size, scald, peel and chill, cut 
a slice from the top of each, and scoop out all the seeds and 
soft pulp, being careful not to break the sides. Cut celery into 
small dice, mix it with mayonnaise dressing, fill the shells with 
mixture, place one teaspoon .of the dressing on top of each 
tomato and serve individually on a bed of lettuce leaves, plac- 
ing three or four small leaves on each plate and the tomato in 
the center. 


6 tomatoes ^ cup mayonnaise dressing 

% cup diced cucumber Lettuce 

y2 cup diced, cooked chicken Parsley, cauliflower buds 
y^ cup chopped nuts 

Select medium-sized smooth tomatoes. Scald, peel and chill. 
Carefully scoop the inside out of the tomatoes. Remove the 
seeds from the pulp. Chill all ingredients, and when ready to 
serve, mix the chicken, cucumber, tomato pulp, and nuts with 


the mayonnaise dressing. Add more salt if needed. Fill the 
tomatoes. Arrange on lettuce leaves. Garnish with mayonnaise 
and decorate each tomato top with parsley and cauliflower buds. 


3 cups stewed tomatoes, 1 teaspoon sugar 

fresh or canned Salt 

^ cup chopped onion 1 tablespoon gelatin 

Yz cup chopped celery 54 cup cold water 

1 bay-leaf 1 clove Lettuce 

54 green pepper pod Mayonnaise 

Cook tomatoes with seasonings. Soak gelatin in cold water, 
add to boiling tomatoes, strain and pour into cups about the 
size of a tomato. Make a nest of small green lettuce leaves for 
each mold when serving, and place one tablespoon of mayon- 
naise on top of each tomato as it is turned from the mold. 

Tomato jelly is often molded in a square pan and cut In 
diamonds or cubes, when it makes an attractive garnish. 


Firm tomatoes Hard-cooked Qgg yolk 

Cream cheese Watercress or lettuce 

Milk French dressing 

Peel tomatoes and chill them. SUghtly soften cream cheese 
with milk. Form two rows of petals on each tomato by pressing 
level teaspoons of the softened cheese against the side of the to- 
mato, then drawing the teaspoon down with a curving motion. 
Sprinkle center of each tomato with hard-cooked egg yolk 
pressed through a strainer. Serve on crisp watercress or lettuce 
with French dressing. 


1 pint cream 1 teaspoon powdered sugar 

1/4 cups cut up fruit (fre^, 1 teaspoon instantaneous 
canned, or candied cherries, gelatin 

peaches, pineapple, etc.) 2 tablespoons cold water 

34 cup mayonnaise Lettuce 

Soak the gelatin In the cold water, melt it over steam, and 
beat it into the mayonnaise. Add the sugar to the cream and 


whip it, then combine with the mayonnaise. Stir in the cut-up 
fruit. Pack and freeze as directed in the preceding recipe. The 
mayonnaise may be omitted and served separately. 


2 alligator pears French dressing 

Lettuce leaves 

The alligator pear, or avocado, is now available in all markets 
at very reasonable prices throughout the greater part of the 
year. Cut each pear into six pieces, giving wedge-shaped sec- 
tions, and if these are too large, cut each section again length- 
wise. Peel and arrange wedges on beds of lettuce leaves. Either 
French dressing or Russian dressing may be used, but the fruit 
is so rich that French dressing is preferred by most people. 


2 cups lettuce leaves, shredded Whipped cream or boiled 
1 cup sliced bananas dressing 

6 stewed apricots 

On each plate arrange a bed of shredded lettuce, and on it 
place a layer of sliced ripe bananas, topped by the halves of an 
apricot. Serve with whipped cream or boiled dressing. 


3 well ripened bananas Yz cup mayonnaise or boiled 
Yz cup chopped nuts dressing 

6 leaves lettuce 

Peel bananas and cut in two lengthwise. Roll each half in 
nut-meats. Place on lettuce leaf and garnish with dressing. 
Equal parts of dressing and whipped cream may be used. 


1 Y2 cups mixed diced tart 4 tablespoons orange- juice 

apples and celery Salt 

Yz cup shredded coconut Paprika 

1 tablespoon lemon-juice Lettuce leaves 

4 tablespoons oil Currant or plum jelly 

Mix the apples, celery, and coconut. Sprinkle with the 
lemon -juice. Add a French dressing made from the oil and 







* m^ 






•• V /• •. 


orange- juice, with salt and paprika to taste. Line a salad-bowl 
with lettuce leaves and pile chilled salad in center. Dot with 
currant or plum jelly. 


1 orange 1 dozen walnuts 

1 banana Lettuce 

Yz pound Malaga grapes French dressing 

Peel the oranges and cut the sections from the membrane 
with a sharp knife or a pair of shears. If the fruit is allowed 
to stand in cold water after peeling, the bitter white membrane 
will come off easily. 

Peel the bananas and cut in quarter-inch slices. Remove the 
skins and seeds from the grapes. Break in small pieces, but 
do not chop, the walnut-meats. Mix these ingredients 
thoroughly and place on ice. When ready to serve, place or 
lettuce leaves and serve with French dressing. 


Peel grapefruit and free the sections from all membrane and 
seeds. Cut sections in half, crosswise; lay on bed of lettuce 
leaves and serve with French dressing. Sprinkle with tarragon 
leaves or with mint if desired. 


2 cups grapefruit sections Yz cup Malaga grapes, peeled 
2 tablespoons grape- juice and seeded 

2 tablespoons French dressing 

Peel fine large grapefruit and separate the sections, removing 
every particle of the bitter white inner skin. Peel and seed the 
grapes and mix with the grapefruit. Set, covered, in the refrig- 
erator until very cold. Pour over them the grape- juice and 
French dressing. 


1 pound Malaga grapes Lettuce French dressing or mayonnaise 

Peel grapes and remove the seeds by cutting the grapes almost 
in two, with a thin sharp knife. Arrange on lettuce leaves 
and serve with French dressing or mayonnaise. 





Peel oranges and free the sections entirely from the mem- 
brane. Remove seeds, cut sections in halves crosswise, lay on 
bed of lettuce leaves, and serve with French dressing. Sprinkle 
with tarragon or with minced green pepper, if desired. Minced 
celery may be added. 


No. 1. 

3 pears French dressing 

Lettuce leaves Strips of pimiento 

After paring the fruit, cut in eighths lengthwise and remove 
seeds. Arrange on lettuce leaves and serve with French dressing 
made from oil and lemon-juice. Garnish with strips of pi- 
miento. The dressing will prevent discoloration if it is poured 
over the pears at once. 

No. 2. 

6 pears Yz cup broken walnut-meats 

6 stalks celery and stoned olives, chopped 

Mayonnaise Lettuce leaves 

Salt and pepper 

Select well-formed pears and cut off a bit of the broad end 
so that the pear will stand steadily on the plate. With a potato- 
ball cutter remove the center, leaving enough of the pear to 
make a thick cup. Cut the celery into dice, add broken walnut- 
meats and chopped olives and mix all together with mayonnaise, 
adding a pinch of salt and pepper. Fill the pear cups and serve 
on lettuce leaves. 


6 halves of stewed pears, 36 white cherries 

fresh or canned Boiled dressing or mayon- 

Lettuce leaves naise 

Place the half pears on crisp lettuce leaves. Stone the cherries 
and arrange them around the pears. Serve with preferred dress- 



1 cup crushed pineapple 6 tomatoes 

1 cup broken nut-meats Mayonnaise 

French dressing Salt 

Mix pineapple with nut-meats and stand in French dressing 
in the refrigerator. Peel and cut off the top of each tomato 
leaving a strip to form a handle. Carefully scoop out the center 
and fill with the pineapple and nuts. Place one teaspoon of 
mayonnaise on top of each basket. 


6 slices canned pineapple French dressing 

1 cup cream cheese Lettuce leaves 

Purple grape-juice 

Work enough grape-juice into the cream cheese to soften it 
so that it can be made into balls with the hands or with butter 
paddles. Place a slice of pineapple on a lettuce leaf, put a cheese 
ball on top and pour grape- juice and French dressing over all. 


1 cup cantaloup balls Any desired dressing 

6 slices tomatoes Lettuce leaves 

Garnish of red pepper 

With a vegetable cutter, cut small balls from a cantaloup 
that is fairly firm in texture. Arrange several balls on a slice 
of tomato which has been placed on a nest of lettuce leaves. 
Garnish with pieces of red pepper or green pepper cut in dia- 
mond shapes. Serve with any desired dressing. 


1 cup diced apple French dressing 

1 cup diced celery Lettuce leaves 

Yz cup broken walnut-meats Mayonnaise 

Fold together the apple, celery, and nuts with French dress- 
ing and serve on lettuce leaves with mayonnaise. Do not allow 


this to stand long before serving, as the nuts will discolor the 


% cup chopped celery ^ cup canned cherries 

34 cup bottoms of artichokes, Y^ cup diced grapefruit pulp 

chopped Cheese straws 

Pile cheese straws in log-cabin style, on a large plate, leaving 
a center space sufficient to hold the salad. Mix celery, arti- 
chokes, cherries and grapefruit pulp with French dressing and 
decorate with a large spoon of mayonnaise. Serve two cheese 
straws with each portion of salad. 


1/2 pound cream cheese Vi cup cream, whipped 

1 green pepper, chopped 2 to 4 teaspoons salt, celery 

1 cup crushed pineapple salt, mustard, paprika, 

Yz cup mayonnaise mixed according to taste 

Soften the cheese. Add pepper, mayonnaise, pineapple and 
seasonings and fold in with whipped cream. Freeze. 


lYz cups cream cheese or Lettuce leaves 

cottage cheese French dressing 

Arrange crisp lettuce leaves on a salad-dish and press cream 
cheese through a potato-ricer upon them. The cheese must be 
thoroughly chilled before making a salad, and it should be 
served immediately. Use French dressing and pass bar-le-duc 
or guava jelly or any preferred fruit jam or jelly with it. 


% cup cream cheese Yx cup chopped nut-meats or 
y^ cup chopped celery chopped parsley 

2 tablespoons chopped olives French dressing 
Lettuce leaves 

Mix cream cheese with chopped celery and olives and form 
into balls about the size of a large hickory nut. Roll each 


ball in chopped nut-meats or chopped parsley. Arrange on 
lettuce leaves and serve with French dressing. 

Pear-Grape Salad — ^Frost the curved surface of one-half 
pear with cream cheese, stud with one-half grapes and garnish 
with chicory and watercress, or other attractive greens. 

No. 1. 

1 cup hard cheese 54 cup shredded lettuce 

Milk or cream 54 cup pimiento strips 

Pepper and salt Lettuce leaves 

6 chopped olives Boiled or mayonnaise dressing 

Put the cheese through a food-grinder and moisten slightly 
with milk or cream. Add pepper and salt to taste. Add 
chopped olives, shredded lettuce and pimiento strips. Press this 
mixture into the form of a brick and, when cool and firm, cut 
in slices. Place on lettuce leaves and serve with boiled or mayon- 
naise dressing. 


Melon Milk 

Fruit gelatin Curly endive or chicory 

Cream cheese French or mayonnaise dressing 

Peel a whole melon. Cut a slice from end and remove seeds. 
Fill center with fruit gelatin and refrigerate until gelatin is 
firm. Slightly soften cheese with milk and frost the entire out- 
side of melon. Serve in slices on crisp chicory, with dressing. 


6 hard-cooked eggs Mayonnaise 

y^ to Yz cup chopped peanuts Celery curls 
or peanut butter Garnish of peanut halves 

Cut the eggs in half lengthwise, remove the yolks and com- 
bine with chopped peanuts or peanut butter and mayonnaise to 
moisten. Fill the whites with this mixture. Put two halves 
of c^^ on a plate, surround with curls of celery. Put two 
tablespoons of mayonnaise dressing over each tgg and garnish 
with peanut halves. Lay a halved peanut on each celery 



6 hard-cooked eggs 1 teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon butter 1 tablespoon anchovy paste 

1 tablespoon cream Lettuce or cress 

Yz teaspoon mustard Garnish of radishes and small 

Pinch cayenne onions 

Remove the shells from tlie cold, hard-cooked eggs and cut 
a large piece from the top of each, take out the yolks and mix 
them to form a paste with butter, cream, mustard, cayenne, 
salt and anchovy paste. Put this mixture back into the hollows 
and lay the eggs on a dish of lettuce or cress. Garnish with 
radishes and small onions. 


6 hard-cooked eggs Yz cup mayonnaise 

12 lettuce leaves 

Cut the whites of eggs into rings and mix the yolks with the 
mayonnaise. On a platter arrange lettuce leaves to form cups. 
On these cups arrange the egg rings to simulate daisy petals and 
heap the yolks in the center. Cold string beans, boiled whole, 
may be used to simulate foliage if desired. 


1. Avocado, grapefruit, romaine radish, olive, in a pagoda 

2. Avocado, orange and cress 10. Endive, carrot sticks and 

3. Avocado, peeled white grapes grapefruit 

and chicory H- Shredded carrot, Chinese cab- 

4. Avocado, tangerine, pecans ^age and romaine 

and lettuce 12. Orange, Bermuda onion and 

5. Avocado, tart apple and lomaine 

romaine ^^* Tomato, cucumber, celery and 

6. Chicory, escarole and grape- ^^ ^^'^^ ^.^^^^ ^^1^^^ ^_ 

^^^^ , , , , , cumber, green pepper and 

7. Chicory, shredded cabbage pimiento 

and lettuce 15. Green peas, peanuts, mint 

8. Escarole, Chinese cabbage and leaves and lettuce 

cress 16. Dandelion, escarole, pimiento 

9. Chinese cabbage, tomato slice, and onion 


Meat and Fish Salads 

2 cups diced chicken Garnish of celery tops, beets 
1 cup diced celery cut into dice, capers, egg- 
Mayonnaise yolks, etc. 

Left-over chicken makes a very good salad. To prepare a 
chicken especially for salad, rub well with salt and pepper, place 
one small onion and one bay-leaf inside, wrap with a napkin, 
tie securely and steam for three hours, or until a fork can be 
easily turned around in the meat. When the chicken is cold, 
cut the meat into pieces of convenient size for eating. The 
most carefully made salads contain only white meat, but the 
dark meat has a juiciness and flavor not possessed by the breast. 
If dark meat is used, cut it into smaller cubes than the white 
meat and the white will predominate in appearance. Marinate 
the cut up chicken and let it stand. Make a mayonnaise dress- 
ing, stir part of it into the celery, place the celery on a thin 
layer of lettuce or arrange it directly upon the salad-dish and 
garnish the edge with the tips of the celery. Heap the chicken 
mixture in the center, pour over it the remainder of the mayon- 
naise, and garnish with white celery tops, boiled beets cut in 
dice, capers, cold hard-cooked egg-yolks that have been pressed 
through a colander, or any other garnish that pleases the fancy. 


1 cup crab-meat, fresh or Garnish of crab claws, hard- 
canned cooked eggs, parsley, celery 
French dressing tops, etc. 

If fresh crabs are used, prepare as directed. (See Index.) 
Cut up an amount of celery equal to crab-meat. Marinate 
with French dressing. Place the mixture in the salad-bowl, 
pour over the top a mayonnaise dressing and garnish with crab 
claws and hard -cooked eggs in alternation with bits of green, 
such as parsley, and the leaves of the celery. 

Canned crabs make very good salad. If there is any oil in 
the can, drain it off; sprinkle the crabs well with salt and vine- 
gar, and drain again before adding the dressing. 



1 pound flaked, cooked fish 1 cup chopped celery 

2 tablespoons oil Lettuce 

1 tablespoon vinegar Mayonnaise 

The remains of almost any cold fish may be used in salad 
very satisfactorily, but the salad is more successful when made 
of fish that will flake nicely, such as salmon, cod, haddock, or 
halibut. Remove the bones, pick the fish into flakes, turn over 
it oil mixed with vinegar and set away in a cold place. When 
about to serve, chop celery and add to the fish. Arrange crisp 
white leaves of lettuce in cup shapes on a platter, using one or 
two leaves for each, then lay one spoonful of the mixture in 
each cup and pour over it one spoonful of mayonnaise. 


1 Vz cups diced lobster meat Mayonnaise 

Yz cup diced celery Lettuce 


Prepare lobster as directed (see Index). Remove the meat 
and the coral. Cut the meat into pieces of convenient size for 
eating. Sprinkle a very little vinegar over the lobster, but keep 
the celery crisp until it is time to make the salad. Then mix 
the lobster meat and celery together, stir in enough mayonnaise 
to moisten and flavor the whole. Arrange the salad on the 
center of a bed of crisp white lettuce bordered with green let- 
tuce leaves laid under the outer edges. Pour on the remainder 
of the mayonnaise and sprinkle over it the coral, well pounded, 
and, if liked, a few capers. Garnish with the claws. Some- 
times lettuce leaves are arranged on a platter in cup-like clusters 
of two or three each, and the salad is divided equally among 
the clusters. The salad may be served in the cleaned lobster 


1 quart oysters 2 tablespoons vinegar 

1 tablespoon oil 1 tablespoon lemon-juice 

Yz teaspoon salt 1 pint celery 

Yi teaspoon pepper Y2 cup mayonnaise 

Clean the oysters (see Index) and place them in a stew-pan 
on the fire, adding no water. When they are boiling, drain 


them in a colander; place them in an earthenware dish, and 
add the oil, salt, pepper, vinegar and lemon-juice. When cold, 
set in the refrigerator for at least two hours. Cut the white 
part of the celery into very thin slices, and place it in a bowl 
in the refrigerator. "When ready to serve, drain the celery, mix 
with the oysters and half of the mayonnaise. Turn the whole 
into a salad-bowl, and pour over it the rest of the dressing. 
Garnish with white celery leaves and serve at once. 

If preferred, lettuce leaves may be arranged on a large platter 
In groups of two or three to form cups and in each cup may be 
dropped four or five oysters with one spoonful of mayonnaise 
poured over them. A tiny spray of parsley may be thrust into 
the sauce at the center of each cup. 


1 cup cold boiled salmon, 1 cup shredded cabbage or 

fresh or canned chopped celery 

Mayonnaise Lettuce leaves 

Combine salmon, broken in flakes, and shredded cabbage or 
celery. Serve with mayonnaise on lettuce leaves. 


Yi cup sardines Lettuce leaves 

^ cup hard-cooked egg Mayonnaise or French dressing 

1 cucumber 

Remove the skin and bones from sardines and mix with 
chopped hard-cooked eggs. Cut cucumber in thin slices and 
arrange on lettuce leaves. Add sardine and Qgg mixture. Serve 
with mayonnaise or French dressing. 


1 pint cooked shrimps or Lettuce, shredded celery, or 

prawns shaved cabbage 

Marinade Maynonaise or other dressing 

Marinate the shrimps and serve whole on lettuce, shredded 
celery, or shaved cabbage, and cover well with a mayonnaise 
ot other dressing. Canned shrimps are excellent for salads. 

. SALADS 445 


2 cups cooked spinach Any desired dressing 

6 slices cold boiled ham Lettuce leaves 

Drain the spinach and season with salt, pepper, and either 
vinegar or lemon- juice. Pack tightly in twelve small molds 
to cool. Place slices of cold boiled ham on young lettuce leaves 
and place two molds of spinach on opposite sides of each slice 
of ham. Serve with my salad dressing desired. 


1 pair sweetbreads Ys teaspoon pepper 

1 tablespoon vinegar 6 heart leaves lettuce 

54 tablespoon oil 1 cup celery, thinly sliced 

Yz teaspoon salt 1 cup mayonnaise 

Prepare sweetbreads (see Index) ; cut in cubes, add oil, 
vinegar, salt and pepper, and place in the refrigerator for one 
hour. Prepare the lettuce and celery, and put them also in the 
refrigerator. Just before serving time, fold the celery and 
sweetbreads together and add half the dressing. Arrange the 
lettuce leaves on a flat dish, divide the sweetbread mixture into 
six parts, and place one part on each leaf. Put the remainder of 
the dressing upon the salad and serve at once. 


Follow directions given for fish salad, on page 443. 


Wash a head of chicory and a head of escarole, pick over 
carefully, soak in cold water and dry thoroughly. Make the 
following dressing: Wash two chicken livers and boil until 
tender with a carrot, an onion, a piece of celery and a bunch 
of parsley. Add the bouillon to your soup stock. Rub the livers 
and yolks of 2 hard-cooked eggs through a sieve. Add 154 
teaspoons French mustard, pepper, salt and mix to a paste. Add 
2 tablespoons olive oil, drop by drop, a teaspoon red wine vinegar 
and a tablespoon red wine. Pour this over the greens and toss 
well. Serve cold. 


THERE are three kinds of salad dressings which are the 
foundation for practically all others used: French dress- 
ing, mayonnaise dressing and boiled dressing. 

French Dressing 

French dressing, made from oil and acid, is the most widely 
used dressing. Vinegar is the acid generally used with the oil 
in vegetable and meat salads, while in fruit salads the juice of 
lemons, grapefruit or oranges is used. 

The choice of oils to be used in dressing is an individual 
matter. Olive oil has the most distinct flavor. With cotton- 
seed or corn oil the amount of condiments used may be slightly 
increased if desired. 

Serve French dressing with chicken, fish, meat, vegetable and 
fruit salads. 


1 clove garlic (optional) 1 tablespoon salt 

1 cup vinegar 1 teaspoon paprika 

2 teaspoons dry mustard ^ teaspoon pepper 
1 tablespoon sugar 2 cups salad oil 

If using garlic, soak it in vinegar Yz hour before mixing 
the dressing. Mix dry ingredients together and place in a covered 
jar or bottle. Remove garlic from vinegar and add vinegar to 
dry ingredients. Pour on the oil slowly. Place in refrigerator 
until ready for use. Just before serving, shake vigorously for 
2 minutes. Makes 3 cups dressing. 

Variations — Tarragon Dressing: Tarragon vinegar may 
be used. Mustard, sugar and paprika may be omitted. 

For Fruit Salads: Use Y^. cup each of lemon or lime and 
orange juice in place of half the vinegar. Reduce mustard to Y2 
teaspoon, salt to 1 teaspoon and paprika to Y2 teaspoon. Increase 
sugar to % cup. Add Y2 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce and 
omit pepper and garlic. 



Dieter's Dressing: Use mineral oil for olive or salad oil. 

Variations using J/z recipe French Dressing as foundation — 

Anchovy: Cream 2 tablespoons anchovy paste with season- 
ings. Add 1 tablespoon each of minced onion and parsley. 

Chiffon ade: Add 2 tablespoons each of chopped green 
pepper, olives, parsley, pimiento and 1 hard-cooked egg, chopped. 
Add chopped red peppers and cooked beets, if desired. 

Curry: Add Yz teaspoon curry powder and a few drops 
onion juice. 

Horse-Radish: Add 4 tablespoons grated horse-radish (juice 
pressed out) J/2 clove garlic, crushed and a dash of cayenne. 

Mint: Add 2 tablespoons chopped mint. 

Olive: Add Yz cup chopped ripe or stuffed olives. 

Parmesan: Add 4 tablespoons grated Parmesan cheese. 

Pickle: Add Y4 cup minced pickles. 

Roquefort: Add 4 tablespoons crushed Roquefort cheese, 
1 to I Y2 teaspoons onion juice or finely chopped chives and a 
dash of Tabasco sauce or cayenne pepper. 


I/2 cup lemon juice 1 teaspoon paprika 

Y2, cup salad oil 2 tablespoons sugar or 

1 teaspoon salt honey 

Combine ingredients in the order listed. Shake well before 
serving. If desired, add Yz teaspoon celery seed and clove of 
garlic. Makes 1 cup dressing. 

If a clear dressing is desired, omit paprika and substitute a 
dash of pepper. 


y^ cup pineapple juice 1 teaspoon sugar 

2 tablespoons lemon juice ^ teaspoon salt 

1/2 cup salad oil I/2 teaspoon paprika 

Combine ingredients, chill. Shake or beat thoroughly before 
serving. This recipe is adapted for use with mixed fruit salads. 
Makes Yg cup. 

Variations — Banana French Dressing: Add 2 thor- 
oughly mashed ripe bananas and Y4 teaspoon nutmeg. 

Ruby French Dressing: Add 1 to I Yz teaspoons grenadine 
or maraschino cherry juice. 



No. 1. 

2 uncooked egg yolks I/3 teaspoon mustard 

I/2 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons vinegar or 
Yi teaspoon pepper lemon juice 

y^ teaspoon paprika 2 cups salad oil 

To yolks, add dry seasonings, beat thoroughly, add vinegar 
or lemon juice and beat again. Add oil gradually (drop by drop 
at first) beating hard between additions. The mixture should 
be thick and creamy. Should mayonnaise curdle, begin with a 
third egg jolk, add a small quantity of oil to the egg, and then 
by very small quantities, add the curdled dressing. At times a 
dressing may be quite firm when left, only to be found curdled 
and disappointing when the time comes to use it. This third 
egg process will, however, usually restore it. Equal proportions 
of vinegar and lemon juice may be used. Tarragon vinegar is 
sometimes used to give an interesting flavor. 

No. 2. 

r egg yolk, hard cooked y^ teaspoon Worcestershire 

1 egg yolk, uncooked sauce 

y2 teaspoon sugar 1 cup salad oil 

y2 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons vinegar 

y^ teaspoon pepper or lemon juice 

1/2 teaspoon prepared mustard 

Place hard-cooked egg yolk in a bowl and mash it fine. When 
the yolk is like powder, add uncooked yolk and stir until mix- 
ture is smooth, then add sugar, salt, pepper, mustard and sauce. 
When the whole is well mixed, add oil gradually, stirring con- 
stantly, and thin as necessary with vinegar or lemon juice. Chill 
for 1 hour before using. 

Originally, only a spoon was used in beating this dressing, 
however, now a wire whisk, small wooden spoon, rotary egg 
beater or a four-tined fork may be used. 

Colored Mayonnaise: To color mayonnaise red, add lobster 
paste, raspberry or cooked beet pulp or juice from raspberries 
or beets; for green color add chopped fresh spinach, parsley or 
concentrated liquor from boiled artichokes. 

Dieter's Mayonnaise: Use mineral oil for salad oil. 


Mayonnaise Variations — Foundation 1 cup mayonnaise. 

Appetizer Mayonnaise: Rub bowl with garlic and beat in 
2 cups French Dressing (page 446). 

Chili Sauce Mayonnaise: Add Yz teaspoon lemon juice, 
2 teaspoons chili sauce, ^ teaspoon confectioners' sugar and 

1 teaspoon horse-radish. 

Coronation Mayonnaise: Add 1 tablespoon each of lemon 
juice and red Bar-le-Duc and a dash of paprika. 

Fruit Juice Mayonnaise: Add 3 tablespoons fruit juice, 
Yz cup confectioners' sugar and 1 cup heavy cream, whipped. 

Lemon Cream Mayonnaise: Add ^ cup confectioners' 
sugar, y^ cup lemon juice, a few grains salt and 1 cup heavy 
cream, whipped. 

Roquefort Mayonnaise: Add 2 tablespoons Roquefort 
cheese, mashed, 1 teaspoon lemon juice and J^ teaspoon salt. 

Sour Cream Mayonnaise: Add ^ cup confectioners' sugar, 

2 tablespoons lemon juice and 1 cup sour cream, whipped. 
Thousand Island Dressing: Add Yi cup chili sauce, 1 table- 
spoon each chopped olives and pimientos and 1 hard-cooked ^^% 
yolk, chopped or rubbed through a sieve. 

Whipped Cream Mayonnaise: Add 4 teaspoons confec- 
tioners' sugar and 1 cup cream, whipped. 


11/^ tablespoons lemon juice 1 tablespoon Worcestershire 

2 tablespoons thick chili sauce 

sauce Y2 <^up niayonnaise 

Mix the lemon juice, chili sauce and Worcestershire thor- 
oughly and add the mayonnaise. 


1 cup mayonnaise 1 tablespoon chopped green 

4 tablespoons chili sauce pepper 

1 tablespoon chives 3 tablespoons chopped red 

3 tablespoons catchup pepper 

1 teaspoon tarragon vinegar 1 teaspoon paprika 

Add chili sauce, chives, catchup, peppers, paprika and vinegar 
to mayonnaise. 



No. 1. 

yz cup vinegar 54 teaspoon mustard 

1 teaspoon fat 54 teaspoon salt 

3 egg-yolks 1/16 teaspoon cayenne 

1 tablespoon sugar Whipped cream, sweet or sour 

Heat the vinegar to the boiling-point and melt the fat in 
the vinegar. Beat the egg-yolks until thick and lemon-colored. 
Add the sugar, mustard, salt and cayenne, mixed. Gradually 
pour the hot vinegar on the yolk mixture, and cook in a double 
boiler until thick, stirring constantly. Add whipped cream 
just before serving. 


11/^ tablespoons sugar I/2 teaspoon dry mustard 

14 teaspoon paprika l/^ cup evaporated milk, undiluted 

y2 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons vinegar 

Few grains white pepper V^^^ '^Vi ^^P^ salad oil 

Mix dry ingredients with milk; beat in vinegar, add oil grad- 
ually, beating thoroughly. Since the mixture thickens somewhat 
when chilled, it may be desirable to thin it with undiluted 
evaporated milk before using, or less oil can be used if a thinner 
mixture is desired. Makes 1 pint. 


1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon lemon-juice 

1 teaspoon sugar 2 tablespoons vinegar 

y% teaspoon cayenne 1 cup sour cream 

This makes an excellent dressing for vegetable salads. Place 
the salt, sugar, and pepper together in a bowl, mix well and 
add the lemon- juice, then the vinegar. When the mixture is 
perfectly smooth, put in the cream, stir well and set on the ice 
until needed. 


Tartar, Hollandaise and Vinaigrette sauces (see Index for 
recipes) may be used with meat salads if desired. 


CAKES are of two general types depending upon the basic 
ingredients they contain. In one group are the cakes 
made with fat — the various butter cakes, pound cakes, and 
fruit cakes; and in the other group are those that are made 
without fat — ^sponge and angel cakes. Either kind of cake 
may be baked in many different forms — oblong or round 
loaves, sheets, layers, or individual cakes of various shapes, de- 
pending somewhat upon the kind of cake but also upon the 
way they are to be served. The butter cakes are most fre- 
quently baked in layers, pound cakes in round or oblong loaves, 
and sponge and angel cakes, in sheets or in the tube pans which 
give round loaves with a hole in the center. 

Materials Used in Cake Making 

Sugar — ^Fine grained granulated sugar is the standard sugar 
for cake. A coarse grained sugar may produce a coarse grained 
cake with a hard crust. Light brown or dark brown sugar is 
preferred by most people for fruit cake or any dark cake. 
Brown sugar is lighter and more moist than granulated and 
when it as used instead of granulated sugar the substitution 
should be weight for weight, not measure for measure. 

Shortening — ^Any fat that has a mild flavor may be used 
for the shortening in cake. Butter is the first choice with many 
cooks because of its flavor, but it is the most expensive of fats. 
Tasteless vegetable or animal oils or hardened fats produce per- 
fect results, aside from the flavor. Since these fats are unsalted 
the amount of salt should be increased by one-half. 

Hard fats should be creamed with the sugar. If they are 
melted and added while hot, the cake is likely to be tough. 
If melted fat is called for, it should be cooled before it is added. 

Eggs — ^Eggs for cake need not be newly laid, but they should 
be of good quality, free from taint and fresh enough to beat 
up well. Two yolks or two whites may be used instead of one 
whole eggy or a yolk may be substituted for a white or the other 
way around. The substitution of yolks for whites or vice versa 
makes a difference in the color and to some extent in the tex- 



ture of the cake. In recipes calling for egg whites alone or for 
more whites than yolks, the number of whites cannot be reduced 
without changing the texture of the cake. If an egg white is 
used instead of a yolk, one teaspoon of shortening should be 
added. When fewer whole eggs are to be used than a recipe 
calls for, add one-half teaspoon of baking powder instead of 
each egg omitted, after the first one. Eggs improve the quality 
of the texture of batters, and while a fairly good plain cake can 
be made with only one egg, additional eggs give a lighter, more 
delicate texture, improve the flavor and produce a smoother 

Flour — In the cake recipes given in this book, cake flour has 
been used. Cake flour has a low gluten content and therefore 
makes a finer textured cake. Although cake flour is preferred 
for cakemaking, successful cakes are made with all-purpose 
flour. If all-purpose flour is used for cake flour, reduce the 
amount of flour used by 2 tablespoons per cup of flour called 
for and do not beat the batter as long as when using cake flour. 
Always sift flour before measuring. Fill cup lightly. Resifting 
with dry ingredients as directed. 

Leavening Agents — The most usual leavening agents in 
cakemaking are eggs and baking powder. When 1 egg is 
omitted from a recipe the baking powder should be increased 
by Yz teaspoon. If the liquid used is sour milk or cream, use Yz 
teaspoon baking soda for each cup of liquid. Then decrease 
baking powder slightly. It is best to sift the baking soda with 
the dry ingredients. If the soda is dissolved in the sour milk 
it must be added to the mixture immediately or some of the 
gas to be used in leavening will be lost. 

No chemical leavening agent is used in true spongecakes. 
The air incorporated by means of the beaten egg whites, and 
the steam generated in cooking make the cake rise as it is baked. 

Flavorings — A cake shortened entirely with good butter 
needs no additional flavoring though most people add some 
flavoring extract. Vanilla and lemon extracts are used more 
commonly than others, but almond, orange, pineapple, and rose 
give a variety in flavors. Very often the juices of fresh fruit 
such as lemon or orange, or the grated peel or rind, are used 
in certain types of cake. Too much flavoring is a common 
mistake. The amount given in recipes is for an extract of 
average strength. Where an extract of greater strength is used 
the amount should be decreased. 

CAKES 453 

Standard Method of Mixing Butter Cakes 

There are several methods of combining ingredients for but- 
ter cakes, but the method described below is considered the 

Cream the Butter or Other Shortening by continued 
rubbing against the sides of the bowl until it is soft and light. 
Some people prefer to use a wooden spoon for this, but a fork 
does the work more quickly. If the shortening is too hard to 
cream easily, warm the bowl slightly by setting it in warm 
water, but do not melt the fat. 

Add the Sugar Gradually and work well after each addi- 

Separate the Whites From the Yolks of the eggs. Beat 
the yolks until they are thick and lemon-colored, then add them 
to the creamed shortening and sugar. If the egg is not separated, 
beat the whole egg well and add here. 

Sift the Flour, measure it and add to it all other dry 
ingredients, such as baking-powder, salt and spices,^ and then 
sift again. 

Add the Dry Ingredients and Milk to the first mixture, 
alternately, keeping the batter of the same consistency through- 
out the mixing process. Beat just enough to make the mixture 

Add the Flavoring, then fold in the stiffly beaten egg- 
whites, unless the whites were added with the yolks. 

When Fruits or Nuts Are Used, save out a little of the 
flour to sift over them, and add them to the cake mixture just 
before the egg-whites are added. 

Melt Chocolate Over Hot Water and add just after 
the egg-yolks. Add cocoa as one of the dry ingredients. 

Baking Butter Cakes 

For any cake made with fat, grease the pans with a melted, 
unsalted fat, using a pastry brush or a piece of soft paper, then 
dredge the pans with flour, and shake them to distribute the 
flour over the surface. Invert the pans and shake them to re- 
move all surplus flour, leaving only the thin film which adheres 
to the fat. This helps to give the cake a smooth under crust. 

If the oven temperature is difficult to control, if the cake 


pan is not smooth, or if the cake contains only a small amount 
of fat, it is advisable to line the pans with smooth paper. Cut 
the paper to fit the bottom of the pan, plus an allowance to 
cover the sides. For a rectangular pan, cut out the corners of 
the paper so that it will fit against the sides of the pan without 
overlapping or wrinkling. For a round or oval pan, cut gashes 
along the edge of the paper as far as the part which is to cover 
the bottom. The paper will then overlap smoothly on the 
sides of the pan. Grease the paper after it is fitted into the 
pan. The grease will hold the paper against the sides as the 
cake batter is poured in. 

If you want the cake to rise to the top of the pan, fill the 
pan about two-thirds full. Spread the batter well into the 
corners and against the sides of the pan, leaving a slight de- 
pression in the center. As cake tends to rise more in the 
center than at the edges, this will help to make it flat on top 
when it is done. 

Baking Temperatures — Place the pan in the center of the 
lower grate so that the greatest amount of heat will reach it 
from underneath. A moderate temperature, varying from 
350° to 375°, is best for baking a butter cake. If the oven 
is too hot, a thick brown crust will form on the outside before 
the cake has fully risen and before the inside has thoroughly 
baked, resulting in a cracked surface. 

The Time for Baking depends on the thickness of the cake. 
Cup cakes take from twenty to thirty minutes, layer cakes 
about twenty minutes,, and loaf cakes from forty-five to sixty 

Divide the time of baking into quarters: (1) During the 
first quarter, the cake should rise and little bubbles form on the 
top; (2) in the second quarter, it should continue to rise and 
to form the crust; (3) in the third quarter, it should begin to 
brown, and (4) at the end of the fourth quarter it should be 
browned sufficiently and shrink from the tin. 

Testing the Cake — When the cake is fully baked, it will 
shrink from the sides of the pan. When touched lightly with 
the finger it will spring back. If the finger leaves a depression, 
the cake is not done. 

Another test is to insert a clean wooden toothpick into the 
middle of the cake. If no particles of batter adhere to it when 
it is drawn out, the cake is done. 

CAKES 455 

Care After Baking — After removing the cake from the 
oven, allow it to remain in the pan about two minutes. Then, 
with a spatula or knife, loosen the edges. If there is any 
tendency for the cake to stick on the bottom, wring a cloth 
out of water and place it on the bottom of the pan for a few 
seconds. Turn the cake out on a wire cake-cooler and allow it 
to stand until cool. 

Standard Method of Mixing Cakes Without Fat 

Cakes without fat depend for leavening largely upon the air 
beaten into the eggs. The whites and yolks of the eggs may or 
may not be separated, depending upon the kind of cake. If 
using the whole egg, beat it till thick and lemon-colored; if us- 
ing only the yolk, beat till thick and light in color, add the 
sugar gradually and beat after each addition until the sugar 

Add the flavoring and liquid, if there is any, and fold in the 
sifted dry ingredients. 

When the whites have been beaten separately, they are added 
last, using the folding motion. Do not beat the mixture after 
the whites have been added. Place at once in a moderate oven 
(325°— 350° F.). 

General Directions for Baking Cakes Without Fat 

Use an ungreased pan for sponge or angel cakes. If they are 
greased the batter cannot cling to the sides of the pan as it bakes 
and thus the cake does not reach its full height. Greasing also 
causes the cake to fall out of the pan during cooling, making 
it flat and soggy. 

Baking Temperatures — True sponge and angel food cakes 
in which eggs are the only leavening are baked in a moderate 
oven (325° — 350° F.) to insure the best volume and texture. 
If baked too slow the results will be a coarse uneven cake; if 
oven is too hot the cake will be small in volume, fine grained 
and tough. It can be truly said of such a cake, "half the making 
is the baking." When baking-powder is used, a slightly higher 
temperature is desirable. The division of baking time is the 
same as for butter cakes. 

When the cake is a light brown, and springs back when 


pressed with the finger, it is done. Remove it to a wire cake 
cooler, invert the tin and allow it to stand till the cake is cool. 
Then remove the cake from the tin. When serving, break it 
apart with two forks; cutting with a knife tends to crush the 
cake and make it appear heavy. 

Causes of Failure in Making Cake 

Cracks and Uneven Surfaces are caused by too much flour 
or too hot an oven. 

A Dry Cake (that is, a fresh cake that seems dry or bready 
inside) may be caused by too much flour, too little fat or by 
the kind of sugar used, i.e., powdered sugar is thought by some 
people to give a dryer cake than granulated sugar. 

A Heavy Sticky Cake means too much sugar or too little 

A Moist Sticky Crust is caused by an excess of sugar. 

A Macaroon Crust is caused by too much sugar or too slow 

Coarse Grained Cakes are caused by insufficient mixing, 
too slow baking, too much baking-powder, or too much fat. 

Falling is caused by insufficient flour, too much fat, under- 
baking, or opening or jarring the oven early in the baking 

An Uneven Color is caused by too fast baking or insuf- 
ficient mixing. 


Yi cup shortening 2 teaspoons baking-powder 

% cup sugar Yz cup milk 

2 eggs 1 teaspoon vanilla 

IY2 cups flour 

Cream the shortening, add sugar and continue creaming. 
Add well-beaten eggs. Mix and sift the dry ingredients and add 
alternately with the milk. Add flavoring. Bake in layers, 
(375° F. for 20 minutes). Any good filling and frosting may 
be used. The batter may be varied by adding nuts, coconut, 
spices, etc., and may be baked as a loaf cake. 




y^ cup shortening 54 teaspoon salt 

1 cup sugar 21/^ teaspoons baking powder 

1 ^gg, unbeaten % cup milk 

2 cups sifted cake flour 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Cream shortening, add sugar gradually and cream until fluffy. 
Add Qg% and beat thoroughly. Sift dry ingredients together 3 
times and add alternately with milk and vanilla. Pour into 
greased pans. Bake in a moderate oven (3 50°F.) 25 minutes. 
Makes 2 (9 -inch) layers. 


1% cups sugar % cup butter or other 

1/3 cup hot water shortening 

3 cups sifted cake flour 3 eggs, unbeaten 

3 teaspoons baking powder 1 teaspoon vanilla 

14 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons burnt sugar 

% cup milk 

Prepare burnt sugar sirup. Place J/z cup of the sugar in a 
heavy skillet, stirring constantly as sugar melts. When it be- 
comes dark brown, remove from heat, add hot water very 
slowly and stir until dissolved. Cool. Sift flour, baking powder 
and salt together 3 times. Cream shortening, add remaining 
sugar (1/4 cups) gradually and cream until light and fluffy. 
Add eggs, 1 at a time, beating thoroughly after each. Add van- 
illa and 3 tablespoons of the sirup; blend. Add dry ingredients 
and milk alternately, beating until smooth. Pour into pans 
lined with waxed paper and bake in a moderate oven (3 50°F.) 
25 to 30 minutes. Makes 2 (9 -inch) layers. 


1^ cups sifted cake flour % cup milk 

% cup sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 

% teaspoon salt 1^ ^^P nielted shortening 

2 teaspoons baking powder 1 tgg, beaten 

Sift dry ingredients together 3 times. Combine remaining 
ingredients and add gradually to dry ingredients. Beat mix- 
ture 2 minutes. Pour into greased cake pan. Bake in moderate 
oven (3 50°F.) 30 minutes. Makes 1 (8x8x2 inch) cake. 


—Wheat Flour Institute 




1 cup butter or other 3 cups sifted cake flour 
shortening % teaspoon salt 

2 cups sugar 3 teaspoons baking powder 
4 eggs, separated 1 cup milk 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

Cream shortening and sugar until fluffy. Add egg yolks 1 
at a time, beating thoroughly after each one is added. Sift dry 
ingredients together 3 times and add alternately with milk and 
vanilla to creamed mixture, beating until smooth after each 
addition. Fold in stiffly beaten egg whites. Pour into pans lined 
with waxed paper and bake in moderate oven (3 50°F.) 25 min- 
utes. Makes 3 (9 -inch) layers. 


y2 cup sugar Salt 

1/^ cup shortening 2]/^ cups flour 

% cup maple sirup 3 teaspoons baking powder 

1/^ cup milk 3 egg whites 

Cream the sugar and shortening together. Add the sirup and 
stir well. Add the milk and flour alternately. Fold in the 
beaten whites and bake in an oblong pan (3 50°-375°F.) 45-60 
minutes. When the cake is baked and cool, place it on an 
inverted cake pan and cover with Maple Sugar Frosting, No. 2. 


% cup butter or other 21^ cups sifted cake flour 

shortening 1^ teaspoons baking soda 

1% cups brown sugar % teaspoon baking powder 

3 eggs, well beaten % teaspoon salt 
% cup boiling water % cup sour milk 

3 ounces (3 squares) bitter II/2 teaspoons vanilla 


Cream shortening thoroughly; add sugar gradually and cream 
mixture until light and fluffy. Add beaten eggs and beat well. 
Meanwhile pour the boiling water over chocolate; stir over low 
heat until smooth and thick; cool and add to egg mixture; 
blend thoroughly. Sift flour once, measure and combine with 
remaining dry ingredients and sift 3 times, then add to choco- 


late mixture, alternately with milk and vanilla combined. Beat 
well after each addition. Pour batter into greased pans which 
have been lined with waxed paper. Bake in a moderate oven 
(3 50°F.) until done, 25 to 30 minutes. Makes 3 (8 -inch) lay- 
ers. Spread with Boiled Frosting (page 479). 


% cup butter or other l^ teaspoon cinnamon 

shortening 1^ teaspoon allspice 

iy2 cups sugar 1 cup milk 

4 eggs, separated 4 ounces (4 squares) bitter 
1% cups sifted cake flour chocolate (melted) 

2 teaspoons baking powder 1 cup walnuts, chopped 

1/2 teaspoon cloves 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Cream shortening, add sugar slowly and beat until light and 
fluffy. Add unbeaten egg yolks and beat vigorously. Sift dry 
ingredients together 3 times and add alternately with milk to 
creamed mixture. Stir in chocolate, nuts and vanilla and mix 
well. Fold in stiffly beaten egg whites. Pour into waxed-paper- 
lined loaf pan and bake in a moderately slow oven (325 °F.) 
about 50 minutes. Makes 1 loaf (4x8 inches). When cool, 
spread top and sides with Marshmallow-Cream Frosting (page 
482) or Boiled Frosting (page 479). 


1/2 cup cocoa 1/^ teaspoon salt 

% cup boiling water l/^ cup sour cream 

1/2 cup shortening 1/^ teaspoon baking soda 

2 cups sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 

2 cups sifted cake flour 3 egg whites 

Mix cocoa in boiling water and stir until smooth. Cool. 
Cream shortening and sugar together until light and fluffy. Add 
cocoa mixture to creamed mixture. Sift flour, salt and soda 
together. Add dry ingredients alternately with cream to first 
mixture. Beat until smooth after each addition. Add vanilla. 
Fold in stiffly beaten egg whites. Pour into pans lined with 
waxed paper and bake in a moderate oven (3 50°F.) 30 minutes. 
Makes 2 (9-inch) layers. Spread Mocha Frosting (page 482) 
between layers and on top. 



2 tablespoons shortening % cup flour 

I/2 cup sugar 2 teaspoons baking powder 

1 egg y^ cup milk 

1/2 teaspoon vanilla 

Cream the shortening and sugar, add the beaten egg yolk 
and the sifted dry ingredients alternately with the milk. Add 
vanilla. Fold in the stiffly beaten egg white. Spread one half 
of the mixture in a deep greased piepan. 

Filling — 

1/^ cup brown sugar 1 cup chopped walnuts 

2 teaspoons cinnamon 2 tablespoons flour 

2 tablespoons melted fat 

Mix all the ingredients thoroughly and spread one half over 
the batter in the pan. Add the rest of the cake batter and spread 
the remainder of the filling over the top. Bake in a moderate 
oven (350°-375°F.) 45-60 minutes. 


Yj cup shortening 2 ounces (2 squares) 

II/2 cups sugar chocolate, melted] 

1 teaspoon vanilla 2 cups sifted cake flour 

3 eggs, separated 1 teaspoon baking soda 

1/2 teaspoon salt 
1 cup sour milk 

Cream shortening, add sugar gradually, creaming until fluffy, 
add vanilla and beaten Qgg yolks, then chocolate. Sift dry in- 
gredients together 3 times and add alternately with milk. Fold 
in stiffly beaten Qgg whites. Turn into 2 greased (9 -inch) pans 
and bake in a 3 50°F. oven 2 5 minutes. 


2/3 cup molasses 1 teaspoon cinnamon 

1/2 cup sugar 1 teaspoon baking soda 

1/2 cup butter or other 2 cups sifted cake flour 

shortening 1 cup sour milk 

1 teaspoon ginger 2 eggs, beaten 

Heat first 5 ingredients to boiling, stirring constantly. Cool 

CAKES 461 

to lukewarm. Sift soda and flour together and add alternately 
with milk and eggs, beating thoroughly. Pour into greased 
muffin pans. Bake in a 3 50 °F. oven 15 minutes. Makes 16 cakes. 
Cover with boiled frosting and coconut. 


1/^ cup shortening 2 teaspoons baking powder 

1 cup sugar Yj cup milk 

2 tggs, separated 1 teaspoon vanilla 

114 cups sifted cake flour 1 cup chopped nut meats 

Cream shortening and sugar, add Qgg yolks and beat well. 
Sift flour and baking powder and add alternately with milk and 
vanilla. Add nuts and fold in stiflly beaten Qgg whites. Bake in 
a greased loaf pan in a 3 50°F. oven 50 minutes. 


1/^ cup shortening y^ teaspoon salt 

^Vl <^P^ sugar 1 cup milk 

2I/2 cups sifted cake flour 1 teaspoon vanilla 

3 teaspoons baking powder 4 tgg whites, stiffly beaten 

Cream shortening, add sugar gradually and cream until light 
and fluffy. Sift flour, baking powder and salt together 3 times 
and add alternately with milk and vanilla a small amount at a 
time, beating after each addition until smooth. Pour into a tube 
pan lined with waxed paper. Bake in a moderate oven (3 50°F.) 
45 to 60 minutes. When cake is cold, cover with Boiled Frost- 
ing, page 479. 


% cup shortening I/2 teaspoon salt 

2 cups sugar 1 cup milk 

3 cups sifted cake flour 1 teaspoon vanilla 

3 teaspoons baking powder 5 Qgg whites, stiffly beaten 

Cream shortening, add sugar gradually and cream until light 
and fluffy. Sift dry ingredients together 3 times and add alter- 
nately with milk and vanilla to creamed mixture. Fold in Qgg 
whites. Pour into greased pans and bake in a moderate oven 
(3 50°F.) 30 minutes. Makes 3 (9-inch) layers. 



% cup butter or other 2l/^ cups sifted cake flour 

shortening 3 teaspoons baking powder 

ly^ cups sugar ^ teaspoon salt 

8 egg yolks, beaten % cup milk 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

Cream shortening and sugar until light and fluffy. Add egg 
yolks and continue creaming. Sift dry ingredients together 3 
times; add alternately with liquids to creamed mixture. Beat 
until smooth. Pour into cake pans lined with waxed paper. 
Bake in a moderate oven (3 50°F.) 18 to 20 minutes. Makes 3 
(9 -inch) layers. 


% cup shortening 4 teaspoons baking powder 

^Vl ^^P^ sugar % teaspoon salt 

3 eggs ^ cup orange juice 

Grated rind of 1 orange 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

3 cups sifted cake flour y^ cup water 

Cream shortening, add sugar gradually, creaming until light 
and fluffy. Add eggs one at a time, beating thoroughly after 
each addition. Add orange rind. Sift dry ingredients together 
3 times and add alternately with liquids to creamed mixture. 
Pour into cake pans lined with waxed paper. Bake in a moderate 
oven (3 50°F.) 25 to 30 minutes. Makes 2 (9-inch) layers. 
When cold spread Orange Filling (page 477) between layers 
and Twice Cooked Frosting or Seven Minute Frosting (page 
479) on top and sides. 


I/2 cup shortening y^ teaspoon salt 

1 cup sugar 21^ teaspoons baking powder 

2 eggs, separated % cup milk 

2 cups sifted cake flour 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Cream shortening, add sugar gradually and beat until fluffy, 
then add beaten egg yolks. Sift dry ingredients together 3 times 
and add alternately with milk and vanilla to creamed mixture. 
Fold in stiffly beaten egg whites. Bake in 2 layers in a moderate 
oven (3 50°F.) 20 minutes. When cold fill and frost as desired. 

CAKES 463 


% cup butter or other I/2 teaspoon salt 

shortening l/^ cup milk 

2 cups sugar 1/2 ^^V ^^^^^ 

3 cups sifted cake flour 1 teaspoon vanilla 
3 teaspoons baking powder 6 egg whites 

Cream shortening and sugar together until fluffy. Sift flour, 
baking powder and salt together 3 times. Combine milk, water 
and vanilla. Add small amounts of flour to creamed mixture, 
alternately with milk mixture, beating until smooth after each 
addition. Beat egg whites until stiff but not dry and fold into 
mixture. Pour into cake pans lined with waxed paper. Bake in 
moderate oven (350°F.) 25 minutes. Makes 3 (9-inch) layers. 

Lady Baltimore Frosting and Filling — 

3 cups sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 

1 cup water ' 1/^ cup chopped figs 

y^ teaspoon cream of tartar 1 cup chopped raisins 

3 egg whites, stiffly beaten 1 cup chopped nut meats 

Boil sugar, water and cream of tartar together to 238°F. or 
until a small amount of sirup will form a soft ball when tested 
in cold water. Pour hot sirup gradually over beaten whites, 
beating constantly and continuing to beat until mixture is of 
spreading consistency. Add vanilla. Divide mixture in half. 
Add fruit and nuts to 1 portion and spread between layers of 
cake. Frost top and sides v^ith remaining frosting. 


I/3 cup butter or other 2 teaspoon baking powder 


1/^ teaspoon salt 

1 cup sugar 

14 cup milk 

2 eggs, well beaten 

1 ounce (1 square) 

I/2 teaspoon vanilla 

chocolate, melted 

1% cups sifted cake flour 

Cream shortening, add sugar gradually and cream until light 
and fluffy. Add eggs and vanilla and mix thoroughly. Sift dry 
ingredients together 3 times and add alternately with milk to 
creamed mixture, beating until smooth. To ^ of the batter 
add chocolate and blend thoroughly. Place by spoonfuls in a 
greased tube pan, alternating light and dark mixtures. Bake in 
a moderate oven (3 50°F.) 1 hour. 



1/2 cup shortening 1 teaspoon baking powder 

14 cup sugar 4 egg whites 

l/g teaspoon salt % cup sugar 

4 egg yolks, beaten light 1/^ cup sliced blanched 

1 teaspoon vanilla almonds 

3 tablespoons milk 1 tablespoon sugar 

1 cup sifted cake flour 14 teaspoon cinnamon 

Cream shortening; beat in sugar and salt, then egg yolks, 
vanilla, milk and flour (sifted with baking pov^der). Spread 
mixture in 2 round greased cake pans. Beat egg v^hites until 
very Hght, add % cup sugar gradually and spread on the un- 
baked mixture in both pans. Sprinkle with almonds, 1 table- 
spoon sugar and cinnamon and bake in a moderate oven (3 50°F.) 
about 30 minutes. Let cool and put together with cream fill- 
ing. Makes 1 (9-inch) 2 layer cake. 

Cream Filling — 

1/3 cup sugar 2 egg yolks 

3 tablespoons cornstarch 2 tablespoons butter 

y^ teaspoon salt 2 cups milk, scalded 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

Combine sugar, cornstarch, salt and egg yolks; beat thor- 
oughly. Add butter and enough milk to make a smooth paste. 
Add paste to remaining hot milk and cook over boiling water, 
stirring constantly until mixture is thickened. Cool and add 
vanilla. If desired add Yz cup chopped nut meats. 


1 pound butter (2 cups) 10 eggs, separated 

1 pound sifted cake flour 1 pound sugar (2 cups) 

(4 cups) 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Cream butter, work in flour until mixture is mealy. Beat egg 
yolks, sugar and vanilla until thick and fluffy. Add first mix- 
ture gradually, beating thoroughly. Fold in stiffly beaten egg 
whites. Beat vigorously 5 minutes. Bake in 2 loaf pans lined 
with waxed paper, in a moderately slow oven (325 °F.) 1^4 
hours. Makes 2 loaves (8x4 inches). 

CAKES 465 


Vl ^'^P shortening 1 teaspoon baking soda 

2 cups brown sugar 2 teaspoons cinnamon 

3 eggs, separated 1 teaspoon cloves 

2 cups sifted cake flour 1/2 teaspoon nutmeg 

14 teaspoon salt 1 cup thick sour cream 

Cream shortening and sugar together until fluffy, add beaten 
yolks. Sift dry ingredients together 3 times and add alternately 
with cream to first mixture, beating thoroughly after each addi- 
tion. Fold in stiffly beaten q%% whites. Pour into cake pan lined 
with waxed paper. Bake in moderate oven (3 50°F.) about 50 
minutes. Makes 1 cake (9 inches square). 


1 cup shortening 1 teaspoon cinnamon 

2 cups brown sugar l^ teaspoon ground cloves 

4 eggs, well beaten 1 teaspoon nutmeg 

3 cups sifted cake flour 1 cup water 

3 teaspoons baking powder I/2 pound figs, finely cut 
1^ teaspoon salt 2 cups chopped raisins 

Cream shortening, add sugar gradually and cream until fluffy. 
Beat in eggs. Sift dry ingredients together 3 times and add alter- 
nately with water to creamed mixture. Blend in fruits. Bake in 
a waxed-paper-lined loaf pan (5 J/2 x 10 inches) in a slow oven 
(300°F.) about 2 hours. 


4 cups sifted cake flour 1 pound citron, sliced 

1 teaspoon mace 2 cups blanched almonds, 
1/^ teaspoon nutmeg sliced 

2 teaspoons cinnamon 1 pound butter 

1/2 teaspoon baking soda 2 cups light brown sugar 

3 pounds currants 9 eggs, separated 

2 pounds seeded raisins 1 cup strong cold coflFee 

Sift flour, spices and soda together 3 times. Mix with fruits 
and nuts. Cream butter and sugar together until fluffy. Beat 
yolks until thick and whites until stiff; add to creamed mixture. 
Add flour-fruit mixture alternately with coffee. Pour into 
greased pans lined with greased paper. Bake in very slow oven 
(275 °F.) 3 to 4 hours. Rich fruitcake is sometimes steamed 
1 hour, then baked for remaining time. 



2 pounds butter 

11/^ teaspoons salt 

1 pound granulated sugar 

1 teaspoon cloves 

% pound brown sugar 

2 teaspoons cinnamon 

20 eggs 

2 tablespoons nutmeg 

2 oranges, juice and grated 

2 tablespoons mace 


1 glass tart jelly 

1 lemon, juice and grated rind 

3 pounds seeded raisins 

1 teaspoon soda 

2 pounds seedless raisins 

1 cup molasses 

5 pounds currants 

1 cup black coffee 

1 pound almonds 

1 cup fruit juice 

2 pounds citron 

2 pounds flour 

2 cups flour (for the fruit) 

Cream the butter till very soft, add the white sugar and the 
sifted brown sugar and mix thoroughly. Add the beaten yolks 
and mix again with the grated rind. Add one half the soda 
to the molasses, stir until foamy and add, with the coffee and 
fruit juices, alternating with the two pounds of flour, the rest 
of soda, the salt and spices sifted together. Break the jelly into 
pieces and stir in. It is not necessary to have the jelly 
thoroughly mixed in. 

Look over the raisins and currants, wash if necessary, drain 
and dry. Blanch the almonds and slice. Save half the nuts to 
sprinkle on the bottom and top of cake. Cut the citron in thin 
strips. Mix the two cups of flour thoroughly with this fruit. 
Candied orange or grapefruit peel may be used for citron. 

Mix the prepared fruit with the batter. This may be added 
from time to time with the flour. When all is thoroughly com- 
bined fold in the stiffly beaten egg whites. 

This amount makes about twenty four pounds of cake, and 
can be baked in small loaves or in one large one. Whatever 
size is chosen line the greased pans with three layers of paper 
(bottom and sides) having the top layer well greased. Sprinkle 
the bottom with about one third of the reserved nuts. Put the 
mixture into the pan making sure that the corners are well filled 
and that the top is level and smooth. Sprinkle the remaining 
nuts on the top. If made into one large cake steam four hours 
and then bake one hour in a very slow oven (250° -2 75° F.). If 
made into small cakes they can be baked without steaming first. 
Bake in a slow oven (250° F.) for two hours. Let cool in the 
pan, but have it stand on a rack so as to have a circulation of 
air underneath as well as on the top and sides. 

CAKES 467 

Turn out and remove the paper. Cool and store in a cool dry 
place tightly covered. A few sound apples placed in the con- 
tainer where cake is stored will help keep the cake moist if it 
must be kept long, but they must be watched and replaced if 
they begin to show decay, or if they become^ shrivelled. 

As there is so much preparation involved, the fruits and nuts 
can be gotten ready several days before the cake is to be baked. 
Even after the cake is entirely mixed and in the pan or pans 
it can stand overnight if kept in a cool place. 


1 pound butter 1 pound citron, sliced 
ll^ pounds brown sugar 1 pound dates, sliced 
iy2 pounds flour 10 eggs, well beaten 

2 teaspoons nutmeg 1 cup molasses 

1 teaspoon mace 1 cup strong cold coflfee 

1 teaspoon cloves Juice and grated rind of 

2 teaspoons cinnamon 2 oranges 

1 teaspoon baking soda Juice and grated rind of 

3 teaspoons baking powder 1 lemon 

3 pounds raisins 1 cup tart jelly 

2 pounds currants y^ pound almonds, sliced 

Cream butter and sugar until fluffy. Sift dry ingredients 
together 3 times and mix with fruit. Add eggs to creamed mix- 
ture. Add flour-fruit mixture alternately with next 5 ingredients 
and beat thoroughly. Pour into pans lined with greased paper. 
Sprinkle almonds on top. Cover cakes with greased paper. 
Steam for 2 hours, then bake in slow oven (300°F.) 1}4 to 2 
hours, removing paper last Yz hour to dry surface. 


1 cup dried apricots 1 teaspoon vanilla 

2 cups water 1% cups sifted cake flour 
6 tablespoons sugar 1/^ teaspoon salt 

1/2 cup shortening 1/^ teaspoon baking soda 

1 cup sugar 1 teaspoon baking powder 

2 egg yolks y^ cup water 

Simmer first 3 ingredients together 30 minutes. Mash and 
measure Yz cup pulp. Cream shortening and sugar thoroughly, 
add yolks and vanilla; beat. Sift dry ingredients together and 
add alternately with water and pulp. Bake in a cake pan (8x8 
inches), lined with waxed paper, at 3 50°F., 45 minutes. 



No. 1. 

1/2 cup butter or other 2 cups sifted cake flour 

shortening 1 teaspoon baking soda 

1 cup sugar 1/^ teaspoon nutmeg 

2 eggs, beaten light 1 teaspoon cinnamon 
1/2 cup chopped nuts 1 cup unsweetened 

1 cup chopped raisins applesauce 

Cream shortening and sugar together until fluffy. Add eggs 
and mix thoroughly. Add nuts and raisins. Sift dry ingredients 
together 3 times and add alternately with applesauce to creamed 
mixture, beating thoroughly after each addition. Pour into a 
greased loaf pan and bake in a moderate oven (3 50°F.) for 
1 hour. If baked in layers, bake only for 25 minutes. Makes 
1 loaf (8x4 inches) or 2 (9-inch) layers. 

No. 2. 

y2 cup shortening 1 teaspoon nutmeg 

1 cup sugar y^ teaspoon cloves 

1 egg, beaten l/J teaspoon salt 

1% cups sifted cake flour 1 teaspoon baking soda 

iy2 teaspoons cinnamon 1 cup unsweetened 
1 teaspoon allspice applesauce 

Cream shortening and sugar together until fluffy. Add egg 
and mix thoroughly. Sift dry ingredients together 3 times and 
add alternately with applesauce to creamed mixture, beating 
thoroughly after each addition. Pour into a cake pan lined with 
waxed paper and bake in moderate oven (3 50°F.) 45 minutes. 
Makes 1 cake (8x8x2 inches). Frost with Caramel Frosting 
(page 479). 


1 cup sifted cake flour 5 egg yolks, beaten until 

y^ teaspoon salt thick and lemon-colored 

Grated rind y^ lemon 5 egg whites 

11/2 tablespoons lemon juice 1 cup sugar 

Sift flour and salt together 4 times. Add lemon rind and juice 
to beaten yolks and beat until thick and light. Beat egg whites 
until stiff, but not dry. Fold in sugar, a small amount at a 
time, then add egg yolks. Fold in flour, sifting about 5/4 cup at 
a time over surface. Bake in ungreased tube pan in moderate 


oven (3 50°F.) 1 hour. Remove from oven and invert pan 
1 hour before removing cake. 

For Martha Washington Cream Pie, bake in 2 cake pans. 
Use the filHng page 474 and top with whipped cream. When 
serving cut in wedges Hke a pie. 


1 cup sifted cake flour 1/2 tablespoon lemon juice 

11/^ teaspoons baking powder 2 eggs, separated 
y^ teaspoon salt 1 cup sugar 

6 tablespoons hot water 

Proceed as for True Spongecake (page 468), adding water 
to egg and sugar mixture before adding dry ingredients. 


1/2 cup water 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

ly^ cups sugar 6 egg yolks, beaten thick 

% cup egg whites (6) ll/^ cups sifted cake flour 

1 teaspoon cream tartar y^ teaspoon salt 

Boil water and sugar together to soft-ball stage (238°F.). 
Beat egg whites until stiff, but not dry, pour sirup over whites, 
add cream of tartar and beat until cool. Add juice. Fold egg 
yolks into sirup mixture. Fold in flour sifted with salt. Bake in 
ungreased pan in a 3yO°F. oven 45 minutes. 


1 y^ cups sugar 1 teaspoon cream of tartar 

1 cup sifted cake flour 1/^ teaspoon salt 

1 cup egg whites % teaspoon vanilla 

(8 to 10 eggs) y^ teaspoon almond extract 

Sift 54 cup sugar and flour together 4 times. Beat egg whites, 
cream of tartar and salt to a stiff foam. Add remaining sugar, 
a little at a time, beating it in, preferably with a rotary beater. 
Add flavorings. Fold in flour, sifting a little at a time over egg 
white and sugar mixture. Pour into a large ungreased tube pan; 
cut through batter with a spatula to remove large air bubbles. 
Bake in a moderate oven (3 50°F.) 45 to 60 minutes. Remove 
from oven; invert pan 1 hour. 

470 ________ 


5 eggs 1/^ cup sifted cake flour 

% cup sugar 3 tablespoons melted butter 

y^ teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon vanilla 

1 cup jelly or jam, slightly beaten 

Combine eggs and sugar and beat only until blended. Place 
over hot water and heat until mixture is slightly hot (140°F.). 
Remove from heat and beat until mixture holds a limp peak. 
Combine salt and flour and fold into egg mixture. Fold in but- 
ter a tablespoonful at a time. Blend in vanilla. Pour into a jelly 
roll pan (15 x 10 inches) lined with waxed paper. Bake in a 
moderate oven (3 50°F.) 15 to 20 minutes. Turn quickly onto 
waxed paper covered with confectioners' sugar. Remove bottom 
paper and trim sides. Spread quickly with jelly and roll; or 
roll cake and when cold unroll and spread with jelly. Wrap in 
waxed paper and cool. Just before serving sprinkle cake with 
confectioners' sugar. Makes 1 roll. 

Lemon Roll — Spread cake roll with Lemon Filling (page 
476) instead of jelly or jam. 

Marshm ALLOW Chocolate Roll — Spread with Marshmal- 
low-Cream Frosting (page 482) and roll. Wrap in cloth to cool. 
Unwrap and frost with coating made by adding 1 teaspoon 
melted butter to 1 square melted, bitter chocolate. 


1/2 cup shortening l^ teaspoon salt 

1 cup sugar 1 cup graham cracker 

2 eggs, beaten crumbs 

1 cup sifted cake flour 1 cup milk 

2 teaspoons baking powder 1 teaspoon almond extract 

Cream shortening and sugar together until fluffy. Beat in eggs. 
Sift flour, baking powder and salt together 3 times, add crumbs 
and add alternately with milk and almond extract to creamed 
mixture. Pour into 2 (8 -inch) cake pans lined with waxed 
paper. Bake in a moderate oven (3 50°F.) 25 to 30 minutes. 
Put layers together with Cream Filling (page 464) and frost top 
and sides with a butter frosting. 

CAKES 471 


1 cup whipping cream 1 teaspoon vanilla 

2 eggs, beaten until thick 1 ^ cups sifted cake flour 
and lemon colored 54 teaspoon salt 

1 cup sugar 2 teaspoons baking powder 

Whip cream until it holds its shape. Add eggs and whip until 
light as foam. Add sugar and beat again. Add vanilla. Sift 
flour, salt and baking powder together 3 times and add to egg 
mixture. Bake in greased layer cake pans in a moderate oven 
(350° F.) 25 to 30 minutes. Makes 2 (8 -inch) layers. Cool 
and spread Seven Minute Icing (page 479) or whipped cream 
between the layers and on top. 


2 eggs 1 Yz teaspoons baking 
1 cup sugar powder 

1 cup thick sour cream Yz teaspoon baking soda 

1 teaspoon vanilla Y4 teaspoon salt 

2 cups sifted cake flour 

Beat eggs very light, add sugar gradually and beat until 
fluffy. Add cream and vanilla and beat. Sift dry ingredients 
together 3 times and add to egg mixture, beating until smooth. 
Bake in a square pan (8 -inch) lined with waxed paper, in a 
moderate oven (3 50°F.) about 35 minutes. 


y^ cup butter % cup sugar 

1/2 cup brown sugar 1 egg, beaten 

14 teaspoon lemon rind 1 cup milk 

Stewed apricot halves ly^ cups flour 

Stewed prune halves 4 teaspoons baking powder 

5 tablespoons shortening ^ teaspoon salt 

Cream butter and brown sugar; add lemon rind; spread on 
bottom of cake pan 8'' by 2''. Arrange apricot and prune halves 
to form design on top of sugar mixture. Cream shortening, add 
sugar slowly, then egg; beat well. Add milk alterr^ately with 
flour, baking powder and salt sifted together. Mix thoroughly. 
Pour batter carefully over fruit in pan; bake 50 minutes at 
3 50° F. Turn onto serving platter, upside down. 







A TABLE giving the temperatures of boiling sugar sirup at 
its various stages will be found on page 12. 

Fillings — A filling is defined as "something that serves to 
fill up a space or cavity." In connection with cakes, the 
word is used to designate a soft, sweetened, cooked or uncooked 
mixture that will spread easily. It is usually put between layers 
to hold them together, or is put into a cavity in a cake; but 
occasionally it is spread over the top and sides of a cake. Some- 
times a frosting is used between the layers instead of a filling. 

Frosting and Icing — ^A frosting is a preparation of sugar 
and a liquid, which may or may not be combined with eggy 
and may be cooked or uncooked. The term is derived from the 
fact that the first sugar decorations of this sort were uncolored 
and gave the effect of hoar-frost. The word is now used to 
mean any sweet covering applied to cakes, whether white or 

Icing has been used interchangeably with the word "frost- 
ing" but more often in reference to the uncooked frostings. 
In the beginning the word was probably used because the sub- 
stance looked like ice, being translucently white instead of 
frostily white. Therefore, it may be desirable to use the word 
"icing" to mean a thin mixture of confectioners' sugar and a 
liquid, spread on to give a glazed surface; and to keep the term 
"frosting" for a thicker, more opaque coating. 

Applying Fillings and Frostings 

Cakes should be cooled and the surface should be free from 
loose crumbs before a filling or frosting is applied, and the filling 
or frosting should be cool enough so that it will not soak in. 
Either the top or the bottom crust may be frosted, but the bot- 
tom crust is likely to be softer and more level than the top 
crust. This point should be considered also when fillings are to 
be put between layers. Fillings usually hold layers together 
better when the bottom crusts are placed together. A very 



soft filling should not be used for a cake that is to be kept any 
considerable time before it is eaten because the filling will soak 
into the cake and make it soggy. Sometimes the shape of a loaf 
cake makes it desirable to put the frosting on the bottom crust. 
The frosting may extend over the top of a cake only or may 
be spread over the sides. A well-made boiled frosting should 
be soft, but not soft enough to run. A frosting may be put on 
with a very smooth surface, may be left rough, or may be 
scored in ridges or designs. 


2 apples 1 lemon 1 cup sugar 

Pare two large, sour apples and grate them into a saucepan^ 
add the juice and grated rind of the lemon, and the sugar. 
Cook for five minutes, stirring constantly. Cool before spread- 
ing on cake. 


1/4 cups brown sugar 1 cup milk 

1 tablespoon butter 1 ^ teaspoons vanilla 

2 teaspoons corn-starch 

Cook the sugar, corn-starch, milk and butter together in a 
double boiler until thick. Remove from the fire and beat 
vigorously until the mixture is stiff. Add flavoring. Cool be- 
fore spreading on cake. 


No. 1. 

1/4 squares chocolate 1 egg-yolk 

y^ cup milk Yz teaspoon butter 

1 cup brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Melt the chocolate over hot water, in a double boiler; add the 
milk, and cook together, stirring until the mixture is thick 
and creamy. Add sugar and beaten egg-yolk, stir until smooth 
and cook ^lvq minutes. Add the butter. Beat well. Remove 
from heat and add flavoring. Cool before spreading on cake. 


No. 2. 

1/4 squares chocolate 1 cup powdered sugar 

Yi cup cream Yz teaspoon butter 

1 egg-yolk Y2 teaspoon vanilla 

Melt the chocolate over hot water, In a double boiler. Mix 
the cream and beaten yolk and add gradually, then the butter. 
Stir in the sugar and cook until thick. Remove from fire. 
Add flavoring. Cool before spreading on cake. 


1 tablespoon gelatin Y2 cup sugar 
Yz cup cold water 3 egg-whites 

Yz cup boiling water 1 Yz cups moist coconut 

Soak gelatin in the cold water until soft; then dissolve it in 
the boiling water. Add sugar and stir until it is dissolved. 
Allow gelatin to cool partly. When it begins to set, beat the 
egg-whites until stiff and beat in the gelatin. Fold in the 
coconut and spread upon the layers. 

No. 2. 

lYz cups moist coconut 4 tablespoons confectioners' 

2 egg-whites sugar 

Beat the egg-whites stiff and add the sugar and coconut 
gradually. Spread the mixture thickly over the cake. If you 
like, sprinkle the surface with dry shredded coconut. 


iy2 cups milk 14 ^^P cold water 

1 cup sugar ^ cup rum, brandy or whisky 

2 tablespoons flour % cup candied cherries, chopped 

3 Ggg yolks ^2 ^P citron, chopped 
2 tablespoons gelatin 1 cup whipped cream 

Scald milk. Add sugar and flour to beaten egg yolks. Add to 
scalded milk and cook over hot water until eggs are done. Re- 
move from heat. Add gelatin which has been soaked in the cold 
water. Chill. Add liquor, beat with rotary beater and chill again. 
Fold the fruit and cream into the mixture. Pile between layers 
of sponge cake. Top with whipped cream. 


Chocolate — Use 2 squares bitter chocolate, melted over hot 
water, omit liquor, add J/g teaspoon salt, dash cinnamon and 
increase sugar to 1 ^ cups. 

Coffee — Scald milk with two tablespoons ground coffee, 
strain, and make same as cream filling, omitting liquor. 

Orange — Use half orange-juice and half milk and add two 
tablespoons grated orange rind to ingredients above, omitting 
the liquor. If you like, add one tablespoon lemon-juice. 


Yz tablespoon gelatin ^ cup powdered sugar 

y^ cup cold water 1 teaspoon vanilla 

2 cups cream ^ cup boiling water 

Soak the gelatin in the cold water until softened. Whip the 
cream in a pan set in ice-water and sift the sugar over it. Add 
the vanilla. Pour the boiling water upon the gelatin and, when 
it is dissolved and cooled, strain it over the whipped cream. 
Then beat rapidly with a flat whip, turning the pan with the 
left hand while beating with the right. Beat until the gelatin 
is thoroughly blended with the cream. Set in a cool place. 
When the filling is nearly stiff, spread it on the cake layers. 


Vz pint cream 1 1/^ tablespoons Mocha 

2 tablespoons sugar extract or strong coffee 

Whip the cream in a bowl set in ice-water; add the extract 
or coffee and the sugar. Beat well. 

If the top of the cake is spread with this filling, three-fourths 
cup of chopped nut-meats may be sprinkled over it. 


14 pound single or mixed fruit 1 cup sugar 

1 cup water 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Chop the fruit fine and boil in the water, if necessary, until 
tender. Add sugar and cook slowly until smooth and thick. 
Remove from the heat, add vanilla and cool. 



2 tablespoons butter Fresh or canned fruit 

4 tablespoons sugar (white, brown or maple) 

In a deep cake pan or heavy skillet, melt 2 tablespoons butter. 
Sprinkle 4 tablespoons sugar over bottom of pan and cover with 
well-drained sour cherries (or other canned or fresh fruit). 
Pour batter or light yeast dough over this layer and bake at 
425° F. for 30 minutes. 


1 cup chopped raisins 1 egg-white 
54 cup chopped nuts Currant jelly 
Yz cup shredded coconut 

Mix the raisins, nuts and coconut and add them to the stiffly 
beaten egg-white. Spread the layers of cake with a thin layer 
of currant jelly, then with a thick layer of the filling, and put 


y^ pound seeded or seedless Chopped walnuts 

raisins % pound maraschino cherries 

y^ pound figs y^ pound maple sugar 

yz pound dates J4 cup water 

Put raisins and figs in colander over a kettle of hot water 
and allow them to steam for about one hour. Then add dates, 
which have been pitted, and steam for fifteen minutes longer. 
Remove from steamer, add cherries, and chop all the fruit fine. 
Bring the maple sugar and water to a boil and pour it over the 
fruit. Mix well. When cool, spread between layers and on 
top of the cake and sprinkle with chopped walnuts. 


2 tablespoons flour Juice and grated rind of 
% cup cold water 1 lemon 

1 egg-yolk 2 teaspoons butter 

yz cup sugar 

Make a smooth paste of the flour and two tablespoons of the 
cold water. Cook the rest of the water, the sugar, grated 
lemon-rind and butter. When the sugar is dissolved and mix- 


ture boiling, stir in the flour mixture slowly. Cook until clear 
and smooth, about fifteen minutes. Add lemon-juice and 
beaten egg-yolk and cook two minutes. Cool before spreading 
on cake. 

No. 2. 

3 egg-yolks Juice and grated rind of 

1 cup sugar 2 lemons 

Yz cup butter or other fat 

Beat the egg-yolks until thick, add the other ingredients and 
cook in a double boiler, stirring constantly, until the mixture 
is thick and smooth. Cool before spreading on cake. 


2' cups maple-sirup 1 tablespoon butter 

Ya cup milk Salt 

Cook sirup, milk, butter, and salt together to the soft-ball 
stage (238° F.). Cool and beat until creamy. Use as a filling 
for cakes, cream-puffs or tarts. 


2 tablespoons butter 1 tablespoon grated orange 

54 cup granulated sugar rind 

2 eggs beaten 1 tablespoon lemon-juice 
Yz cup orange-juice 

Combine all ingerdients and mix well. Cook over hot water, 
stirring constantly, until well thickened, about ten minutes. 
Chill well before spreading on cake. 


y^ pound prunes ^ cup rhubarb-juice or 

Yz tablespoon gelatin pineapple-juice 

4 tablespoons cold water Y2. cup whipped cream 
Y2 cup sugar 

"Wash the prunes, soak over night in water to cover, and cook 
slowly until soft. Remove pits and rub pulp through a coarse 
sieve. Soak the gelatin in cold water. When soft, add it to 


the hot prune pulp and stir until the gelatin dissolves. Add 
sugar and fruit- juice. When the filling has cooled^ fold in the 
whipped cream. 


2 cups brown sugar 
^ cup water 
2 egg-whites 

Yz teaspoon vanilla 

Yz cup chopped walnut-meats 

Cook the sugar and water, stirring occasionally until the 
sugar is dissolved. Boil without stirring until sirup will form 
a thread when dropped from the tip of the spoon (234° F.). 
Remove from the fire and cool while beating the egg-whites stiff ,- 
then pour the sirup in a thin stream on the egg-whites, beating 
the mixture constantly until it is thick enough to spread. Add 
flavoring and nuts. Cool before spreading on cake. Chopped 
nut-meats may be sprinkled over the top of the cake. 


1^ egg-white Y2 cup confectioners' sugar Yz teaspoon vanilla 

Beat the egg-white stiff and add the sugar gradually; con- 
tinue beating until the mixture is smooth and light. Add 


2 tablespoons milk or 1 cup confectioners* sugar 

water Y2 teaspoon vanilla 

Stir the sugar gradually into the milk or water. Add 
vanilla. More sugar may be added if the frosting is not thick 

Any fruit-juice or flavored liquid such as strong coffee or 
maple -sirup may be used instead of milk or water. 

Crushed berries mixed with the sugar give a pleasing frosting. 

Two tablespoons cocoa may be mixed with the sugar. 

One-half square of melted chocolate may be added. 



1 cup sugar 1, 2, or 3 egg-whites 
Yz cup water Yz teaspoon vanilla 

Cook the sugar and water together, stirring until the sugar 
has dissolved. Then cook without stirring. For one egg-white, 
cook to 238° F.; for two egg-whites, cook to 244° F.; and for 
three egg-whites, cook to 254° F. Remove from the fire and 
allow it to cool while you are beating the egg-white stiff, then 
pour the sirup in a thin stream over the stiff white, beating the 
mixture constantly until thick enough to spread. 


XYz cups granulated sugar 1 teaspoon flavoring extract 

Y2 cup water Yz teaspoon cream of tartar 

2 egg-whites 

Boil sugar and water without stirring until the sirup will 
form a soft ball in cold water (234° F.) ; add very slowly to 
beaten egg-whites; add flavoring and cream of tartar and beat 
until smooth and stiff enough to spread. Put over boiling 
water, stirring continually until icing grates slightly on bottom 
of bowl. 


1 unbeaten egg-white 3 tablespoons cold water 

Y^ cup granulated sugar ^ teaspoon flavoring extract 

Place all the ingredients in the top of a double boiler. Place 
over boiling water and beat with beater for seven minutes. 
Add flavoring, beat, and spread on cake. 

Chocolate — Add to above one and one-half ounces melted 
unsweetened chocolate two minutes before taking from fire. 

Coffee — Use cold boiled coffee in place of water. 


1 cup brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla or 

Yz cup water Y2 teaspoon lemon extract 

2 egg-whites 

Make a sirup of the sugar and water and cook to the soft-ball 
stage (238° F.). Remove from the fire and cool while the 


egg-whites are beaten, then pour the sirup in a thin stream on 
to the stiff whites, beating the mixture constantly \mtil thick 
enough to spread. Add the flavoring. 

Chopped nuts may be stirred into the frosting just before 


1 square chocolate 1 egg-white 

3 tablespoons granulated 8 tablespoons confectioners' 

sugar sugar 

1 tablespoon water J/2 tablespoon vanilla 

Cook the chocolate, granulated sugar and water together, 
stirring until the mixture is smooth and glossy. Beat the white 
of the egg enough to thin it, but not to make it frothy; add 
the confectioners' sugar, stir until smooth and light, then add 
the chocolate mixture and vanilla. Cool before spreading on 
the cake. 


1/4 cups confectioners' Y^ cup butter 

sugar 1 tablespoon strong cotfee 

1 tablespoon dry cocoa 

Cream the butter and add gradually the sugar and cocoa 
mixed together. Beat well. Stir in the coffee. Ornamental 
designs may be made by forcing the frosting through a pastry- 
bag or syringe, using the various tips to produce the desired 


2 cups sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Vz cup milk 6 marshmallows or 2 heaping 

1 Yz tablespoons butter tablespoons marshmallow 

2 squares chocolate whip 
1 tablespoon corn sirup 

Put first ^ve ingredients into a saucepan and boil to soft ball 
stage (234° F.). Remove from fire and stir in the marshmal- 
lows just until they dissolve. Cool and add vanilla and beat 
until right consistency to spread on cake. 









1 cup honey 2 egg-whites 

Boil the honey about ten minutes (238° F.). Remove from 
the fire and cool while the egg-whites are beaten stiff, then 
pour the honey in a thin stream over them, beating the mixture 
constantly until thick enough to spread. Cool before spread- 


No. 1. 

2 cups maple sugar 1 cup cream 

Break the maple sugar into small pieces, put into a saucepan 
and heat slowly with the cream. Stir until the sugar is 
thoroughly dissolved, then boil without stirring until a soft 
ball can be shaped between the fingers when the mixture is 
tried in cold water (238° F.) . Care must be taken not to have 
the heat too great, as this mixture will burn easily. Remove 
from the fire and beat until thick enough to spread. 

No. 2. 

y^ cup maple-sirup 1 egg-white 

y^ cup sugar 

Cook the sirup and sugar together until it spins a thread 
(220° F.) when dropped from a spoon. Pour this sirup slowly 
over the beaten egg-white and beat until cold. This icing is 
quickly made and may be used to give a maple flavor to simple, 
inexpensive cakes or cookies. 

No. 3. 

2 cups maple sugar 54 cup boiling water 

2 egg-whites 

Make a sirup of the maple sugar and water and boil to the 
soft-ball stage (238° F.), remove from the fire and cool while 
the egg-whites are beaten stiff, then pour the sirup in a thin 
stream, over the stiff whites, beating the mixture until it is 
thick enough to spread. A rough surface may be obtained by 
spreading the top of the cake with the back of a spoon before 
the frosting is set. 



1 cup maple sugar 6 marshmallows or 2 table- 
Yz cup boiling water spoons marshmallow cream 

2 egg-whites Yz teaspoon vanilla 

Cook the sugar and water together, stirring until the sugar is 
dissolved; then cook without stirring to the soft-ball stage 
(238° F.) add the marshmallow to the hot sirup, pressing it 
under the surface so that it will melt. If marshmallow candies 
are used, cut them into small pieces. Pour the sirup in a thin 
stream on to the stiffly beaten egg-whites, beating the mixture 
constantly with a spoon. Add vanilla. Cool before spreading. 


%. cup sugar 6 marshmallows or 2 table- 

Y4 cup milk spoons marshmallow cream 

2 tablespoons hot water Y2 teaspoon vanilla 

Put the milk and sugar into a saucepan, bring slowly to the 
boiling-point and boil for Hve minutes. Place the marshmallow 
in a double boiler with hot water and vanilla. Stir until the 
mixture is smooth, then add the milk and sugar sirup graduallyjj 
stirring constantly. Beat until cool, then spread. 


1 teaspoon butter Y2 cup milk 

IY2 cups sugar Y2 teaspoon vanilla 

Put the butter into a saucepan and, when it is melted, add the 
sugar and milk. Stir until the boiling-point is reached and then 
boil for ten minutes without stirring (23 5° F.). Remove from 
the fire, add vanilla, and beat until of spreading consistency. 


IY2 teaspoons Mocha extract 1 cup confectioners' sugar 

or strong coffee 2 tablespoons water 

Mix the extract or coffee with the sugar and stir into the 
water, gradually, rubbing out all lumps. After the frosting is 
spread on the cake, three-fourths of a cup of chopped nut- 
meats may be sprinkled over the top. 



COOKIE doughs range from very soft to very stiff. What- 
ever the degree of stiffness, a cookie dough is always easier 
to handle if it is allowed to stand for a time (ten to thirty 
minutes) in a cold place before it is rolled. This allows the 
moisture to be thoroughly absorbed and hardens the fat, and 
both of these conditions tend to prevent the dough from being 
sticky even though it is soft. 

Materials Used in Cookies — Butter or any other shorten- 
ing preferred may be used in cookies. See Index for materials 
used in cake making. 

Soft Doughs may be dropped from a spoon on to a baking- 
sheet or may be rolled and shaped with a cutter, a knife or a 
pastry wheel. They are more difficult to roll out than stiff 
doughs, and some practise is necessary to obtain perfect results 
in manipulating them in this way. 

Stiff Doughs are usually rolled out and shaped by cutting. 
Sometimes they are made into small balls and flattened by 
pressure from the hand, a broad knife or a rolling-pin. 

Rolling and Cutting Cookies 

In Rolling Any Dough, take out on the lightly floured 
board only as much as can be handled easily. Flour the rolling- 
pin and use only as much pressure as is necessary to spread the 
dough out into a sheet of the desired thickness. If the dough 
is too soft to be rolled, more flour may be worked in, but the 
texture of the finished cookie will be harder in proportion to 
the amount of flour added. 

Dip the Cutter, knife or wheel in flour, and cut the shapes 
as close together as possible. Lift the cookies on a broad knife 
or spatula and lay them on a greased baking-sheet, allowing a 
little space between for possible spreading. 



Save all the Trimmings for the last rolling. The last 
cookies will not be of the same texture as the first because of 
the extra flour which will be worked into the dough in the 
process of mixing the trimmings into a mass to be rolled again. 


^ cup shortening 1% cups pastry or cake flour 

1 cup granulated sugar 1 teaspoon baking powder 

2 eggs % teaspoon vanilla extraa 
1^ teaspoon salt 

Cream shortening and sugar until light and fluffy. Add beat- 
en eggs and sifted dry ingredients. Add vanilla and mix well. 
Spread the batter onto a baking sheet as thinly as possible and 
frost with the following: 

Remove lumps from 1 cup brown sugar and fold into 1 stiff- 
ly beaten egg white. Spread onto cookie batter, sprinkle with 1 
cup chopped nuts and bake in moderate oven (325° F.) 30 
minutes. Cut in squares. Makes 24 to 36. 


% cup shortening 2 teaspoons baking-powder 

1 cup sugar ^ cup milk 

2 eggs Yz teaspoon salt 

3 cups flour Yz teaspoon vanilla 

Cream the shortening and mix well with the sugar, add the 
beaten egg, then the flour, baking-powder and salt sifted to- 
gether, alternating with the milk. Roll and cut in any desired 
shape. Sprinkle with sugar before baking. Bake in a moderate 
oven (3 50°-375° F., 10-12 minutes). 


Vz cup shortening ^ cup flour 

Yi cup sugar Y2 teaspoon vanilla 

1 egg well beaten Raisins, nuts or citron 

Cream the shortening, add sugar gradually, egg, flour, and 
vanilla. Drop from tip of spoon in small portions on buttered 
sheet two inches apart. Spread thin with a knife first dipped 
in cold water and bake quickly at 375° F. Put four Sultana 
raisins on each cookie, almonds blanched and cut in strips, or 
citron cut in small pieces. 



y^ cup shortening 2 teaspoons baking-powder 

1 cup sugar % teaspoon cinnamon 

1 t%% Nuts or raisins 
1/4 cups flour 

Cream shortening, add sugar slowly, then the unbeaten ^^%, 
Sift in the flour and baking-powder, and add more flour if neces- 
sary to make a stiflF dough. Roll out very thin. Cut with a 
doughnut cutter. Sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon, and, if 
desired, decorate with nuts or fruit. Bake in a moderate oven 
(350°-375° F., 10-12 minutes). 


Yz cup shortening 2 teaspoons baking-powder 

1 cup sugar Vz teaspoon salt 

1 t%% Ya cup milk 

2 cups flour 1 Yz tablespoons caraway seeds 

Cream the shortening with the sugar; add beaten q%%. Mix 
and sift the flour, baking-powder, and salt, and add alternately 
with the milk to the first mixture. Add caraway seeds. Toss 
on lightly floured board. Roll out about one-half inch thick 
and cut in fancy shapes. Place on greased baking-sheet and 
bake in moderate oven (350° F.). 


Ya cup butter 1 teaspoon salt 

y^ cup other shortening 1 teaspoon cinnamon 

2 cups medium brown sugar 2 teaspoons baking-powder 

4 eggs 5 cups flour 

Cream the shortenings together and with the sugar. Add 
the well-beaten eggs and beat well. Sift all the dry ingredients 
together and add to the first mixture. Pack the dough into a 
butter carton, or form into roll. Wrap in wax paper and put 
in the coldest part of the refrigerator for several hours. Slice 
as thin as possible with a very sharp knife, place on a greased 
baking-sheet, and bake for ten minutes in a moderate oven 
(375° F.). A part of the mixture may be baked and the re- 
mainder kept in the refrigerator for later use. 



1 cup shortening 3 tablespoons lemon-juice 

2 cups sugar Flour 

3 eggs 

Cream the shortening, add the sugar, the well-beaten eggs, 
and the lemon- juice. Stir in only enough flour to make as 
soft a dough as can be rolled. Roll very thin and shape with a 
cutter. Bake in a moderate oven (3 50°-375° F., 10-12 min- 


1 cup sugar 3 cups flour 

3^ cup shortening 3 teaspoons baking-powder 

2 eggs Yz teaspoon salt 
Yi cup milk 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Mix ingredients in order given, sifting the flour with the 
baking-powder and salt before adding it. Roll thin, cut, and 
put in greased pans. Place a teaspoon of filling on each, not 
allowing it to spread to the edge, place another cookie on top, 
press down the edges, and bake in shallow pans in a quick oven 
(400°-425° F., 10-15 minutes). 

Filling — 

Yz cup sugar 1 cup chopped raisins, dates, 

1 tablespoon flour figs, prunes, apricots or 

Yz cup water marmalade 

Mix sugar and flour together, add to the other ingredients, 
and cook until thick, stirring constantly. 


2 cups brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 

1 cup melted shortening 2 teaspoons baking-powder 

3 eggs Flour to mix stiff 
Ya cup milk 

Mix ingredients in order given. Add just enough flour to 
roll. Cut into shapes as desired. Sprinkle with brown sugar^ 
and bake in a moderate oven (350°-375° F., 10-12 minutes). 






F/? '^^ 

>PiC£ I^H^^H^P^ 

'^'- --^ 



VARIATION?™ ^""^ «K 

c '_^ 








2 squares chocolate 1 egg 

Yz cup shortening 2 cups flour 

1 cup brown sugar Yz cup sweet milk 
Yz teaspoon soda 

Melt the chocolate and add to the melted shortening. Add 
sugar, egg and milk, then the soda and flour sifted together. 
Drop by spoonfuls on greased pans, and bake in a moderate 
oven (375°-400° F., 12-15 minutes). Frost, if desired. 


2 squares chocolate Y2 teaspoon salt 
Y4 cup shortening Y2 cup flour 

1 cup white sugar Y2 cup nuts 

Melt chocolate and add it to the melted shortening. Add 
sugar, eggy salt and flour and chopped nuts. Pour into greased 
baking-pans, and bake in a moderate oven (3 50°-400° F.) 
about twenty minutes. They will look half baked, but mark 
oflF in squares or strips when you take them from the oven, and 
they will harden as they cool. Remove from the pans when 
cool. Serve with afternoon tea. These resemble fudge in taste 
and appearance. 


54 cup shortening 2 teaspoons baking-powder 

Yz cup sugar Yz teaspoon salt 

2 eggs 1 tablespoon milk 

1 cup flour 1 cup chopped nuts 

1 teaspoon vanilla or almond 

t Cream shortening and sugar, add eggs well beaten. Sift dry 
ingredients together and add alternately with milk. Stir in nuts 
and flavoring and mix well. Drop from teaspoon on a greased 
baking-sheet and place a nut on top of each. Bake in a moderate 
oven (375° -400° F., 12-15 minutes). This makes about three 
dozen cookies. 



% cup sugar 2 teaspoons ginger 

1 cup molasses ]^ cup vinegar 

1 cup shortening Flour to mold 
1 teaspoon soda 

Mix sugar, molasses and vinegar. Add melted shortening. 
Sift soda and ginger with one cup of flour and add mixture. 
Add enough flour to roll very thin. Bake in a moderate oven 
(375° F.) watching carefully^ as ginger cookies burn rather 


54 cup shortening Yz teaspoon salt 

1 cup brown sugar 2 cups flour 

2 eggs 2 teaspoons baking-powder 
54 cup milk 1 cup chopped peanuts 

Melt shortening; add brown sugar, eggs and milk. Add sifted 
salt, flour and baking-powder, and chopped peanuts. Drop by 
teaspoonfuls on greased pans, an inch or two apart. Place a 
half peanut on each and bake in a quick oven (400° F.). 


1 cup shortening 2 teaspoons soda 

% cup sugar 1 teaspoon ginger 

1 cup molasses J/2 teaspoon salt 

y^ cup sour milk 2J/2 cups flour 

Cream the shortening and the sugar and add the molasses and 
milk. Mix well and add dry ingredients mixed and sifted to- 
gether. Mix thoroughly. Roll the dough thin and cut in 
rounds. Chilling the dough before rolling makes it easier to 
handle. Bake in greased sheet in moderate hot oven (375° F.). 


1, cup molasses 3 cups flour 

Yz cup shortening 1 teaspoon soda 

J4 teaspoon salt 2 teaspoons ginger 

Heat the molasses and shortening. Mix and sift the dry in- 
gredients and add to first mixture. Thoroughly chill, toss on 


lightly floured board, and roll out very thin. Cut as desired. 
The bowl containing the remaining dough must be kept in a 
cool place or it will be necessary to add more flour. Excess 
flour will make the cookies hard and unattractive. Put on 
greased baking-sheet and bake in a moderate oven (375° F., 
8-10 minutes). 


1 cup shortening 2 teaspoons baking-powder 

2 cups sugar ^ teaspoon salt 

3 eggs Yz teaspoon soda 

1 cup sour milk Y2 nutmeg, grated 

6 cups flour 

Cream the shortening with the sugar and add the eggs, well 
beaten. Mix and sift the dry ingredients and add them to the 
sugar and shortening alternately with the milk. Roll out in 
a thick sheet and cut with a doughnut cutter. Bake in a moder- 
ate hot oven (375° F.). 


1 cup shortening 1 teaspoon ginger 

1 cup brown sugar 1 teaspoon soda 

1 teaspoon salt 2 cups molasses 

Flour 1 cup seeded raisins 

Put the shortening, sugar, molasses, ginger and salt into a 
saucepan together. Stir the mixture until it boils; then boil 
it five minutes. Pour into a bowl and stir in flour and soda 
sifted together until it is just stiff enough to drop from a spoon. 
Add the raisins and drop by spoonfuls on to a greased shallow 
pan. Bake the rocks in a moderate oven (375°-400° F.). 


1 cup shortening 3 eggs 

1 teaspoon cinnamon 1 Yz cups maple sugar 

1 cup walnuts 2 J/2 cups flour 

Melt shortening, add crushed maple sugar, Q-^%Sy and cinna- 
mon. Mix together and add chopped nuts and flour. Drop 
bjr spoonfuls on greased pans, and bake in a moderate oven 
(375^-400° F.). 



/i cup shortening 1 tablespoon molasses 

Yz cup sugar 1 teaspoon each of various 

2 eggs desired spices 

" 2 tablespoons milk 2 teaspoons baking-powder 

1 cup chopped raisins Flour 

Cream shortening, add sugar gradually. Add eggs, molasses, 
milk and raisins. Sift baking-powder and spices with one cup 
of flour, and mix all thoroughly. Add enough flour to make 
quite a stiff dough, and roll. Bake in a moderate oven (375°- 
400° R). 


lYi cups strained honey 1 cup chopped raisins 

y^ cup shortening 1 ^ teaspoons cinnamon 

2 eggs Yz, teaspoon cloves 
Y2 cup milk "hYi cups flour 

Y2 teaspoon salt 4 teaspoons baking-powder 

Mix strained honey and melted shortening. Add eggs, milk, 
salt and raisins. Sift cinnamon, cloves, and baking-powder with 
the flour. Beat well, and drop on a greased pan. Bake in a 
moderate oven (375° -400° F.) until brown. 


1 cup strained honey 1 t^^ 

1 cup sugar 1 tablespoon ginger 

1 cup melted shortening 1 cup chopped nuts 

2 teaspoons baking-powder Flour 

Mix honey, sugar, melted shortening and beaten egg. Add 
chopped nuts, then baking-powder and ginger sifted with one 
cup of flour. Add more flour to make a batter of the right 
consistency to drop from a spoon on to a greased pan. Bake 
in a moderate oven (375° -400° F.). 



1 cup sugar Yz teaspoon soda 

y^ cup mblasses 2 cups flour 

1 cup shortening 1 cup chopped raisins sprin- 

2 Q%%s kled with 2 tablespoon<= 
y^ cup sweet milk flour 

2 teaspoons ground cinnamon 2 cups rolled oats 

1 teaspoon ground cloves 

Mix ingredients in the order given. Melt the shortening be- 
fore adding it, and sift the soda and spices with the flour. Drop 
by teaspoonfuls on greased pans and bake in a moderate oven 
(375^-400° R). 

Doughnuts, Crullers and Sweet Fritters 

Sweet Milk— DOUGHNUTS 

2 tablespoons shortening 1 teaspoon salt 

1 cup sugar J/2 teaspoon nutmeg 

3 eggs yz teaspoon lemon extract 
1 cup milk Flour 

3 teaspoons baking-powder 

Beat the eggs till very light, add the sugar and when foamy 
add the melted shortening. Sift the baking-powder, salt and 
nutmeg with one cup of flour and stir into first mixture, alter- 
nating with the milk. Add the lemon flavoring and just enough 
flour to make a soft dough which can be handled. Roll out 
three-fourths inch thick on a lightly floured board. A soft 
dough makes light, tender doughnuts when cooked. Fry in 
deep fat (3 60° -370° F.) and drain on unglazed paper. If 
you have no thermometer test the fat for temperature as di- 
rected on page 26. 

Sour Milk — 

1 cup sugar 1 teaspoon baking-powder 

2 tablespoons sour cream J/2 teaspoon salt 

or shortening y^ teaspoon lemon extract 

3 t%^s yz teaspoon nutmeg 

1 cup sour milk 4^ cups flour (more or less) 

yz teaspoon soda 

Mix the sugar with the cream and add the beaten eggs and 
sour milk. Sift the other dry ingredients with one cup of flour 


and add to the first mixture. Add additional flour to make a 
dough just stiff enough to handle. Toss on a floured board, roll 
out, and cut. Fry in deep fat (3 60° -370° F.). If you have 
no thermometer, test temperature of fat as directed on page 26. 
Drain on unglazed paper. When cold, roll in powdered sugar. 

Raisei>— (The recipe for raised doughnuts is given on page 


1/4 cup shortening 

^Yz teaspoons baking-powder 

1 cup sugar 

54 teaspoon grated nutmeg 

2 eggs 

Yz teaspoon salt 

1 cup milk 


Cream the shortening. Add sugar; then the well-beaten eggs. 
Sift the baking-powder, nutmeg, and salt with one cup of flour 
and add alternately with the milk to the first mixture. Add 
additional flour to make a dough stiff enough to handle. Toss 
on floured board, roll one-half inch thick and cut into strips. 
Twist and fry in deep fat (360°-370° F.). If you have no 
thermometer, test temperature of fat as directed on page 26. 
Drain on unglazed paper and when cold roll in powdered sugar. 
This recipe makes about three dozen crullers. 


1 Y3 cups flour 34 cup milk 

Y4 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons powdered sugar 

2 teaspoons baking-powder (for sweet fritters only) 

Sift dry ingredients, add egg, well beaten, and milk. The 
batter should be just thick enough to coat the article it is in- 
tended to cover. If it is too thin, add more flour; if too thick, 
add more liquid. 


1 cup milk 2 cups flour 

2 eggs 1 tablespoon baking-powder 
1 teaspoon sugar Apples 


To the milk add the well-beaten egg-yolks and the sugar, 
then the flour mixed and sifted with the baking-powder and 


the salt. Then fold in the stiffly beaten whites. Add sliced 
sour apples, being careful to get the batter all over them. Drop 
by spoonfuls into deep fat (360°-370° F.) and fry two to three 
minutes. Serve with powdered sugar or foamy sauce. 


6 bananas 3 tablespoons orange-juice 

2 tablespoons sugar Fritter batter 

Peel bananas, cut each in two and split each half. Place the> 
pieces in a bowl with sugar and orange-juice and let them stand 
for one hour. Drain the fruit, dip in batter and fry in deep 
fat (3 60° -370° F.) from two to three minutes. Serve with 
powdered sugar or foamy sauce. 


Peaches Fritter batter Powdered sugar 

Peel the peaches, split them in two, remove the stones, sprinkle 
powdered sugar over them, dip each piece into fritter batter 
and fry two to three minutes in deep fat (3 60° -370° F.). 
Serve with powdered sugar or foamy sauce. 


1 cup floxir 2 eggs 

1 teaspoon baking powder 2 to 3 tablespoons water 

1 teaspoon salt 1 cup raspberries 

2 tablespoons sugar 

Sift together flour, baking powder and salt. Add sugar^ 
egg-yolks and water. Fold in the stiffly beaten egg-whites and 
the raspberries leaving the fruit as nearly whole as possible. 
The amount of water may vary somewhat. The batter should 
be thin enough to fold in the fruit, but thick enough to hold 
together well; otherwise, the fruit in cooking will soften it 
too much. 

Drop the fritter mixture from a tablespoon into deep fat 
(3 60° -370° F.) and fry until brown, turning once. Serve 
with powdered sugar or foamy sauce. 


Gingerbread and Small Cakes 

Sugar and Molasses — 

Vz cup molasses ^/^ teaspoon soda 

Yz cup sugar 1 cup flour 

Yz cup melted shortening 1 teaspoon ginger 

Yz cup sour milk 2 teaspoons cinnamon 

1 Q,^^ Nutmeg 

Mix ingredients in order given, sifting the soda with the flotu: 
before adding it. Bake in a moderate oven (350°-375° F.) 
in a greased shallow pan or in muffin-tins. Care must be taken 
to prevent burning. 

Gingerbread makes a delicious dessert served with whipped 

Soft Molasses — 

^ cup shortening Yz teaspoon salt 

1 cup molasses 1 tablespoon ginger 

1 tablespoon vinegar 1 cup sour milk 

1 Q.^^ 2 cups flour 
1 teaspoon soda 

Melt the shortening; add the molasses, vinegar, and beaten 
Q^^, Mix and sift the dry ingredients and add alternately with 
the milk. Pour into a greased pan and bake thirty to forty 
minutes Jn a moderate oven (350°-375° F.). Batter should be 
just thin enough so that the track left by the spoon in stirring 
disaooears at once. 

Hot Water — 

Yz cup shortening 1J4 teaspoons ginger 

Yz cup boiling water 1 teaspoon soda 

1 cup molasses Yz teaspoon salt 
2Yz cups flour 

Melt the shortening in the boiling water. Add molasses. Sift 
the dry ingredients together and add them to the mixture. Beat 
vigorously. Put in a greased pan and bake in a moderate oven 
(350*^-375° F.) thirty to forty minutes. 



2 eggs 2 teaspoons baking-powder 

54 cup molasses Yz teaspoon salt 

Yz cup sugar 1 tablespoon shortening 

1 cup flour Yz cup chopped nut-meats 

Beat die eggs slightly and add the molasses and sugar. Mix 
and sift the flour, baking-powder and salt, and stir them into 
the first mixture. Add melted shortening and nuts, and half 
fill shallow greased molds with the mixture. Place a nut-meat 
in the center of each. Bake in a moderate oven (375° F.) for 
twent7-five minutes. 


2 tablespoons melted shorten- 1 cup milk 

ing 3 teaspoons baking-powder 

Yz cup sugar 2 cups flour 

1 Qg^ 1 cup chopped nuts 

Cream the shortening with the sugar; add the beaten eg^i 
then add the milk alternately with the sifted ingredients. Add 
the floured nuts last. Bake in greased muflfin-pans in a moderate 
oven (375° F.). Split each cake, butter it, and sprinkle with 
sugar and cinnamon or with grated maple sugar and chopped 
nuts. Serve hot with afternoon tea. 


5^ cup shortening 2 squares melted chocolate 

1 cup sugar 1 cup flour 

Yz cup milk 1 teaspoon baking-powder 

2 eggs 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Cream the shortening, add the sugar slowly, then the beaten 
egg-yolks. Melt the chocolate and add. Add flour and baking- 
powder sifted together, alternating with milk, then add vanilla 
and fold in stiflly beaten egg-whites. Bake in greased muflSn- 
pans in a moderate oven (375° F.). 



4 eggs Yz cup flour 

1 cup sugar Yz teaspoon vanilla 

1 tablespoon melted butter 1 teaspoon baking-powder 

1 cup ground nuts Y2 teaspoon salt 

Separate the eggs and add sugar to the yolks, beating until 
creamy. Beat in the butter and add the flour sifted with the 
baking-powder and salt. Add vanilla. Beat the whites of the 
eggs, then add the ground nuts, stirring them into the first 
mixture. Bake in two layers for fifteen minutes in a moderate 
oven (3 50° F.). 

Filling — 

Y2 pint cream 1 tablespoon confectioners' 

1 tablespoon essence of coffee sugar 

Beat the cream until it is stiff enough to hold its shape, add 
the coffee and sugar and put the filling between and on top 
of the layers. Use a pastry tube to make it decorative. 


4 eggs 1 cup flour 

1 cup sugar V/z teaspoons baking-powder 

3 tablespoons cold water Ya teaspoon salt 

1 Y2 tablespoons corn-starch Flavoring 

To the beaten yolks of the eggs, add sugar and cold water. 
Sift the corn-starch with the flour, baking-powder and salt. 
Add to first mixture. Beat well and add the stifily beaten whites 
of the eggs and any flavoring desired. Bake for one-half hour 
in a moderate oven (375° F.) in shallow pans. When cool, 
cut in small circles, split, scoop out a little of the crumb from 
the center of each and fill cavities with whipped cream, custard, 
or any preferred filling. Press together in pairs, dip in melted 
fondant, decorate with nuts, glace fruits, and so forth, and place 
each little cake in a paper case. 


Cover the bottom of individual cake-tins with any good plain 
cake batter, place a prepared emblem in the center of each and 
cover with batter, filling tins not more than two-thirds full. 





— Irradiated Evapo- 
rated Milk Institute 

^ ?% 








Bake in an oven registering 375° F. till browned and firm to 
the touch. Remove from tins and, when almost cold, cover 
with a boiled frosting. Let threads of frosting fall irregularly 
over the top to suggest "cobwebs in the sky." While the frost- 
ing is still soft, stick a tiny orange-colored candle in the top 
and press a black-cat cut-out against one side. 

To Prepare Emblems — Sterilize small rings, thimbles, coins, 
china dolls (no lead toys) or other appropriate bits in boiling 
water. Dry and wrap closely in waxed paper. 


Angel cake Marshmallows 

Chopped figs Maraschino cherries 

Sirup of preserved ginger 

Cut slices of angel cake into rounds. Moisten the figs with 
the ginger sirup, and spread the paste over each round of cake. 
Place a marshmallow in the center of each and bake in a mod- 
erate oven (375° F.) until the marshmallows spread. Decorate 
with maraschino cherries. 


Bake any good plain cake batter in a cake-tin with a center 
tube or remove the centers from cup cakes. Cover the outside 
with plain white icing and fill the centers with date filling. 
Garnish with whipped cream and candied cherries. 

Date Filling — 

1 cup steamed and chopped 6 marshmallows cut in small 



Yz cup chopped walnuts 1 cup sweetened whipped 

Yz teaspoon vanilla cream 


1 cup boiling water 1 cup flour 

Yz cup shortening 4 eggs 

Add the boiling water to the shortening, bring to a boil and 
stir in the flour thoroughly. Remove from the fire, let the 
mixture cool slightly and add the eggs one at a time, beating 
in each one for some time before adding the next. Drop by 


spoonfuls on a greased pan about two inches apart, shaping into 
a circular form and having the batter a little higher in the cen- 
ter. Bake one-half hour in a moderate to slow oven (400° F. 
for ten minutes then reduce to 3 50° F.). If these cakes are re- 
moved from the oven before they are thoroughly done, they 
will fall. Take out one; if it does not fall, the others may be 

Cool ; cut a slit in one side, and fill with cream filling, whipped 
cream, or a fruit mixture. 

Cream puffs and eclairs make an excellent foundation for a 
great variety of desserts. Split them open; fill with any kind 
of ice-cream; cover with any sauce or combination of sauces. 
Serve immediately. 


Make cream-puff batter (sometimes called choux paste) and 
press it through a pastry bag on to a greased tin, forming strips 
three and one-half inches long and one inch wide. Keep the 
strips a little distance apart. Bake and cool as directed for 
cream puffs, then split lengthwise, and fill with cream filling or 
whipped cream. Frost the top half of the eclairs by dipping 
while hot into boiled frosting, flavored with chocolate, vanilla, 
or coffee. 


5 tablespoons powdered sugar Yz teaspoon vanilla 

3 egg-whites ^ cup flour 

2 egg-yolks y^ teaspoon salt 

Add the powdered sugar to the stiffly beaten egg-whites. Add 
to these the two well-beaten yolks and the vanilla extract. Fold 
in the flour, which has been sifted twice with the salt. Line a 
pan with paper but do not grease it. Press the batter through 
a pastry bag on to the paper, forming strips four inches long 
and one inch wide. Sprinkle with powdered sugar and bake 
in a slow oven (300°-325° F.) for ten minutes. 


Form lady-finger batter in a circular shape; bake, and dip the 
tops of the cakes into boiled frosting of any flavor. 



2 egg-whites Y'z. teaspoon vanilla or 1 table- 

Yz to Ys cup powdered sugar spoon lemon-juice 

Pinch of salt 

Beat the egg-whites stiff, adding the salt. Add two-thirds of 
the sugar gradually, beating constantly, and fold the rest care- 
fiilly into the mixture. Heap in rounds or press through a 
pastry bag on to a wet board covered with an ungreased paper. 

Bake on the board in a very slow oven (250°-300° F.) from 
forty to sixty minutes. The kisses should be very light brown 
and quite dry. If they adhere to the paper, moisten the other 
side of the paper by placing it on a wet cloth, and they will slip 
off easily. 

The smaller shapes or kisses may be stuck together in pairs 
with a little white of egg. The meringues, which are usually 
made larger, may be scooped out and filled with ice-cream or 
whipped cream. Filled with ice-cream, they are known as 
meringues glacees. 


4 egg-whites Y2 teaspoon lemon extract 

Yz pound powdered sugar Moist coconut 

Beat the egg-whites stiflF, add sugar and beat until light and 
white, then add the lemon extract, and enough coconut to make 
it as thick as can be easily stirred with a spoon. Drop on greased 
paper and bake in a slow oven (2 50° -300° F.). 


1 egg-white ^ cup chopped pop-corn 
Yi cup light brown sugar Ya teaspoon salt 

2 teaspoons shortening Y2 teaspoon vanilla 

Beat the white of the Qgg very stiff and, still beating, mix in 
the sugar. Melt the shortening and into this stir the chopped 
pop-corn, salt and vanilla. Fold the two mixtures together and 
drop by spoonfuls on a greased baking-sheet. Bake in a slow 
oven (250°-300° F.). 



3 egg-whites ^ cup broken pecans 

Yz cup granulated sugar Yz cup seeded raisins 

Beat the egg-whites until they are stiff enough to hold their 
shape, then beat in the sugar gradually. Fold in the nuts and 
raisins and drop from a spoon on to the baking-pan. Bake in 
a slow oven (250°-300° F.). 


Yz pound sweet almonds Y2 pound powdered sugar 

2 egg-whites 

Blanch the almonds and pound them to a paste; add the 
sugar and stiffly beaten egg-whites. Work the whole together 
with the back of a spoon, then roll the mixture in the hands to 
form balls about the size of a nutmeg. Lay them on a paper 
at least an inch apart, and bake in a slow oven (250°-300° F.) 
until light brown. 

Coconut — 

1 egg-white J/^ cup condensed milk 

1J4 cups moist coconut J4 teaspoon vanilla 

Beat the egg-white until stiff, then fold it into the mixture 
of coconut and condensed milk. Add flavoring. Drop by 
spoonfuls on a greased baking-sheet and shape into cakes. Bake 
in a slow oven (250°-300° F.) until lightly browned. 

Brown Sugar — 

1 egg-white 1 cup chopped salted nuts 1 cup brown sugar 

Beat the sugar into the stiffly beaten egg-white, and add the 
nuts. Drop by spoonfuls on a greased pan and bake in a slow 
oven (250°-300° F.). 

Nut Oatmeal — 

1 Q^^ Yi cup chopped walnuts 

Yz cup sugar Ya teaspoon salt 

Y4 teaspoon vanilla " 2 teaspoons melted shortening 

% cup rolled oats 

Beat Qgg until very light, add sugar slowly, beating con- 
stantly. Add flavoring, oats, salt, nuts and melted shortening. 


Drop from teaspoon on greased baking-sheet and bake in a slow 
oven (350° F.) until browned (about 10 minutes). Remove 
from pan while warm. This makes about eighteen macaroons. 


2 eggs 1 tablespoon butter or other 

Y2 teaspoon vanilla 

54 cup brown sugar shortening 

1 cup rolled oats Y2 teaspoon ^ 

J4 teaspoon salt 

Beat the eggs, add the sugar and, when these are well mixed, 
add the oats and salt. Melt the shortening and stir into the 
mixture. Add vanilla. Drop by spoonfuls on a greased bak- 
ing-sheet and spread very thin with the back of the spoon. 
Bake in a moderate oven (350° -4 00° F.) ten to twelve min- 


% cup butter 1 cup sifted flour 

1 cup brown sugar ^ teaspoon salt 

1 Q%% 1 teaspoon baking-powder 

Yot cup broken pecan meats 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Melt butter in a saucepan, add sugar and when well blended 
remove from the fire and cool, in the saucepan, until luke- 
warm. Add unbeaten ^^^ to mixture and beat well. Mix 
flour, salt and baking-powder, and add to the sugar mixture; 
then add the nut meats and vanilla. Spread the mixture in a 
shallow pan lined with plain paper which has been greased. 
Bake 30 minutes in a hot oven (400°-450° F.). While hot, 
cut into strips an inch wide and four inches long. This recipe 
makes about two dozen. 


1 cup cooking bran 2 egg-whites 

Yz cup coconut Y2 teaspoon almond extract 

Ya cup sugar 

Beat the egg-whites, and add the other ingredients. Drop 
from a teaspoon on a greased baking-sheet. Bake in a mod- 
erate oven (400° F.) until browned. 


"VVTHEN sugar and a liquid are boiled together, a sirup is 
VV formed which grows thicker as the boiling continues. 
The thickness of the sirup determines the general type of candy- 
that will result. 

Testing the Sirup 

The simplest and most accurate method of determining 
whether the sirup is thick enough for your purpose is to measure 
its temperature, because the temperature rises steadily as the 
sirup thickens. 

A Candy Thermometer registering up to 3 50° F. is not 
expensive, and it will not only give you a higher average of 
success in candy making but will save you the time and labor 
that must otherwise be given to testing the sirup. A table 
giving the various stages of sugar cookery will be found on 
page 12. 

If You Are Not Provided With a Thermometer, the 
following test will help you to determine when to take your 
candy from the fire. 

Drop a little sirup into ice-cold water and pinch it between 
the thumb and finger: 

Soft ball stage (for fondant and fudge) the sirup forms a 
soft ball which loses its shape immediately when removed from 
the water. 

Stif ball stage (for caramels and nougat) the sirup forms a 
stiflf ball which retains its shape for a second or two when 
removed from the water and then flattens out. 

Hard ball stage (for molasses taffy and soft candies to be 
pulled) the sirup forms a hard ball which will roll about on a 
cold buttered plate when removed from the water. 

Light to medium crack stage (for toffee and butterscotch and 
hard candies to be pulled) the sirup forms spirals or threads 
which are brittle under water but which soften when removed 
from the water and stick to the teeth when chewed. 

Hard crack stage (for clear brittle candies) the sirup forms 
spirals or threads which are brittle when removed from the 
water and do not stick to the teeth when chewed. 



Creamy Candies — Creaminess is desirable in soft candies. 
**Creamy" means that the texture should be very smooth, not 
grainy at all; soft but not sticky. This means that the sugar 
must not remain as a sirup, but must crystallize. The crystals, 
however, must be very fine, so that they can not be felt by 
the fingers or in the mouth. 

Creamy candy should not be overcooked. If it reaches too 
high a temperature, accidentally, a little water may be added 
and it may be recooked to the correct temperature. This does 
not give as good a result as one cooking to the correct tempera- 
ture, but it improves a poor product. 

Creamy candy should be cooled before it is beaten. Beating 
candy while it is hot causes large crystals to form and grainy 
candy results. If crystals that form on the side of the pan in 
which candy is cooked fall back into the candy, they tend to 
cause large crystals to form and to make grainy candy. 

A small amount of corn sirup tends to prevent grainy candy. 
Creamy candies made with corn sirup will require longer beat- 
ing before crystallization takes place than will candies made 
from all granulated sugar. They also soften more quickly on 
standing. If too much sirup is. used, the candy will not crystal- 
lize at all and the best thing to do with it is to boil it until it 
reaches the proper stage for a pulled or brittle candy. 

One-eighth teaspoon of cream of tartar or one-half teaspoon 
of lemon- juice or acetic acid to two cups of sugar may be used 
instead of corn sirup or glucose. They change part of the gran- 
ulated sugar to glucose during the cooking process. 

Ingredients Used in Candies 

Sugars — Granulated, confectioners', brown and maple sugar, 
corn sirup, molasses, honey and maple and cane sirups are all 
used in candy, according to the flavor and texture desired. The 
light-brown sugar should be chosen rather than the darker 
brown, for a candy of delicate flavor. The same thing is true if 
corn sirup or molasses is used; the lighter color gives the less 
strong flavor. 

Brown sugar and molasses contain an acid, which if used in 
candies with milk causes the milk to curdle. Therefore, candy 
containing these two ingredients should be stirred while it is 
cooking. Crystallization does not readily occur here because 
the milk tends to prevent it. 


Other Ingredients — ^Nuts of all sorts, chocolate or cocoa, 
butter, milk, cream, egg-whites and fruits such as dates, figs, 
raisins and candied cherries, give special flavor or texture. 

Butter is often used because of its flavor and because it tends 
to make a creamy product. Other mild-flavored fats may- 
be used instead of butter, particularly in candies containing 
chocolate, brown sugar or molasses. 

Chocolate contributes flavor and tends to make a smooth 
candy because of the fat it contains. Three tablespoons of cocoa 
and two-thirds of a tablespoon of butter may be used instead 
of one square of chocolate. 

Fresh milk, dried milk or canned milk, sweetened or un- 
sweetened, may be used in candies. 


2 cups sugar 34 cup milk 

1 or 2 squares chocolate 1 teaspoon vanilla 
Ys teaspoon cream of tartar 2 tablespoons butter 

or 2 tablespoons corn sirup 

Mix the sugar, milk, grated chocolate, cream of tartar or corn 
sirup and boil rather slowly, stirring until the ingredients are 
well blended. Boil to the soft-ball stage (238° F.). Remove 
from the stove, add the butter, but do not stir it in. "When 
lukewarm, add the vanilla and beat until it creams; that is, 
until the shiny appearance disappears and the fudge will hold 
its shape when dropped from the spoon. Spread it in a buttered 
pan and when it hardens mark it into squares. 


To the recipe for chocolate fudge add three tablespoons of 
marshmallow cream just after taking it from the fire. Beat 
well and pour into buttered pans. 


2 54 cups maple sugar Yz cup boiling water 

1 cup cream or milk 1 cup broken nut-meats 

Break the maple sugar into small pieces and heat it in a 
saucepan with the water. When it is dissolved, add the milk. 
Boil to the soft-ball stage (238° F.). Remove from the fire 


and cool. Wlien it is lukewarm, beat until it creams and add 
the nut-meats. Spread it in a buttered pan and when it hardens 
mark it into squares. 


2 cups sugar 2 egg-whites 

Yz cup corn sirup % cup blanched almonds 

Yz cup water 1 tablespoon almond or 
y^ cup candied cherries lemon extract 

Put the sugar, water and corn sirup into a saucepan. Stir 
it while it dissolves over the fire, then let it boil without stirring 
to the light crack stage (265 ° F.) . While it is cooking, beat the 
whites of eggs stiffly and when the sirup is ready pour it over 
them, beating constantly. Beat until creamy, add nuts, cherries 
and extract, and pour into buttered tins. 


Follow preceding recipe, using in addition one-half cup 
maple sirup. 


Brown sugar may be used partly or entirely in place of white 
or maple sugar. If brown sugar is used, the cream of tartar or 
corn sirup should be omitted. 

Condensed milk may be used instead of fresh milk. It should 
have water added according to the directions on the can. 

Peanut butter may be used instead of chocolate, using two 
tablespoons of the butter to each cup of sugar in the recipe. 
Like butter or other fat it should be added after the fudge is 

Marshmallows or marshmallow cream may be added to any 
fudge after it has been taken from the fire. One cup of marsh- 
mallow to two cups of sugar is a good proportion. 

Any kind of broken nuts, including coconut, may be added 
to the fudge just before it is turned into the pan. 

Candied cherries, or other fruits, chopped candied orange- 
peel or citron may be added. Dates and raisins are often used. 

Flavoring may be varied to suit. Orange extract is good with 


brown sugar, chocolate or molasses. Lemon extract or lemon- 
juice is good in a white-sugar fudge from which the chocolate is 


Cut dates in half, lengthwise; remove the pits and lay the 
halves at intervals on a greased dish. Make fudge according to 
any fudge recipe and drop a teaspoonf ul on each half date. This 
must be done quickly, to avoid letting the fudge harden in the 
pan. The hardening may be delayed by standing the pan in a 
larger one containing hot water. 


3 cups brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 

1 cup milk 1 cup nut-meats 

2 tablespoons butter 

Put the sugar and milk into a saucepan and cook to the soft- 
ball stage, or 238° F. Remove from the fire, add butter and 
vanilla, and cool without stirring. When it is lukewarm, beat 
until it is creamy. Stir in the broken nut-meats. Hickory 
nuts, walnuts or pecans are especially nice. Pour into a buttered 
pan and when it hardens mark into squares. 


2 cups sugar 1 cup maple sirup 

Yi cup milk 2 cups pecan-meats 

Boil the sugar, milk and maple sirup until the mixture 
reaches the soft-ball stage (238° F.). Remove from the fire 
and cool. When it is lukewarm, beat until it is smooth and 
creamy. Add any kind of broken nut-meats and drop on 
buttered paper from the tip of a spoon, making little mounds. 


2 cups granulated sugar 2 tablespoons corn sirup or 

1 cup water y^ teaspoon cream of tartar 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

Put the sugar, corn sirup and water in a saucepan and heat 
slowly. Do not let it begin to boil until the sugar is dissolved. 
Wash down the sides of the pan with a fork wrapped in a damp 


cloth or else cover and cook for two or three minutes so that 
the steam will carry down the crystals that have been thrown 
on the side of the pan. Remove the cover and continue to boil 
slowly without stirring to the soft-ball stage (238° F.). While 
cooking, keep the cover on part of the time so the steam can 
help to keep the crystals washed down. 

Remove from the fire and pour at once on large platters or 
slabs which have been dipped into cold water, and let it stand 
until it is lukewarm. Stir with a spatula or a fork till it is 
creamy; then knead with the hands until it is smooth and free 
from lumps. 

Fondant is better if allowed to ripen for several days before 
being used. It may be wrapped in waxed paper and put into a 
tightly covered jar. When it is to be used for centers of dipped 
bonbons the centers should be shaped by hand or in molds and 
allowed to stand in the air until the surface loses all stickiness. 
Then the shapes may be dipped into the coating. 


2 cups granulated sugar ^ cup honey 1 cup water 

Proceed as for plain fondant. 


Tutti-Frutti — Knead fondant and flavor with cherry or 
almond extract. Knead into it one-third its amount of a mix- 
ture of raisins, dates, figs, candied cherries, citron, orange-peel 
or other candied fruits, which ha^e been chopped together. 
Shape into a flat cake and cut after it stands for an hour. 

WiNTERGREEN Creams — Melt a portion of fondant in the 
upper part of a double boiler until it is soft enough to drop 
from a spoon. It may be necessary to add a few drops of hot 
water. Color it with red vegetable coloring to a delicate pink. 
Flavor with oil of wintergreen. Stir until it is creamy. Drop 
from a teaspoon on oiled paper. 

Peppermint Creams — ^Follow instructions given for winter- 
green creams, but leave the fondant uncolored and flavor with 
oil of peppermint. 

Nut Creams — ^Knead fondant and flavor with almond or 
coffee extract. Knead into it a mixture of chopped nuts or 


moist coconut. Shape into balls, squares or other shapes attrac- 
tive for dipping into chocolate. 

Stuffed Dates, and Prunes — Stone dates or prunes and 
stuflf them with fondant which has been colored pink and 
flavored with rose water. A whole nut-meat should be inserted 
with the fondant. 

Chocolate Bonbons — ^Melt very slowly a good quality o£ 
specially prepared dipping chocolate, sweetened or unsweetened, 
in the top of a double boiler. Do not heat the water under the 
chocolate above 120° F., for overheating spoils chocolate for 
dipping. Stir it constantly while it is melting to keep an even 
temperature, and after it has melted, beat it thoroughly. Keep 
the heat very low during the dipping process. To dip centers, 
use a fork or confectioner's dipper. Drop centers in one at a 
time and when covered place on oiled paper. The room in 
which dipping is done should be cool, so that the chocolate may 
harden quickly. 


2 tablespoons gelatin ^ teaspoon salt 

Yx cup cold water 1 teaspoon vanilla 

% cup boiling water Confectioners' sugar 
2 cups sugar 

Soak the gelatin in the cold water until it has taken up all the 
water. Boil the sugar and water to the soft- ball stage (238° 
F.). Add vanilla and salt to gelatin. Pour the sirup slowly 
over the gelatin, beating constantly with a whisk until cool and 
thick. Butter a shallow pan slightly and dust with confection- 
ers' sugar. Turn the marshmallow mixture into the pan and 
smooth the top evenly. Dust with confectioners' sugar. Let it 
stand over night. In the morning cut it into small squares and 
roll in confectioners' sugar. 


Chopped nuts, dates, figs, raisins or candied cherries may be 
added to the recipe for marshmallows. Plain marshmallows 
may be rolled in coconut before being rolled in sugar, or they 
may be dipped in melted chocolate. Marshmallows may be 
tinted any desired color. 



2 cups sugar 4 tablespoons butter 

Yz cup corn sirup 1 cup cream or condensed 

Yz cup milk milk 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

Cook the ingredients, except the vanilkj to the stiff-ball 
stage, or 246° F. Remove from the fire, add the vanilla and 
pour into a buttered pan. When it is cold, turn it out of the 
pan and cut it into squares. 

Chocolate — ^Use the same ingredients as for vanilla cara- 
mels but reduce the cream or condensed milk to one-half cup 
and add three squares of chocolate. Break the chocolate in 
small pieces, add to the other ingredients and proceed as for 
vanilla caramels. 


2 cups molasses 4 tablespoons butter or other 

1 cup granulated sugar fat 

Yx cup water J4 teaspoon vanilla 

Y^ teaspoon soda 

Cook the molasses, sugar and water slowly to the hard-ball 
stage (260° F.) stirring during the latter part of the cooking 
to prevent its burning. Remove from the fire, add the fat, 
soda and vanilla and stir enough to mix. Pour into a greased 
pan and, when cool enough to handle, pull it until it becomes 
light in color. Stretch it into a long rope and cut with scissors 
into small pieces. 


2 cups granulated sugar 2Y2 tablespoons vinegar 

Y2 cup water 1 teaspoon lemon or vanilla 

1 teaspoon glycerin extraa 

Boil the sugar, water, glycerin and vinegar to the hard-ball 
stage (260° F.). Add flavoring. Pour on to a greased platter. 
When cool enough to handle, pull until very white, stretch into 
a long rope, and cut into short pieces. 



2 cups sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 

Yi cup corn sirup 1 Yi cups nut-meats 

1 cup water Y2 cup candied cherries 
4 egg-whites 

Boil together half of the sugar, half of the water and half of 
the corn sirup to the stiff-ball stage (246° -2 50° F.). Remove 
the sirup from the fire and pour it slowly over the well-beaten 
whites and continue beating until it is cool. While beating, 
cook the remaining half of the ingredients to the stiflF-ball stage. 
Remove and add at once to the first mixture, beating while 
adding. When cool, add the vanilla, nut-meats and candied 
cherries and pour into buttered pans. Smooth over the surface 
and let it stand over night before cutting. In the morning cut 
and wrap in waxed paper. 


1 cup granulated sugar Yi cup butter 

1 cup brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla or lemon 

Ya cup light corn sirup extract 

1 cup water 

Put sugar, sirup and water into a saucepan and set over 
direct heat. Stir until the sugar is dissolved, then cook without 
stirring to the stiff ball stage (250° F.). Add fat and cook to 
the medium crack stage (280° F.), for soft butterscotch, or to 
the hard crack stage (300° F.) for brittle candy. Remove from 
fire, add the flavoring and pour on a greased slab. Mark while 
still warm and when cold break into pieces. 


1 cup maple sugar 1 teaspoon vinegar 

Y2 cup water 4 tablespoons butter 

Boil together the maple sugar, water and vinegar to the stiff- 
ball stage (246° F.). Then add the butter and cook to the 
medium-crack stage (280° F.). Turn into a well-buttered 
pan. Mark while still warm, and when cold break into pieces. 



3 quarts popped corn 1 cup water 

1 cup sugar ^ teaspoon salt 

y^ cup white corn sirup 1 teaspoon lemon or vanilla 

Discard all imperfect kernels and put the popped corn into 
a large pan. Cook sugar, sirup and water to the medium-crack 
stage (280° F.). Add flavoring and salt. Pour over the 
corn, stirring with a spoon so that all kernels will be evenly- 
coated. Shape the corn into balls, lay on waxed paper, and wrap 
in waxed paper. 

No. 2. 

3 quarts popped corn 
1 cup honey 

% cup water 

2 tablespoons butter 

1 cup sugar 

1/4 teaspoon salt 

Proceed as for No. 1. 


1 cup light-brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 

1 cup* maple sugar 1 cup broken nut-meats 
Yz cup water 2 tablespoons butter 

1/4 teaspoon salt 

Boil the sugar and water to the stiff -ball stage (246° F.). 
Then add the fat and cook to the brittle stage (290°-300° F.). 
Add the vanilla and salt and, pour over the nut-meats, which 
have been placed on a buttered pan. When cold, break into 


2 cups granulated sugar 1 teaspoon salt 
1 pint chopped peanuts 

Put the sugar into an iron f rymg-pan and heat slowly, stirring 
constantly, until the sugar is melted and turns a light brown 
color (slightly above 300° F.). Spread the chopped peanuts 
in a buttered tin, sprinkle them with the salt, warm the tin 
slightly and pour the melted sugar over the peanuts. 



3 tablespoons gelatin Yz cup hot water 

2 cups sugar Grated rind and juice of 
Yz cup cold water 1 lemon 

Grated rind and juice of Red or green coloring 
1 orange 

Soak the gelatin in the cold water. Put the sugar and hot 
w^ter in a saucepan. When it reaches the boiling-point, add 
the gelatin and simmer twenty minutes. Add color and the 
flavorings; strain into a bread-pan which has been rinsed with 
cold water. The mixture should be from one-half to one inch 
in depth. 

When it is cold, turn it on to a board. Cut into cubes or 
other shapes and roll in confectioners' sugar. 

If you prefer other flavors, such as peppermint, wintergreen 
and clove, omit the fruit juice and rind, add one-half cup af 
water, and flavor with a few drops of oil of peppermint, oil 
of wintergreen, oil of cloves, etc. 


2 cups sugar 3 egg-whites 

34 cup water 2 cups moist coconut 

Yz teaspoon vanilla 

Boil the sugar and water together to the soft-ball stage (238° 
F.). Add the vanifla and pour it slowly over the stiffly beaten 
whites of the eggs beating constantly until light and foamy. 
Stir in the coconut and drop on buttered tins by teaspoonfuls. 
Shape each confection like a cone. Bake in a slow oven (300° 
F.) for about twenty minutes. 


2 egg-whites 1 cup confectioners' sugar, 

1 cup almond paste more or less 

1 cup almond paste 

Yz teaspoon lemon or vanilla 

Beat the egg-whites and mix with the almond paste. Add 
the flavoring and enough sugar to make the mixture stiff enough 
to handle. After it has stood over night, it may be molded into 
small shapes of fruits or vegetables such as pears, apples or car- 
rots and colored with vegetable colors, or it may be cut into 


small pieces and dipped in chocolate or other coating, or used 
as the center for candied cherries, dates, prunes, etc. 

The almond paste may be bought at a confectioner's, or the 
almonds may be blanched and pounded. Two and two-thirds 
cups shelled almonds make one cup of paste. 


Yz pound prunes 54 teaspoon grated nutmeg 

J/2 cup sugar ^ teaspoon cinnamon 

y% cup corn sirup 5 allspice berries 

^ cup water ^ teaspoon maple flavoring 

3 to 6 cloves Chopped nut-meats 

Soak the prunes over night, after washing them thoroughly. 
Drain off the water; add the sugar, sirup, water and spices and 
simmer slowly until the sirup is all absorbed by the prunes. 
Cut a slit along one side of each prune, slip out the stone and 
fill the cavities with chopped nut-meats moistened with a little 
sirup or with cream. Roll in confectioners' sugar. 


1 pound raisins 1 pound figs 

Ya pound walnut-meats Yi pound prunes 

1 pound dates Confectioners' sugar 

Soak the prunes over night. Steam until they are soft and 
remove stones. Wash the figs, and steam them twenty min- 
utes. Wash the dates and remove the stones. Put the fruit 
and nuts through a food-chopper. Put confectioners' sugar on 
the board and with the hands work the fruit and nuts until 
well blended. Roll to about one-quarter inch thick, using the 
sugar to dredge the board and rolling-pin. Cut in any desired 
shape, roll in sugar, pack in layers in a tin box, using waxed 
paper between the layers. 


54 cup corn sirup % cup currants 

54 teaspoon maple Yz cup raisins 

flavoring 1 cup moist coconut 

Stir the ingredients together to make a stiff loaf. Pack in a 
small cake-tin. Chill in the refrigerator and roll into small 
balls. Dust with confectioners' sugar. 



Blanch the almonds or remove the thin brown skin from the 
peanuts. Dry the almonds well. Put a small amount of oil 
into a dripping pan, pour in the nuts and stir them until they 
are well coated. There should be no excess oil in the pan; just 
enough to give an oily surface to each nut. Set the pan in the 
oven, and stir the nuts often until they become light brown. 
Drain them in a colander, spread on a platter and sprinkle with 

To Blanch Almonds — Shell the nuts and pour boiling 
water over them. Let them stand from two to five minutes, 
until the brown skin can be slipped off with the fingers. Pour 
off the water and remove the skins. 


2 cups sugar Small fruits or sections of 

1 cup water larger fruits or whole nut- 
34 cup light corn sirup meats 

Make a sirup of the sugar, water and corn sirup. Boil, with- 
out stirring, to the hard crack stage (300° F.). Remove the 
saucepan from the fire and put it into an outer pan of boiling 
water to keep the sirup from hardening. Drop in the well 
drained fruit or the nut-meats, a few at a time. Skim out and 
place on heavy waxed paper to dry. 


Sirup for Candied Fruits — 

2 cups sugar ^ cup light corn sirup 
1 cup water 

Boil together until the sirup spins a th